- What other names is Flaxseed known by?
- What is Flaxseed?
- How does Flaxseed work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Flaxseed.
Alasi, Aliviraaii, Brown Flaxseed, Brown-Seeded Flax, Common Flax, Echter Lein, Flachs, Flachssamen, Flax, Flax Hull, Flax Lignans, Flax Meal, Flax Seed, Gemeiner Flachs, Golden Flax, Graine de Lin, Kattan, Keten, Leinsamen, Lignanes de Lin, Lignans, Lin, Lin Commun, Lin Oléagineux, Lin Textile, Linaza, Lini Semen, Linho, Lino, Lino Comune, Lino Mazzese, Lino Usuale, Linseed, Linseed Flax, Lint Bells, Linum, Linum crepitans, Linum humile, Linum usitatissimum, Malsag, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Saatlein, Ta Ma, Tisii, Winterlien.
Flax is a food and fiber crop that grows in Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean. Flaxseeds are the golden yellow to reddish brown seeds of flax. These seeds contain phytoestrogens, which are similar to the hormone estrogen, as well as soluble fiber and oil. Flaxseed oil contains the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Flaxseed has been eaten as a food or used as a medicine since 5000 BC.
People use flaxseed by mouth for constipation, colon damage due to overuse of laxatives, diarrhea, inflammation of the lining of the large intestine (diverticulitis), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or irritable colon, sores in the lining of the large intestine (ulcerative colitis), inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis), and inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).
People also take flaxseed by mouth used for disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including heart disease, high triglyceride levels, high cholesterol, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and metabolic syndrome.
Flaxseed is also taken by mouth for acne, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), kidney problems in people with a disease called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), symptoms of menopause, breast pain, diabetes, obesity and weight loss, HIV/AIDS, depression, malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, sore throat, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and cough, bladder inflammation, enlarged prostate, osteoporosis, and to protect against breast cancer, endometrial cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. It is also taken by mouth to prevent problems associated with hemodialysis treatment.
Flaxseed is used in the eye to help remove debris from the eye.
Possibly Effective for...
- Diabetes. Research shows that taking 600 mg of a specific flaxseed product (Flax Essence, Jarrow Formulas) three times daily for 3 months lowers hemoglobin A1C, a measure of average blood sugar level, in people with type 2 diabetes. But this dosage doesn't seem to lower fasting blood sugars or insulin levels. However, other research shows that taking 10 grams of flaxseed powder per day for one month can reduce fasting blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Also, taking 26-40 grams of flaxseed per day for 3 months can reduce fasting blood sugar levels in overweight people with glucose-intolerance. However, taking flaxseed does not seem to lower fasting blood sugar, insulin levels, or blood fats in people with type 2 diabetes that is already well controlled.
- High cholesterol. Research shows that various flaxseed preparations, including ground flaxseed, partially defatted flaxseed, flaxseed extract, and flaxseed bread and muffins, seem to reduce total cholesterol by 5% to 15% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol by 8% to 18% in people with normal cholesterol levels, as well as in men and pre-menopausal women with high cholesterol. However, there is some conflicting evidence. Some research shows that flaxseed does not improve LDL cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women with normal or high cholesterol. It also does not seem to decrease total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol in people with mildly high cholesterol compared to following a cholesterol-lowering diet. Also taking flaxseed daily for 4 weeks in muffins and breads does not reduce total or LDL cholesterol in children with a family history of high cholesterol. The differences in effectiveness might be related to the form of flaxseed used as well as variations in the severity of cholesterol levels in the people studied.
- High blood pressure. Research suggests that taking flaxseed or its oil, lignans or fiber, can reduce blood pressure. Also, eating milled flaxseed in bread daily for 6 months seems to reduce blood pressure in people with narrowed blood vessels and high blood pressure.
- Autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE). Taking whole or ground flaxseed by mouth seems to improve kidney function in people with SLE.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Osteoporosis. Research shows that consuming 40 grams of ground flaxseed daily for up to one year does not improve bone density in women. Similar findings were found for older men and women who took flaxseed extract.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH). Early research shows that taking 300 to 600 mg of a specific flaxseed product (BeneFlax, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, IL) daily for 4 months reduces urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH and improves quality of life.
