- What other names is Cranberry known by?
- What is Cranberry?
- How does Cranberry work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Cranberry.
Agrio, Airelle à Gros Fruits, Airelle Canneberge, Airelle Européenne, Airelle Rouge, American Cranberry, Arándano, Arándano Americano, Arándano Rojo, Arándano Trepador, Atoca, Atoka, Bearberry, Canneberge, Canneberge à Feuillage Persistant, Canneberge d'Amérique, Canneberge Européenne, Cocktail au Jus de Canneberge, Cranberry Extract, Cranberry Fruit, Cranberry Fruit Juice, Cranberry Juice, Cranberry Juice Cocktail, Cranberry Juice Concentrate, Cranberry Powder, Cranberry Powdered Extract, Craneberry, Da Guo Yue Jie, Da Guo Yue Ju, Da Guo Suan Guo Man Yue Ju, European Cranberry, Extrait de Canneberge, Große Moosbeere, Gros Atoca, Grosse Moosbeere, Jus de Canneberge, Jus de Canneberge à Base de Concentré, Jus de Canneberge Frais, Kliukva, Kliukva Obyknovennaia, Kranbeere, Large Cranberry, Man Yue Ju, Man Yue Mei, Moosebeere, Mossberry, Oomi No Tsuruko Kemomo, Oxycoccus hagerupii, Oxycoccus macrocarpos, Oxycoccus microcarpus, Oxycoccus palustris, Oxycoccus quadripetalus, Petite Cannberge, Pois de Fagne, Pomme des Prés, Ronce d'Amerique, Sirop de Canneberge, Small Cranberry, Trailing Swamp Cranberry, Tsuru-Kokemomo, Vaccinium hagerupii, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium microcarpum, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Vaccinium palustre.
Cranberry is a type of evergreen shrub that grows in wet areas, such as bogs or wetlands. Cranberry is native to northeastern and northcentral parts of the United States. The shrub has small, dark green leaves, pink flowers, and dark red fruit that are egg-shaped.
Cranberry is also used for kidney stones, neurogenic bladder (a bladder disease), to deodorize urine in people with difficulty controlling urination, to prevent urine catheters from becoming blocked, and to heal skin around surgical openings in the stomach that are used to eliminate urine. Some people use cranberry to increase urine flow, kill germs, and reduce fever.
Some people use cranberry for type 2 diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), enlarged prostate, common colds, flu, heart disease, memory, metabolic syndrome, ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), scurvy, inflammation of the lining around the lung (pleurisy), and cancer.
In foods, cranberry fruit is used in cranberry juice, cranberry juice cocktail, jelly, and sauce.
Possibly Effective for...
- Preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Some research shows that taking certain cranberry capsules or tablets can help prevent UTIs in people who have had UTIs in the past. However, research is unclear whether drinking cranberry juice helps prevent repeat UTIs. Taking certain cranberry products or drinking cranberry juice might prevent UTIs in older people living in nursing homes, in pregnant women, and in children who have had UTIs in the past. But cranberry does not appear to help prevent UTIs in other people who have conditions that make them a high risk for UTIs. This includes people undergoing surgery or radiation near the bladder or urinary tract, as well as people with a bladder condition (neurogenic bladder) caused by an injury to the spinal cord.
While cranberry can help prevent UTIs for some people, it should not be used for treating UTIs.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Diabetes. Research shows that taking cranberry supplements by mouth does not lower blood sugar in people with diabetes.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Early research shows that taking dried cranberry capsules three times daily for 6 months might improve urinary symptoms and reduce levels of certain biomarkers associated with BPH.
- Common cold. Research suggests that drinking cranberry juice daily for 70 days does not reduce the risk of cold or flu, but might reduce cold and flu symptoms.
- Clogged arteries (coronary artery disease). Early evidence suggests that drinking cranberry juice daily for 4 weeks does not improve blood flow in people with clogged arteries.
- Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. There is inconsistent evidence regarding the ability of cranberry juice to eliminate a certain bacteria (H. pylori) in the stomach that can cause stomach ulcers. Some research suggests that drinking cranberry juice daily for up to 90 days can help eliminate H. pylori in adults and children. But other early research shows that drinking cranberry juice while taking conventional medication used to treat H. pylori infections does not improve healing time compared to taking the medication alone.
