Symptoms and Signs of Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2)

Medical Author:
Medically Reviewed on 5/3/2019

Doctor's Notes on Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2)

Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) is a disease where the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired. Common signs and symptoms type 1 and type 2 diabetes include

Type 1 diabetes is when the body either stops insulin production or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.

Type 2 diabetes is when the body is partially or completely unable to respond to insulin.

  • It is usually diagnosed in adults (45 years and older).
  • Symptoms type 2 often develop very gradually.
  • Type 2 diabetes, untreated, can lead to nerve damage, blindness, kidney failure, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (extremely high levels of blood glucose, causing coma or death) and heart disease.

Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) Causes

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system attacks the pancreatic cells that make insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes causes are less clear; however, such factors as genetics, obesity, high fat levels in the blood and the diet, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle, ethnicity, birthing a baby weighing more than 9 lbs. and aging may play a role in type 2 development.

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Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.