- Breast cancer. Early research shows that eating a muffin containing 25 grams of ground flaxseed daily for about 40 days reduces tumor cell growth in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. However, it is unclear if this effect significantly improves overall breast cancer outcomes. Also, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the effects of dietary flaxseed on breast cancer development.
- Heart disease. Population research suggests that dietary intake of lignans, which are found in flaxseed and other foods, does not reduce the risk of heart disease.
- Colorectal cancer. Research on the effect of flaxseed on colorectal cancer risk is inconsistent. Some research shows that consumption of lignans, which are in flaxseed, is not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, other research suggests that it is.
- Constipation. Flaxseed is a good source of dietary fiber. Eating flaxseed-containing muffins seems to increase bowel movements in young adults, while eating yogurt containing flaxseed, prunes, and a specific galacto-oligosaccharide (Elixor, Borculo Whey Products, the Netherlands) seems to increase bowel movements in elderly people. But it's not clear if these effects are from the flaxseed or other ingredients of these products.
- Endometrial cancer. Research suggests that blood levels of lignans, which are found in flaxseed and other foods, are not associated with endometrial cancer risk.
- A treatment for kidney failure called hemodialysis. Hemodialysis often results in abnormal cholesterol levels and inflammation. Early research suggests that taking ground flaxseed twice daily for 8 weeks during hemodialysis reduces total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol. Flaxseed also seems to reduce inflammation in people on hemodialysis.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research shows that taking 24 grams of whole or ground flaxseed daily for 4 weeks does not improve quality of life or the severity of symptoms in people with IBS.
- Lung cancer. Early research suggests that people who eat more phytoestrogens, such as those found in flaxseed, might have a lower risk of developing lung cancer than those who eat less.
- Breast pain (mastalgia). ). Early research shows that eating a flaxseed muffin daily for 3 months reduces breast pain associated with the start of the menstrual cycle.
- Menopausal symptoms. It is not clear if flaxseed works for reducing symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes. Some research shows that taking a specific flaxseed extract (Biogalenica, Medicinal Compounding Pharmacy) for 6 months reduces symptoms and hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Also, some research shows that consuming ground flaxseed reduces menopausal symptoms similarly to hormone therapy. But other studies show that it does not work any better than taking a sugar pill. The difference in effectiveness might be due to the dose of flaxseed used.
- Metabolic syndrome (a condition that increases risk for diabetes and heart disease). Evidence on the use of flaxseed for metabolic syndrome is inconsistent. Early research shows that taking a specific flaxseed extract (BeneFlax, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur IL) daily for 6 months reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome. But other research shows that taking flaxseed does not improve markers of metabolic syndrome in people also following lifestyle modifications compared to those who just follow lifestyle modifications.
- Obesity. Some early research suggests that taking flaxseed fiber 2 hours before a meal helps reduce appetite and the number of calories eaten during a meal. But other research suggests that consuming ground flaxseed daily for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight, waist circumference or body mass index in obese adults.
- Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking ground flaxseed (Alena, Enreco, Manitowoc, WI) and following a low-fat diet can lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a marker for prostate cancer, in men who have a precancerous prostate condition. However, in men who have prostate cancer, adding flaxseed to the diet does not lower PSA, but it does seem to lower levels of the hormone testosterone and slow the rate at which cancer cells multiply.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) .
- Bladder inflammation.
- Burns and boils.
- Damage to colon from laxatives.
- Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis).
- Stomach upset.
- Skin irritation.
- Other conditions.
Flaxseed is a good source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. The fiber in flaxseed is found primarily in the seed coat. Taken before a meal, flaxseed fiber seems to make people feel less hungry, so that they might eat less food. Researchers believe this fiber binds with cholesterol in the intestine and prevents it from being absorbed. Flaxseed also seems to make platelets, the blood cells involved in clotting, less sticky. Overall, flaxseed's effects on cholesterol and blood clotting may lower the risk of "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis).
Flaxseed is sometimes tried for cancer because it is broken down by the body into chemicals called "lignans". Lignans are similar to the female hormone estrogen - so similar, in fact, that they compete with estrogen for a part in certain chemical reactions. As a result, natural estrogens seem to become less powerful in the body. Some researchers believe that lignans may be able to slow down the progress of certain breast cancers and other types of cancers that need estrogen to thrive.
For systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), flaxseed is thought to improve kidney function by decreasing the thickness of blood, reducing cholesterol levels, and reducing swelling.
Flaxseed is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth appropriately. Adding flaxseed to the diet might increase the number of bowel movements each day. It might also cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects such as bloating, gas, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, stomachache, and nausea. Higher doses are likely to cause more GI side effects.
There is some concern that taking large amounts of flaxseed could block the intestines due to the bulk-forming laxative effects of flaxseed. Flaxseed should be taken with plenty of water to prevent this from happening.
Taking flaxseed extracts that contain lignans in concentrated form is POSSIBLY SAFE. Lignans are the chemicals in flaxseed that are thought to be responsible for many of the effects. Some clinical research shows that a specific flaxseed lignan extract (Flax Essence, Jarrow Formulas) can be safely used for up to 12 weeks. Other research shows that other flaxseed extracts can be used safely for up to 6 months.
Products that contain partially defatted flaxseed, which is flaxseed with less alpha-linolenic acid content, are available. Some men choose these products because they have heard that alpha-linolenic acid might raise their risk of getting prostate cancer. It's important to remember that the source of the alpha-linolenic acid is key. Alpha-linolenic acid from dairy and meat sources has been positively associated with prostate cancer. However, alpha-linolenic acid from plant sources, such as flaxseed, does not seem to affect prostate cancer risk. Men should not worry about getting alpha-linoleic acid from flaxseed. On the other hand, there is a concern that partially defatted flaxseed might raise triglyceride levels too much. Triglycerides are a type of blood fat.
Taking raw or unripe flaxseed by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Flaxseed in these forms is thought to be poisonous.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking flaxseed by mouth during pregnancy is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Flaxseed can act like the hormone estrogen. Some healthcare providers worry that this might harm the pregnancy, although to date there is no reliable clinical evidence about the effects of flaxseed on pregnancy outcomes. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking flaxseed if you are breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: There is some evidence that flaxseed can lower blood sugar levels and might increase the blood sugar-lowering effects of some medicines used for diabetes. There is a concern that blood sugar could drop too low. If you have diabetes and use flaxseed, monitor your blood sugar levels closely.
Gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction: People with a bowel obstruction, a narrowed esophagus (the tube between the throat and the stomach), or an inflamed (swollen) intestine should avoid flaxseed. The high fiber content of flaxseed might make the obstruction worse.
Hormone-sensitive cancers or conditions: Because flaxseed might act somewhat like the hormone estrogen, there is some concern that flaxseed might make hormone-sensitive conditions worse. Some of these conditions include breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer; endometriosis; and uterine fibroids. However, some early laboratory and animal research suggests that flaxseed might actually oppose estrogen and might be protective against hormone-dependent cancer. Still, until more is known, avoid excessive use of flaxseed if you have a hormone-sensitive condition.
High blood pressure (hypertension): Flaxseeds might lower diastolic blood pressure. Theoretically, taking flaxseeds might cause blood pressure to become too low in individuals with high blood pressure who are taking blood pressure-lowering medication.
High triglyceride levels (hypertriglyceridemia): Partially defatted flaxseed (flaxseed with less alpha linolenic acid content) might increase triglyceride levels. If your triglyceride levels are too high, don't take flaxseed.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is some evidence that flaxseed might interfere with the body's ability to take in and use acetaminophen. It's not known, though, whether this interaction is important.
Antibiotic drugsInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Bacteria in the intestine convert some of the chemicals in flaxseed into lignans, which are thought to be responsible for many of the possible benefits of flaxseed. However, because antibiotics kill these bacteria, lignans might not be formed as usual. This might alter the effects of flaxseed.
EstrogensInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Flaxseed can act like the female hormone estrogen. It can compete with estrogens that are included in birth control pills and hormone replacement treatments. Healthcare providers are concerned that flaxseed might make these estrogen-containing drugs less effective.
Furosemide (Lasix)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is some evidence that flaxseed might interfere with the body's ability to take in and use furosemide. It's not known, though, whether this interaction is important.