- Flu. Research suggests that drinking cranberry juice daily for 70 days does not reduce the risk of cold or flu, but might reduce cold and flu symptoms.
- Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). There is inconsistent evidence on the use of cranberry to lower the risk of kidney stones. Some early evidence suggests that drinking cranberry juice might lower the risk of kidney stones forming. However, other early evidence suggests that drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry extracts might actually increase the risk of kidney stones.
- Memory. Early research suggests that drinking cranberry juice twice daily for 6 weeks does not improve memory in older people.
- Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that drinking cranberry juice twice daily for 8 weeks can benefit some antioxidant measurements in the blood, but it does not appear to affect blood pressure, blood sugar, or cholesterol levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Urine odor. Early research shows that drinking cranberry juice might reduce the odor of urine in people with difficulty controlling urination.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Wound healing.
- Other conditions.
People used to think that cranberry worked for urinary tract infections by making the urine acidic and, therefore, unlikely to support the growth of bacteria. But researchers don't believe this explanation any more. They now think that some of the chemicals in cranberries keep bacteria from sticking to the cells that line the urinary tract where they can multiply. Cranberry, however, does not seem to have the ability to release bacteria which are already stuck to these cells. This may explain why cranberry is possibly effective in preventing urinary tract infections, but possibly ineffective in treating them.
Cranberry, as well as many other fruits and vegetables, contains significant amounts of salicylic acid, which is an important ingredient in aspirin. Drinking cranberry juice regularly increases the amount of salicylic acid in the body. Salicylic acid can reduce swelling, prevent blood clots, and can have antitumor effects.
Cranberry is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. Cranberry juice and cranberry extracts have been used safely in people. However, drinking too much cranberry juice can cause some side effects such as mild stomach upset and diarrhea. Drinking more than 1 liter per day for a long period of time might increase the chance of getting kidney stones.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking cranberry for therapeutic reasons if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Cranberry juice is LIKELY SAFE for children when taken by mouth as a food or drink.
Aspirin allergy: Cranberries contain significant amounts of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is similar to aspirin. Avoid drinking large quantities of cranberry juice if you are allergic to aspirin.
Low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria). Cranberry juice might increase how much vitamin B12 the body absorbs for people with low levels of stomach acid.
Kidney stones: Cranberry juice and cranberry extracts contain a large amount of a chemical called oxalate. In fact, there is some evidence that some cranberry extract tablets can boost the level of oxalate in the urine by as much as 43%. Since kidney stones are made primarily from oxalate combined with calcium, healthcare providers worry that cranberry might increase the risk of kidney stones. To be on the safe side, avoid taking cranberry extract products or drinking a lot of cranberry juice if you have a history of kidney stones.
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Atorvastatin (Lipitor) is a medication used for lowering cholesterol. The body breaks down atorvastatin (Lipitor) to get rid of it. Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down atorvastatin (Lipitor). Drinking cranberry juice while taking these medications might increase the effects and side effects of atorvastatin (Lipitor). Avoid drinking large amounts of cranberry juice if you are taking atorvastatin (Lipitor).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Cranberry might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking cranberry along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking cranberry, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Nifedipine (Procardia)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications that are broken down by the liver, including nifedipine (Procardia). In theory, drinking cranberry juice while taking nifedipine might increase the effects and side effects of nifedipine (Procardia).
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Cranberry might increase how long warfarin (Coumadin) is in the body, and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. But, research in this area is not consistent. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Diclofenac (Voltaren, others)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications that are broken down by the liver, including diclofenac (Voltaren, others). In theory, drinking cranberry juice while taking diclofenac might increase the effects and side effects of diclofenac.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Some research suggests that cranberry might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking cranberry along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. But, research in this area is not consistent. Before taking cranberry, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs): Capsules or tablets containing 200-500 mg of dried cranberry taken once or twice daily have been used. Drinking cranberry juice 120-300 mL daily has also been used.
- For preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs): 50 mL of a cranberry and lingonberry concentrate taken daily for 6 months has been used. Also, 5 mL/kg of cranberry juice taken daily for 6 months has been used.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Women's Health Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Allison, D. G., Cronin, M. A., Hawker, J., and Freeman, S. Influence of cranberry juice on attachment of Escherichia coli to glass. J Basic Microbiol. 2000;40(1):3-6. View abstract.
