Doctor's Notes on Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever)
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also referred to as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates such as monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Ebola virus disease outbreaks occur mainly in villages in Central and West Africa and have a mortality rate up to 90%. Wild animals transmit the Ebola virus to people, and the Ebola virus spreads in the human population through human-to-human contact.
Symptoms of Ebola occur suddenly between 2-21 days after exposure and include fever, headache, sore throat, joint and muscle aches and pain, weakness, and loss of appetite, followed by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Some patients may develop symptoms such as a skin rash, red eyes, hiccups, cough, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. Late symptoms of Ebola include bleeding from inside and outside the body (eyes, ears, and nose), vomiting and/or coughing up blood, mental confusion, seizures, shock, and coma.
What Is the Treatment for Ebola Virus Disease?
Two medications were approved in 2020 to treat Ebola virus disease. These are both monoclonal antibody medications directed at the surface molecules of the virus, preventing the virus from entering the body's cells.
Other treatments for Ebola virus disease fall into the category of supportive care, which includes measures to support body functions and reduce symptoms, such as:
Stomach Pain : Nausea & Other Causes QuizQuestion
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BleedingBleeding episodes can be minor, or major, depending on the trauma caused that creates the bleeding situation. Bleeding can lead to symptoms of: pale, cool, clammy skin; low blood pressure; lightheadedness, unconsciousness, and fast heart rate.
DiarrheaDiarrhea can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, parasites, intestinal diseases or conditions, reactions to medications, and food intolerance or allergies. Symptoms of diarrhea include watery stools, abdominal cramping, fever, and dehydration. Most cases of diarrhea can be treated at home. In some cases (in the elderly, small children, or those with severe or chronic medical conditions) may need to be hospitalized due to dehydration.
Fever (in Adults)A fever is a body temperature of 100.4 F or greater. A fever may be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus, blood clot, tumor, drug, or the environment. Treatment of fever in adults usually involves ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or aspirin.
Fever in ChildrenFever is defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Fever isn't life-threatening unless it is persistently high - greater than a 107 F rectal temperature. Fever is usually caused by an infection. Treatment focuses on controlling the temperature, preventing dehydration, and monitoring for serious illness.
Headache (Mild)What causes headaches? Even when mild, headaches can be a cause for concern. Learn about potential causes, types, home remedies, and treatment.
Is the Ebola Virus Disease Contagious?Ebola, a deadly viral infection, is not contagious through the air, but is transmissible through contact with an infected person, animal, bodily fluids, or surfaces. Sexual transmission and transmission from mother to infant are also possible.
Sore ThroatSore throats are generally named for the anatomical site affected, such as: the pharynx, tonsils, adenoids, larynx, and epiglottis. Sore throat treatment depends on the cause, infection, viral, or fungal.
Vomiting and NauseaVomiting and nausea are common complaints that accompany many conditions and diseases. A few common causes of vomiting and nausea include food poisoning, viruses, vertigo, head injuries, gallbladder disease, appendicitis, migraine, brain tumors, and infections. Treatment of vomiting and nausea depend on the cause of the symptoms.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.