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Symptoms and Signs of Dementia Due to HIV Infection

Doctor's Notes on Dementia Due to HIV Infection

Decline in mental processes is a common complication of HIV infection. Although the specific symptoms of dementia due to HIV infection vary from person to person, they may be part of a single disorder known as AIDS dementia complex (ADC), or HIV-associated dementia and HIV/AIDS encephalopathy.

Early symptoms of dementia due to HIV infection may include reduced productivity at work, difficulty concentrating, mental slowness, difficulty learning new things, changes in behavior, decreased sex drive, forgetfulness, confusion, word-finding difficulty, indifference, withdrawal from hobbies or social activities, or depression. Symptoms of worsening dementia due to HIV infection include speech problems, balance problems, clumsiness, muscle weakness, vision problems, or loss of bladder control (and occasionally bowel control). Rare symptoms of dementia due to HIV include sleep disturbances, psychosis, mania, or seizures.

Medical Author: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Medically Reviewed on 3/11/2019

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Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.