Ariga, T. The antioxidative function, preventive action on disease and utilization of proanthocyanidins. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):197-201. View abstract.
Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz J, Glynn R I, Choodnovskiy I, and Lipsitz L A. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272(8):588-590.
Bailey, D. T., Dalton, C., Joseph, Daugherty F., and Tempesta, M. S. Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(4):237-241. View abstract.
Basu, A., Betts, N. M., Ortiz, J., Simmons, B., Wu, M., and Lyons, T. J. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2011;31(3):190-196. View abstract.
Beerepoot, M. A., Stobberingh, E. E., and Geerlings, S. E. [A study of non-antibiotic versus antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary-tract infections in women (the NAPRUTI study)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 3-11-2006;150(10):574-575. View abstract.
Bianco, L., Perrelli, E., Towle, V., Van Ness, P. H., and Juthani-Mehta, M. Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents. J Am.Geriatr Soc 2012;60(6):1180-1181. View abstract.
Blatherwick NR and Long ML. Studies of urinary acidity II: The increased acidity produced by eating prunes and cranberries. J Biol Chem 1923;57:815.
Bodel P, Cotran R, and Kass E. Cranberry juice and the antibacterial action of hippuric acid. J.Lab & Clin.Med. 1959;54(6):881-888.
Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Anti-inflammatory activity of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathogens. J Dent Res 2006;85(3):235-239. View abstract.
Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Cranberry components inhibit interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and prostaglandin E production by lipopolysaccharide-activated gingival fibroblasts. Eur J Oral Sci 2007;115(1):64-70. View abstract.
Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Inhibition of host extracellular matrix destructive enzyme production and activity by a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction. J Periodontal Res 2007;42(2):159-168. View abstract.
Bodet, C., Grenier, D., Chandad, F., Ofek, I., Steinberg, D., and Weiss, E. I. Potential oral health benefits of cranberry. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr 2008;48(7):672-680. View abstract.
Boivin, D., Blanchette, M., Barrette, S., Moghrabi, A., and Beliveau, R. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFkappaB by edible berry juice. Anticancer Res 2007;27(2):937-948. View abstract.
Cadkova, I., Doudova, L., Novackova, M., Huvar, I., and Chmel, R. [Effect of cranberry extract capsules taken during the perioperative period upon the post-surgical urinary infection in gynecology]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2009;74(6):454-458. View abstract.
Campbell, G., Pickles, T., and D'yachkova, Y. A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Clin Oncol.(R.Coll Radiol.) 2003;15(6):322-328. View abstract.
Chu, Y. F. and Liu, R. H. Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes. Life Sci 8-26-2005;77(15):1892-1901. View abstract.
Conquy, S. [Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections?]. Prog Urol 2006;16(4 Suppl FMC):3-4. View abstract.
Cowan, C. C., Hutchison, C., Cole, T., Barry, S. J., Paul, J., Reed, N. S., and Russell, J. M. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of cranberry juice on decreasing the incidence of urinary symptoms and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix. Clin.Oncol.(R.Coll.Radiol.) 2012;24(2):e31-e38. View abstract.
Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35(1):11-48. View abstract.
Crews, W. D., Jr., Harrison, D. W., Griffin, M. L., Addison, K., Yount, A. M., Giovenco, M. A., and Hazell, J. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(2):305-309. View abstract.
Di Martino, P., Agniel, R., David, K., Templer, C., Gaillard, J. L., Denys, P., and Botto, H. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. World J Urol 2006;24(1):21-27. View abstract.
Dignam R, Ahmed M, Denman S, and et al. The effect of cranberry juice on UTI rates in a long-term care facility. J Amer Geriat Soc 1997;45(9):S53.
Dohadwala, M. M., Holbrook, M., Hamburg, N. M., Shenouda, S. M., Chung, W. B., Titas, M., Kluge, M. A., Wang, N., Palmisano, J., Milbury, P. E., Blumberg, J. B., and Vita, J. A. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2011;93(5):934-940. View abstract.