Ketoprofen (Orudis, Oruvail)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is some evidence that flaxseed might interfere with the body's ability to take in and use ketoprofen. It's not known, though, whether this interaction is important.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some evidence suggests that flaxseed can lower blood sugar levels. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking flaxseed along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to become too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Flaxseed can act like a laxative. There is some concern that it might interfere with the body's ability to absorb medications taken by mouth because it might sweep them out of the digestive tract too quickly. To avoid this problem, take medications an hour before or two hours after taking flaxseed.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Flaxseed might slow blood clotting. Taking flaxseed along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Metoprolol (Toprol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is some evidence that flaxseed might interfere with the body's ability to take in and use metoprolol. It's not known, though, if this interaction is important.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For diabetes: 10-40 grams of ground flaxseed have been taken daily for 4-12 weeks. A 600 mg dose of a specific flaxseed lignan extract (Flax Essence, Jarrow Formulas) has been taken three times daily for 12 weeks.
- For high cholesterol: Supplements containing 15-40 grams of ground flaxseed have been taken daily for 1 to 3 months. Bread containing 15-50 grams of ground flaxseed have been taken daily for 4 week to 3 months. Muffins containing 25-40 grams of ground flaxseed or 50 grams of flaxseed meal have been taken daily for 3 weeks to one year. Also, buns, snack bars, bagels, pasta, or tea biscuits containing 30 grams of ground flaxseed have been taken daily for one year. 30 grams of a specific powdered flaxseed product (Alena, Enreco, Manitowoc, WI) have been sprinkled into foods or drinks daily for 6 months. A specific flaxseed lignan extract (BeneFlax, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, IL) has been taken daily for 6 weeks to 6 months. A 600 mg dose of another specific flaxseed lignan extract (Flax Essence, Jarrow Formulas Inc., Los Angeles, CA) has been taken three times daily for 12 weeks.
- For high blood pressure: 30 grams of milled flaxseed has been added to foods such as bagels, muffins, bars, buns, pasta, and tea biscuits taken daily for 6 months.
- For an autoimmune disorder called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 15-45 grams of whole flaxseed has been taken daily in one to three divided doses for up to one year. Also, 30 grams of ground flaxseed has been taken daily for up to one year.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Pan A, Sun J, Chen Y, et al. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. PLoS ONE 2007;2:e1148. View abstract.
Adlercreutz H, Fotsis T, Bannwart C, et al. Determination of urinary lignans and phytoestrogen metabolites, potential antiestrogens and anticarcinogens, in urine of women on various habitual diets. J Steroid Biochem 1986;25:791-7.. View abstract.
Adlercreutz H, Heikkinen R, Woods M, et al. Excretion of the lignans enterolactone and enterodiol and of equol in omnivorous and vegetarian postmenopausal women and in women with breast cancer. Lancet 1982;2:1295-9. View abstract.
Adlercreutz H. Diet, breast cancer, and sex hormone metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;595:281-90. View abstract.
Alonso L, Marcos ML, Blanco JG, et al. Anaphylaxis caused by linseed (flaxseed) intake. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:469-70. View abstract.
Alvarez-Perea A, Alzate -Pérez D, Doleo Maldonado A, Baeza ML. Anaphylaxis caused by flaxseed. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2013;23(6):446-7. View abstract.
Arjmandi BH. The role of phytoestrogens in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in ovarian hormone deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:398S-402S. View abstract.
Azrad M, Vollmer RT, Madden J, Dewhirst M, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Moul JW, Brenner DE, Demark-Wahnefried W. Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer. J Med Food. 2013 Apr;16(4):357-60. View abstract.
Bierenbaum ML, Reichstein R, Watkins TR. Reducing atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic humans with flaxseed supplementation: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:501-4. View abstract.
Bloedon LT, Balikai S, Chittams J, et al. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:65-74. View abstract.
Bloedon LT, Szapary PO. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Rev 2004;62:18-27. View abstract.
Brooks JD, Ward WE, Lewis JE, et al. Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:318-25.. View abstract.
Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004;134:919-22. View abstract.
Caligiuri SP, Aukema HM, Ravandi A, Guzman R, Dibrov E, Pierce GN. Flaxseed consumption reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension by altering circulating oxylipins via an a-linolenic acid-induced inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase. Hypertension. 2014 Jul;64(1):53-9. View abstract.
Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Li H, et al. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1364-70. View abstract.
Chen J, Hui E, Ip T, Thompson LU. Dietary flaxseed enhances the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (mcf-7) in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:7703-11. View abstract.
Chen J, Power KA, Mann J, et al. Dietary flaxseed interaction with tamoxifen induced tumor regression in athymic mice with MCF-7 xenografts by downregulating the expression of estrogen related gene products and signal transduction pathways. Nutr Cancer 2007;58:162-70. View abstract.
Chen J, Power KA, Mann J, et al. Flaxseed alone or in combination with tamoxifen inhibits MCF-7 breast tumor growth in ovariectomized athymic mice with high circulating levels of estrogen. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007;232:1071-80. View abstract.
Chen J, Wang L, Thompson LU. Flaxseed and its components reduce metastasis after surgical excision of solid human breast tumor in nude mice. Cancer Lett 2006;234:168-75. View abstract.
Clark WF, Kortas C, Heidenheim P, et al. Flaxseed in lupus nephritis: a two-year nonplacebo-controlled crossover study. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:143-8. View abstract.
Clark WF, Parbtani A, Huff MW, et al. Flaxseed: a potential treatment for lupus nephritis. Kidney Int 1995;48:475-80. View abstract.
Cockerell KM, Watkins AS, Reeves LB, et al. Effects of linseeds on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Hum Nutr Diet 2012;25:435-43. View abstract.
Colli MC, Bracht A, Soares AA, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of flaxseed meal and flaxseed extract in reducing menopausal symptoms. J Med Food 2012;15:840-5. View abstract.
Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Paus-Jennsen L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of flaxseed lignan complex on metabolic syndrome composite score and bone mineral in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009;34:89-98. View abstract.
Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Kreiger N, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen intake--lignans and isoflavones--and breast cancer risk (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 2008;19:259-72. View abstract.
Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Manno M, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk. J Nutr 2006;136:3046-53. View abstract.
Coulman KD, Liu Z, Michaelides J, et al. Fatty acids and lignans in unground whole flaxseed and sesame seed are bioavailable but have minimal antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects in postmenopausal women. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009;53:1366-75. View abstract.
Crawford M, Galli C, Visioli F, et al. Role of Plant-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44:263-5. View abstract.
Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 1993;69:443-53. View abstract.
Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, et al. Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:62-8. View abstract.
de Deckere EAM, Korver O, Verschuren PM, Katan MB. Health aspects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:749-53. View abstract.
De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:335-8. View abstract.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL, et al. Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3577-87. View abstract.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology 2001;58:47-52. View abstract.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology 2004;63:900-4.. View abstract.
Dodin S, Lemay A, Jacques H, et al. The effects of flaxseed dietary supplement on lipid profile, bone mineral density, and symptoms in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:1390-7. View abstract.
Edel AL, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Maddaford TG, Caligiuri SP, Austria JA, Weighell W, Guzman R, Aliani M, Pierce GN. Dietary flaxseed independently lowers circulating cholesterol and lowers it beyond the effects of cholesterol-lowering medications alone in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):749-57. View abstract.
Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Saleem R, et al. Hypotensive constituents from the pod of Moringa oleifera. Planta Med 1998;64:225-8. View abstract.
Fink BN, Steck SE, Wolff MS, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk among women on Long Island. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:514-23. View abstract.
Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, et al. Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:783-95. View abstract.
Freese R, Mutanen M. Alpha-linolenic acid and marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids differ only slightly in their effects on hemostatic factors in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:591-8. View abstract.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1571-9. View abstract.
Goss PE, Li T, Theriault M, et al. Effects of dietary flaxseed in women with cyclical mastalgia. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000;64:49
Haggans CJ, Hutchins AM, Olson BA, et al. Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutr Cancer 1999;33:188-95. View abstract.
Haggans CJ, Travelli EJ, Thomas W, et al. The effect of flaxseed and wheat bran consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:719-25. View abstract.
Hashempur MH, Homayouni K, Ashraf A, Salehi A, Taghizadeh M, Heydari M. Effect of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Daru. 2014;22:43. View abstract.
Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, et al. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr 2007;98:388-96. View abstract.
Hedelin M, Lof M, Olsson M, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens are not associated with risk of overall breast cancer but diets rich in coumestrol are inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative breast tumors in Swedish women. J Nutr 2008;138:938-45. View abstract.
Hutchins AM, Brown BD, Cunnane SC, Domitrovich SG, Adams ER, Bobowiec CE. Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutr Res. 2013 May;33(5):367-75. View abstract.
Ibrügger S, Kristensen M, Mikkelsen MS, Astrup A. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake. Appetite 2012;58:490-5. View abstract.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:395-402. View abstract.
Khalatbari Soltani S, Jamaluddin R, Tabibi H, Mohd Yusof BN, Atabak S, Loh SP, Rahmani L. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities. Hemodial Int. 2013 Apr;17(2):275-81. View abstract.
Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. View abstract.
Khan G, Penttinen P, Cabanes A, et al. Maternal flaxseed diet during pregnancy or lactation increases female rat offspring's susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Reprod Toxicol 2007;23:397-406. View abstract.
Kilkkinen A, Stumpf K, Pietinen P, et al. Determinants of serum enterolactone concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1094-100. View abstract.
Koizumi Y, Arai H, Nagase H, Kano S, Tachizawa N, Sagawa T, Yamaguchi M, Ohta K. [Case report: anaphylaxis caused by linseed included in baked bread]. Arerugi. 2014 Jul;63(7):945-50. View abstract.
Kolonel LN, Nomura AM, Cooney RV. Dietary fat and prostate cancer: current status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:414-28. View abstract.
Kuijsten A, Arts IC, Hollman PC, et al. Plasma enterolignans are associated with lower colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:1132-6. View abstract.
Kuijsten A, Hollman PC, Boshuizen HC, et al. Plasma enterolignan concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:734-42. View abstract.
Laaksonen DE, Laukkanen JA, Niskanen L, et al. Serum linoleic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to prostate and other cancers: a population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer 2004;111:444-50.. View abstract.
Laitinen LA, Tammela PS, Galkin A, et al. Effects of extracts of commonly consumed food supplements and food fractions on the permeability of drugs across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pharm Res 2004;21:1904-16. View abstract.
Lampe JW, Martini MC, Kurzer MS, et al. Urinary lignan and isoflavonoid excretion in premenopausal women consuming flaxseed powder. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:122-8. View abstract.
Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:204-16. View abstract.
Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, et al. Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:495-504.. View abstract.
Leon F, Rodriguez M, Cuevas M. Anaphylaxis to Linum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2003;31:47-9. . View abstract.
Lewis JE, Nickell LA, Thompson LU, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary soy and flaxseed muffins on quality of life and hot flashes during menopause. Menopause 2006;13:631-42. View abstract.
Lucas EA, Wild RD, Hammond LJ, et al. Flaxseed improves lipid profile without altering biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1527-32.. View abstract.
Mandasescu S, Mocanu V, Dascalita AM, et al. Flaxseed supplementation in hyperlipidemic patients. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2005;109:502-6. View abstract.
Mani UV, Mani I, Biswas M, Kumar SN. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diet Suppl 2011;8:257-65. View abstract.
Milder IE, Feskens EJ, Arts IC, et al. Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:400-5. View abstract.
Mousavi Y, Adlercreutz H. Enterolactone and estradiol inhibit each other's proliferative effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in culture. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1992;41:615-9.. View abstract.
Nesbitt PD, Lam Y, Thompson LU. Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:549-55. View abstract.
Nordstrom DC, Honkanen VE, Nasu Y, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol Int 1995;14:231-4. View abstract.
Oomah BD. Flaxseed as a functional food source. J Sci Food Agric. 2001;81:889-894.
Pan A, Demark-Wahnefried W, Ye X, et al. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients. Br J Nutr 2008;101:1145-9. View abstract.
Pan A, Yu D, Demark-Wahnefried W, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:288-97. View abstract.
Patade A, Devareddy L, Lucas EA, et al. Flaxseed reduces total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in Native American postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2008;17:355-66. View abstract.
Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD, Westcott ND. Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low alpha-linolenic acid. Atherosclerosis 1998;136:367-75. View abstract.
