Treatment for Ewing Sarcoma May Cause Side Effects.
Side effects from cancer treatment that begin after treatment and continue for months or years are called late effects. Late effects of cancer treatment may include the following:
- Physical problems.
- Changes in mood, feelings, thinking, learning, or memory.
- Second cancers (new types of cancer). Patients treated for Ewing sarcoma have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. There is also an increased risk of sarcoma in the area treated with radiation therapy.
Some late effects may be treated or controlled. It is important to talk with your child's doctors about the effects cancer treatment can have on your child.
Five types of standard treatment are used:
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy is treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
Systemic chemotherapy is part of the treatment for all patients with Ewing tumors. It is often the first treatment given and lasts for about 6 to 12 months. Chemotherapy is often given to shrink the tumor before surgery or radiation therapy and to kill any tumor cells that may have spread to other parts of the body.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:
- External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer.
- Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
External radiation therapy is used to treat Ewing sarcoma.
Radiation therapy is used when the tumor cannot be removed by surgery or when surgery to remove the tumor will affect important body functions or the way the child will look. It may be used to make the tumor smaller and decrease the amount of tissue that needs to be removed during surgery. It may also be used to treat any tumor that remains after surgery and tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
Surgery is usually done to remove cancer that is left after chemotherapy or radiation therapy. When possible, the whole tumor is removed by surgery. Tissue and bone that are removed may be replaced with a graft, which uses tissue and bone taken from another part of the patient's body or a donor. Sometimes an implant, such as artificial bone, is used.
Even if the doctor removes all of the cancer that can be seen at the time of the operation, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be given after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy given after surgery to lower the risk that the cancer will come back is called adjuvant therapy.
Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy used in the treatment of recurrent Ewing sarcoma. It is being studied for the treatment of metastatic Ewing sarcoma. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.
New types of targeted therapy are being studied.
- Kinase inhibitor therapy is another type of targeted therapy. Kinase inhibitors are drugs that block a protein needed for cancer cells to divide. They are being studied in the treatment of recurrent Ewing sarcoma.
- PARP inhibitor therapy is another type of targeted therapy. PARP inhibitors are drugs that block DNA repair and may cause cancer cells to die. They are being studied in the treatment of recurrent Ewing sarcoma.
High-Dose Chemotherapy With Stem Cell Rescue
High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue is a way of giving high doses of chemotherapy to treat Ewing sarcoma and then replacing blood -forming cells destroyed by cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient and are frozen and stored. After chemotherapy is completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body's blood cells. Chemotherapy with stem cell rescue is used to treat recurrent Ewing sarcoma.