Duarte, S., Gregoire, S., Singh, A. P., Vorsa, N., Schaich, K., Bowen, W. H., and Koo, H. Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 2006;257(1):50-56. View abstract.
DuGan C and Cardaciotto P. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psych Nurs 1966;4:467-470.
Duthie, S. J., Jenkinson, A. M., Crozier, A., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L. S., Christen, P., and Duthie, G. G. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur.J Nutr 2006;45(2):113-122. View abstract.
Efros, M., Bromberg, W., Cossu, L., Nakeleski, E., and Katz, A. E. Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urology 2010;76(4):841-845. View abstract.
Epp, A., Larochelle, A., Lovatsis, D., Walter, J. E., Easton, W., Farrell, S. A., Girouard, L., Gupta, C., Harvey, M. A., Robert, M., Ross, S., Schachter, J., Schulz, J. A., Wilkie, D., Ehman, W., Domb, S., Gagnon, A., Hughes, O., Konkin, J., Lynch, J., Marshall, C., and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32(11):1082-1101. View abstract.
Fanos, V., Atzei, A., Zaffanello, M., Piras, A., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry and prevention of urinary tract infections in children. J Chemother. 2006;18 Spec no 3:21-24. View abstract.
Ferguson, P. J., Kurowska, E. M., Freeman, D. J., Chambers, A. F., and Koropatnick, J. In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract. Nutr Cancer 2006;56(1):86-94. View abstract.
Ferguson, P. J., Kurowska, E., Freeman, D. J., Chambers, A. F., and Koropatnick, D. J. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1529-1535. View abstract.
Ferrara, P., Romaniello, L., Vitelli, O., Gatto, A., Serva, M., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-372. View abstract.
Foda M, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, and et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Canadian J Urology 1995;2(1):98-102.
Foxman, B., Geiger, A. M., Palin, K., Gillespie, B., and Koopman, J. S. First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior. Epidemiology 1995;6(2):162-168. View abstract.
Garcia-Calatayud, S., Larreina Cordoba, J. J., and Lozano De La Torre MJ. [Severe cranberry juice poisoning]. An.Esp.Pediatr. 2002;56(1):72-73. View abstract.
Gettman, M. T., Ogan, K., Brinkley, L. J., Adams-Huet, B., Pak, C. Y., and Pearle, M. S. Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2005;174(2):590-594. View abstract.
Gibson L, Pike L, and Kilbourne J. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopath Med 1991;2(1):45-47.
Goodfriend, R. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-590. View abstract.
Gotteland, M., Andrews, M., Toledo, M., Munoz, L., Caceres, P., Anziani, A., Wittig, E., Speisky, H., and Salazar, G. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition 2008;24(5):421-426. View abstract.
Greenlee, H., White, E., Patterson, R. E., and Kristal, A. R. Supplement use among cancer survivors in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort. J Altern.Complement Med 2004;10(4):660-666. View abstract.
He, X. and Liu, R. H. Cranberry phytochemicals: Isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. J Agric Food Chem 9-20-2006;54(19):7069-7074. View abstract.
Hess, M. J., Hess, P. E., Sullivan, M. R., Nee, M., and Yalla, S. V. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008;46(9):622-626. View abstract.
Hopkins, W. J., Heisey, D. M., Jonler, M., and Uehling, D. T. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-589. View abstract.
Howell, A. B. and Foxman, B. Cranberry juice and adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens. JAMA 6-19-2002;287(23):3082-3083. View abstract.
Howell, A. B., Botto, H., Combescure, C., Blanc-Potard, A. B., Gausa, L., Matsumoto, T., Tenke, P., Sotto, A., and Lavigne, J. P. Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study. BMC.Infect.Dis. 2010;10:94. View abstract.
Isele, H. [Fatal bleeding under warfarin plus cranberry juice. Is it due to salicylic acid?]. MMW.Fortschr.Med 3-11-2004;146(11):13. View abstract.
Jepson, R. G., Mihaljevic, L., and Craig, J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD001321. View abstract.
Johnston, S. L., Farrell, S. A., Bouchard, C., Farrell, S. A., Beckerson, L. A., Comeau, M., Johnston, S. L., Lefebvre, G., and Papaioannou, A. The detection and management of vaginal atrophy. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Can. 2004;26(5):503-515. View abstract.