Prasad K. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1997;132:69-76. View abstract.
Pruthi S, Qin R, Terstreip SA, et al. A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of flaxseed for the treatment of hot flashes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group N08C7. Menopause 2012;19:48-53. View abstract.
Ramon JM, Bou R, Romea S, et al. Dietary fat intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Spain. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:679-85. View abstract.
Rhee Y, Brunt A. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design. Nutr J 2011;10:44. View abstract.
Rickard SE, Yuan YV, Thompson LU. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels in rats are reduced by dietary supplementation of flaxseed or its lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside. Cancer Lett 2000;161:47-55. View abstract.
Rodriguez-Leyva D, Weighell W, Edel AL, LaVallee R, Dibrov E, Pinneker R, Maddaford TG, Ramjiawan B, Aliani M, Guzman R, Pierce GN. Potent antihypertensive action of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013 Dec;62(6):1081-9. View abstract.
Rose DP. Dietary fiber and breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 1990;13:1-8.. View abstract.
Saarinen NM, Power K, Chen J, Thompson LU. Flaxseed attenuates the tumor growth stimulating effect of soy protein in ovariectomized athymic mice with MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts. Int J Cancer 2006;119:925-31. View abstract.
Sairanen U, Piirainen L, Nevala R, Korpela R. Yoghurt containing galacto-oligosaccharides, prunes and linseed reduces the severity of mild constipation in elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:1423-8. View abstract.
Schabath MB, Hernandez LM, Wu X, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens and lung cancer risk. JAMA 2005;294:1493-1504. View abstract.
Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on early risk markers for mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1991;60:135-42. View abstract.
Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on the initiation and promotional stages of mammary tumorigenesis. Nutr Cancer 1992;17:153-9. View abstract.
Simbalista RL, Sauerbronn AV, Aldrighi JM, Areas JA. Consumption of a flaxseed-rich food is not more effective than a placebo in alleviating the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2010;140:293-7. View abstract.
Sonestedt E, Borgquist S, Ericson U, et al. Enterolactone is differently associated with estrogen receptor beta-negative and -positive breast cancer in a Swedish nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3241-51. View abstract.
Sung MK, Lautens M, Thompson LU. Mammalian lignans inhibit the growth of estrogen-independent human colon tumor cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18:1405-8. View abstract.
Suzuki R, Rylander-Rudqvist T, Saji S, et al. Dietary lignans and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by oestrogen receptor status: a prospective cohort study of Swedish women. Br J Cancer 2008;98:636-40. View abstract.
Taylor, C. G., Noto, A. D., Stringer, D. M., Froese, S., and Malcolmson, L. Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29(1):72-80. View abstract.
Thanos J, Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, et al. Adolescent dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast cancer risk (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:1253-61. View abstract.
Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, et al. Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:3828-35. View abstract.
Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Cheung F, et al. Variability in anticancer lignan levels in flaxseed. Nutr Cancer 1997;27:26-30. View abstract.
Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, Seidl MM. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:1373-6. View abstract.
Touillaud MS, Thiebaut AC, Fournier A, et al. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:475-86. View abstract.
Verheus M, van Gils CH, Keinan-Boker L, et al. Plasma phytoestrogens and subsequent breast cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:648-55. View abstract.
Wang C, Makela T, Hase T, et al. Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994;50:205-12.. View abstract.
Wang L, Chen J, Thompson LU. The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasis of estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenografts is attributed to both its lignan and oil components. Int J Cancer 2005;116:793-8. View abstract.
Wong H, Chahal N, Manlhiot C, Niedra E, McCrindle BW. Flaxseed in pediatric hyperlipidemia: a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized clinical trial of dietary flaxseed supplementation for children and adolescents with hypercholesterolemia. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Aug 1;167(8):708-13. View abstract.
Wu H, Pan A, Yu Z, et al. Lifestyle counseling and supplementation with flaxseed or walnuts influence the management of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2010;140:1937-42. View abstract.
Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Lundin E, Micheli A, et al. Circulating enterolactone and risk of endometrial cancer. Int J Cancer 2006;119:2376-81. View abstract.
Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Effects of dietary flaxseed lignan extract on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Med Food 2008;11:207-14. View abstract.