What are the Symptoms of Enterovirus?
Symptoms and signs of non-polio enterovirus infection depend on the virus type and host immune response. Most infections either do not cause symptoms or cause mild illnesses with symptoms such as runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, rash, mouth blisters (herpangina), and body aches.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a condition characterized by fever, blisters in the mouth, and a skin rash. It occurs most commonly in children younger than 5 years of age, but it can sometimes occur in adults or older children.
Other non-polio enterovirus infections may cause meningitis, accompanied by symptoms such as painful headache, sensitivity to light, fever, stiff neck, irritability, and nausea and vomiting. Meningitis caused by enteroviruses is most common in infants and children. Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, the inflammation of lining membranes of the eyes accompanied by bleeding, is another possible manifestation of non-polio enterovirus infection.
Serious infections with non-polio enteroviruses are less common but may cause pericarditis (inflammation of the outer lining sac of the heart), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and paralysis.
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was first identified in 2008, with the most recent outbreak described in the U.S. in 2014, causing respiratory illnesses. Symptoms of EV-D68 infection can include breathing problems, cough, and a rash; some patients develop wheezing. Young children and those with respiratory conditions such as asthma typically have more severe symptoms.