Kahn, H. D., Panariello, V. A., Saeli, J., Sampson, J. R., and Schwartz, E. Effect of cranberry juice on urine. J Am Diet.Assoc 1967;51(3):251-254. View abstract.
Kemper, K. J. Cranberry therapy for children's urinary tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc.Med 2006;160(4):451-452. View abstract.
Konowalchuk, J. and Speirs, J. I. Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 1978;35(6):1219-1220. View abstract.
Kontiokari, T., Salo, J., Eerola, E., and Uhari, M. Cranberry juice and bacterial colonization in children--a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Clin Nutr 2005;24(6):1065-1072. View abstract.
Kushnerova, N. F., Merzliakov, V. I., Fomenko, S. E., Sprygin, V. G., Momot, T. V., and Bogdanovich, L. N. [Prevention of stress-related disorders in medical personnel]. Med Tr.Prom Ekol. 2012;(6):44-48. View abstract.
Labrecque, J., Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Effects of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on growth, biofilm formation and adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2006;58(2):439-443. View abstract.
Leaver, R. B. Cranberry juice. Prof.Nurse 1996;11(8):525-526. View abstract.
Lee, B. B., Haran, M. J., Hunt, L. M., Simpson, J. M., Marial, O., Rutkowski, S. B., Middleton, J. W., Kotsiou, G., Tudehope, M., and Cameron, I. D. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal.Cord. 2007;45(8):542-550. View abstract.
Light, I., Gursel, E., and Zinnser, H. H. Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice. Urology 1973;1(1):67-70. View abstract.
Lin, Y. T., Kwon, Y. I., Labbe, R. G., and Shetty, K. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Associated Urease by Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2005;71(12):8558-8564. View abstract.
Linsenmeyer, T. A., Harrison, B., Oakley, A., Kirshblum, S., Stock, J. A., and Millis, S. R. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord.Med 2004;27(1):29-34. View abstract.
Lynch, D. M. Cranberry for prevention of urinary tract infections. Am Fam.Physician 12-1-2004;70(11):2175-2177. View abstract.
McGuinness SD, Krone R, and Metz LM. A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis. J NeurosciNurs 2002;34(1):4-7.
McHarg, T., Rodgers, A., and Charlton, K. Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. BJU.Int 2003;92(7):765-768. View abstract.
McMurdo, M. E., Bissett, L. Y., Price, R. J., Phillips, G., and Crombie, I. K. Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Age Ageing 2005;34(3):256-261. View abstract.
Milbury, P. E., Vita, J. A., and Blumberg, J. B. Anthocyanins are bioavailable in humans following an acute dose of cranberry juice. J Nutr 2010;140(6):1099-1104. View abstract.
Moen DV. Observations on the effectiveness of cranberry juice in urinary infections. Wisconsin Med J 1962;61:282-283.
Monroy-Torres, R. and Macias, A. E. [Does cranberry juice have bacteriostatic activity?]. Rev Invest Clin 2005;57(3):442-446. View abstract.
Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., and Butler, R. Predictability of methenamine efficacy based on type of urinary pathogen and pH. J Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1981;29(5):236-239. View abstract.
Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., Schondelmeyer, S. W., and Butler, R. Effect of urinary acidifiers on formaldehyde concentration and efficacy with methenamine therapy. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;22(3):281-284. View abstract.
Neto, C. C. Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):652-664. View abstract.
Neto, C. C. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr 2007;137(1 Suppl):186S-193S. View abstract.
Neto, C. C., Amoroso, J. W., and Liberty, A. M. Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2008;52 Suppl 1:S18-S27. View abstract.
Niklasson, A. and Andren, L. [Interaction between Waran and cranberry juice]. Lakartidningen 3-15-2006;103(11):853-854. View abstract.
Ohnishi, R., Ito, H., Kasajima, N., Kaneda, M., Kariyama, R., Kumon, H., Hatano, T., and Yoshida, T. Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2006;70(7):1681-1687. View abstract.
Opperman, E. A. Cranberry is not effective for the prevention or treatment of urinary tract infections in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal.Cord. 2010;48(6):451-456. View abstract.
