Flu in Adults (cont.)
What Causes Flu in Adults?
Three types of influenza viruses exist. Types A and B cause epidemics of severe respiratory illnesses known as "the flu," and type C causes a mild illness not associated with epidemics. Type A is divided into different subtypes based on the chemical structure of the virus. The H1N1 swine flu virus is a type A influenza virus. Type B is not divided into subtypes. Both type A and type B are responsible for the seasonal influenza outbreaks.
- Outbreaks occur more frequently in the winter months. Many factors may play a role in this seasonal pattern:
- The virus survives for longer periods indoors in winter because the relative humidity of indoor air is very low in comparison to the outside air.
- The virus is in droplets that are coughed or sneezed; it infects others by being inhaled or by landing on sensitive body areas such as the eyes, nose, or mouth. These droplets generally travel no further than 6 feet.
- In the winter, humans tend to be indoors more and thus have closer contact with each other, which makes it easier for the virus to spread.
- Flu outbreaks are classified as epidemics (occurring in a set geographical area) or pandemics (a worldwide occurrence). A flu pandemic can occur when a new influenza A virus emerges against which there is very little immunity already in the human population. Because there is little immunity, the new virus can spread from person to person very easily and can sicken more people. In 2009, a pandemic influenza strain began circulating called "novel" H1N1 influenza or swine flu.
- Influenza is a contagious disease. The virus is spread when you either inhale infected droplets in the air (spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes) or when you come in direct contact with an infected person's secretions (for example, by kissing, sharing of handkerchiefs and other items, and through use of objects such as spoons and forks). Touching surfaces, such as doorknobs, handles, and telephones, are other ways to transfer the virus to your hands, which may then contact the nose or mouth where the virus gets absorbed.
- A sudden increase in the number of school-aged children sick at home with flu-like illness may indicate the arrival of flu season. This outbreak is soon followed by similar infection in other age groups, especially among adults.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/30/2015
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