Papas, P. N., Brusch, C. A., and Ceresia, G. C. Cranberry juice in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Southwest.Med 1966;47(1):17-20. View abstract.
Parry, J., Su, L., Moore, J., Cheng, Z., Luther, M., Rao, J. N., Wang, J. Y., and Yu, L. L. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours. J Agric Food Chem 5-31-2006;54(11):3773-3778. View abstract.
Patel, D. A., Gillespie, B., Sobel, J. D., Leaman, D., Nyirjesy, P., Weitz, M. V., and Foxman, B. Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 2004;190(3):644-653. View abstract.
Pham, D. Q. and Pham, A. Q. Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Am J Health Syst.Pharm 3-1-2007;64(5):490-494. View abstract.
Raz, R., Chazan, B., and Dan, M. [Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection]. Harefuah 2004;143(12):891-4, 909. View abstract.
Regal, R. E., Pham, C. Q., and Bostwick, T. R. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies. Consult Pharm 2006;21(5):400-409. View abstract.
Reid, G., Hsiehl, J., Potter, P., Mighton, J., Lam, D., Warren, D., and Stephenson, J. Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(1):26-30. View abstract.
Rindone, J. P. and Murphy, T. W. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction resulting in profound hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding. Am J Ther 2006;13(3):283-284. View abstract.
Ruel, G., Pomerleau, S., Couture, P., Lemieux, S., Lamarche, B., and Couillard, C. Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men. Br J Nutr 2006;96(2):357-364. View abstract.
Salo, J., Uhari, M., Helminen, M., Korppi, M., Nieminen, T., Pokka, T., and Kontiokari, T. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin.Infect.Dis. 2-1-2012;54(3):340-346. View abstract.
Santillo, V. M. and Lowe, F. C. Cranberry juice for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. Drugs Today (Barc.) 2007;43(1):47-54. View abstract.
Seeram, N. P., Adams, L. S., Zhang, Y., Lee, R., Sand, D., Scheuller, H. S., and Heber, D. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric.Food Chem 12-13-2006;54(25):9329-9339. View abstract.
Shmuely, H., Yahav, J., Samra, Z., Chodick, G., Koren, R., Niv, Y., and Ofek, I. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):746-751. View abstract.
Stapleton, A. E., Dziura, J., Hooton, T. M., Cox, M. E., Yarova-Yarovaya, Y., Chen, S., and Gupta, K. Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo.Clin.Proc. 2012;87(2):143-150. View abstract.
Stothers, L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can j urol 2002;9(3):1558-1562. View abstract.
Sun, J. and Hai, Liu R. Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett 9-8-2006;241(1):124-134. View abstract.
Swartz, J. H. and Medrek, T. F. Antifungal properties of cranberry juice. Appl.Microbiol. 1968;16(10):1524-1527. View abstract.
Sylvan, L. and Justice, N. P. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Am Fam.Physician 9-15-2005;72(6):1000. View abstract.
Tempera, G., Corsello, S., Genovese, C., Caruso, F. E., and Nicolosi, D. Inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study. Int J Immunopathol.Pharmacol. 2010;23(2):611-618. View abstract.
Tsukada, K., Tokunaga, K., Iwama, T., Mishima, Y., Tazawa, K., and Fujimaki, M. Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 1994;40(9):60-68. View abstract.
Uesawa, Y. and Mohri, K. Effects of cranberry juice on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(8):1067-1072. View abstract.
Valentova, K., Stejskal, D., Bednar, P., Vostalova, J., Cihalik, C., Vecerova, R., Koukalova, D., Kolar, M., Reichenbach, R., Sknouril, L., Ulrichova, J., and Simanek, V. Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem 4-18-2007;55(8):3217-3224. View abstract.
Vinson, J. A., Bose, P., Proch, J., Al Kharrat, H., and Samman, N. Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56(14):5884-5891. View abstract.
Walsh, B. A. Urostomy and urinary pH. J ET Nurs. 1992;19(4):110-113. View abstract.
Wang, C. H., Fang, C. C., Chen, N. C., Liu, S. S., Yu, P. H., Wu, T. Y., Chen, W. T., Lee, C. C., and Chen, S. C. Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern.Med 7-9-2012;172(13):988-996. View abstract.
Weiss, E. I., Houri-Haddad, Y., Greenbaum, E., Hochman, N., Ofek, I., and Zakay-Rones, Z. Cranberry juice constituents affect influenza virus adhesion and infectivity. Antiviral Res. 2005;66(1):9-12. View abstract.
Wilson, T., Porcari, J. P., and Harbin, D. Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation. Life Sci 1998;62(24):L381-L386. View abstract.
Yan, X., Murphy, B. T., Hammond, G. B., Vinson, J. A., and Neto, C. C. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon). J Agric.Food Chem. 10-9-2002;50(21):5844-5849. View abstract.
Zafriri, D., Ofek, I., Adar, R., Pocino, M., and Sharon, N. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1989;33(1):92-98. View abstract.
Zhang, L., Ma, J., Pan, K., Go, V. L., Chen, J., and You, W. C. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005;10(2):139-145. View abstract.
Mergenhagen KA, Sherman O. Elevated International Normalized Ratio after concurrent ingestion of cranberry sauce and warfarin. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2008;65:2113-6. View abstract.
Ahuja S, Kaack B, Roberts J. Loss of fimbrial adhesion with the addition of Vaccinum macrocarpon to the growth medium of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Urol 1998;159:559-62. View abstract.
Anon. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance 2003;29:8.
Ansell J, McDonough M, Zhao Y, et al. The absence of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2009;49:824-30. View abstract.
Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Potential of cranberry-based herbal synergies for diabetes and hypertension management. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:433-41. View abstract.
Avorn J, Manone M, Gurwitz JH, et al. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;271:751-4. View abstract.
Avorn J. The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion? Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;408:185-6. View abstract.
Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:23-30. View abstract.
Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:1270-8. View abstract.
Blacklock CJ, Lawrence JR, Wiles D, et al. Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin. J Clin Pathol 2001;54:553-5. View abstract.
Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62:212-6.. View abstract.
Bonetta A, Di pierro F. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer Manag Res. 2012;4:281-6. View abstract.
Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2000;29:295-301. View abstract.
Caljouw MA, van den Hout WB, Putter H, Achterberg WP, Cools HJ, Gussekloo J. Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62(1):103-10. View abstract.
Chambers BK, Camire ME. Can cranberry supplementation benefit adults with type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care 2003;26:2695-6. View abstract.
Doad GJ, Kabange W. Cranberry juice, atorvastatin and back pain. J Med Assoc Ga 2014;103(1):14. View abstract.
DuGan CR, Cardaciotto PS. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psychiatr Nurs 1966;467-70.
Duthie GG, Kyle JA, Jenkinson AM, et al. Increased salicylate concentrations in urine of human volunteers after consumption of cranberry juice. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2897-2900. View abstract.
Essadi F, Elmehashi MO. Efficacy of cranberry juice for the prevention of urinary tract infections in pregnancy [abstract]. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;23:378.
Fleet JC. New support for a folk remedy: Cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women. Nutr Rev 1994;52:168-70. View abstract.
Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Can J Urol 1995;2:98-102. View abstract.
Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, Vorsa N. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro. Phytochemistry 2000;54:173-81. View abstract.
Grant P. Warfarin and cranberry juice: An interaction? J Heart Valve Dis 2004;13:25-6. View abstract.
Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79:125-33. View abstract.
Griffiths AP, Beddall A, Pegler S. Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin. J R Soc Promot Health 2008;128(6):324-6. View abstract.
Habash MB, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber. Can J Microbiol 1999;45:691-4. View abstract.
Haber SL, Cauthon KA, Raney EC. Cranberry and warfarin interaction: a case report and review of the literature. Consult Pharm 2012;27:58-65. View abstract.
Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction. Ann Pharmacother 2011;45:e17. View abstract.
Harkins K. What's the use of cranberry juice? Age Ageing 2000;29:9-12. View abstract.
Haverkorn MJ, Mandigers J. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272:590. View abstract.
Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact 2002;139:1-21.. View abstract.
Howell AB, Vorsa N, Foo LY, et al. Inhibition of the Adherence of P-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Uroepithelial-Cell Surfaces by Proanthocyanidin Extracts from Cranberries (letter). N Engl J Med 1998;339:1085-6. View abstract.
Jackson B, Hicks LE. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults. Home Healthc Nurse 1997;15:199-202. View abstract.
Jepson RG, Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:738-45. View abstract.
Jepson RG, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD001321. View abstract.
Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:CD001322. View abstract.
Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 17;10:CD001321. View abstract.
Johnson RL. Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine. National Geographic Society, 2006.
Juthani-Mehta M, Van Ness PH, Bianco L, et al. Effect of cranberry capsules on bacteriuria plus pyuria among older women in nursing homes: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;316(18):1879-87. View abstract.
Kinney AB, Blount M. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH. Nurs Res 1979;28:287-90. View abstract.
Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ 2001;322:1571. View abstract.
Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Cesario TC. Does cranberry juice have antibacterial activity? JAMA 2000;283:1691. View abstract.
Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, et al. Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:2057-61. View abstract.
Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam - probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol The 2007:81:833-9. View abstract.
Liska DJ, Kern HJ, Maki KC. Cranberries and urinary tract infections: How can the same evidence lead to conflicting advice? Adv Nutr. 2016;7(3):498-506. View abstract.
Lowe FC, Fagelman E. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infections: what is the evidence? Urology 2001;57:407-13. View abstract.
Luís Â, Domingues F, Pereira L. Can cranberries contribute to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections? - A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials. J Urol. 2017. View abstract.
Mazokopakis EE, Karefilakis CM, Starakis IK. Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:1155. View abstract.
McMurdo MET, Argo I, Phillips G, et al. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrently urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009;63:389-95. View abstract.
Mellen CK, Ford M, Rindone JP. Effect of high-dose cranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;70(1):139-42. View abstract.
Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:1691-700. View abstract.
Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller C, Creasy R, Colee J, Khoo C, Percival SS. Consumption of cranberry polyphenols enhances human γδ-T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study. Nutr J 2013;12:161. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-161. View abstract.
Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, et al. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1599. View abstract.
Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, et al. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:405-8. View abstract.
Product Information. Coumadin (warfarin sodium). Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ. January 2010.
Roberts D, Flanagan P. Case report: Cranberry juice and warfarin. Home Healthc Nurse 2011;29:92-7. View abstract.
Royer, D. J., George, J. N., and Terrell, D. R. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages. Eur J Haematol 2010;84(5):421-429. View abstract.
Saltzman JR, Kemp JA, Golner BB, et al. Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:584-91. View abstract.
Scheier L. Salicylic acid: one more reason to eat your fruits and vegetables. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:1406-8. View abstract.
Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO. Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. J Pediatr 1999;135:698-702. View abstract.
Schmidt DR, Sobota AE. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios 1988;55:173-81. View abstract.
Singh I, Gautam LK, Kaur IR. Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study. Int Urol Nephrol 2016;48(9):1379-86. View abstract.
Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections. J Urol 1984;131:1013-6. View abstract.
Suvarna R, Pirmohamed M, Henderson L. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. BMJ 2003;327:1454. View abstract.
Takahashi S, Hamasuna R, Yasuda M, Arakawa S, Tanaka K, Ishikawa K, Kiyota H, Hayami H, Yamamoto S, Kubo T, Matsumoto T. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect ofcranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Infect Chemother 2013;19(1):112-7. View abstract.
Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR. Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis. Urology 2001;57:26-9. View abstract.
Ushijima K, Tsuruoka S, Tsuda H, Hasegawa G, Obi Y, Kaneda T, Takahashi M, Maekawa T, Sasaki T, Koshimizu TA, Fujimura A. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;68(2):194-200. View abstract.
Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, et al. The effectiveness of dried cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Br J Nutr 2010;104:1181-9. View abstract.
Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004;27:35-40. View abstract.
Walker EB, Barney DP, Mickelsen JN, et al. Cranberry concentrate: UTI prophylaxis. J Fam Pract 1997;45:167-8. View abstract.
Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5677-84.. View abstract.
Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, et al. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:1719-23. View abstract.
Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka CW, Chung JH. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study. J Urol 2008;180:1367-72. View abstract.
Zikria J, Goldman R, Ansell J. Cranberry juice and warfarin: when bad publicity trumps science. Am J Med 2010;123(5):384-92. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.08.019. View abstract.