Devadhupa, Balsamodendrum wightii, Balsamodendrum mukul, Commiphora mukul, Commiphora wightii, Gomme Guggul, Gomme-Résine de Guggul, Guggal, Guggul Gum Resin, Guggul Lipids, Guggulipid, Guggulipide, Guggulu, Guggulu Suddha, Guggulsterone, Guggulstérone, Guggulsterones, Guggulstérones, Guglipid, Gugulipid, Gum Guggal, Gum Guggulu, Indian Bdellium, Indian Bdellium-Tree, Koushika, Mukul Myrrh Tree, Palankasha, Yogaraj Guggul Gum Resin.
Guggul is made from the sap (gum resin) of the Commiphora mukul tree, which is native to India. This tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, and Ayurvedic texts dating back to 600 BC recommend it for treating atherosclerosis.
Today guggul gum resin is used for arthritis, lowering high cholesterol, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), acne and other skin diseases, and weight loss.
How does it work?
Guggul contains substances that lower cholesterol and triglycerides. One of these substances also decreases the redness and swelling that occurs in some types of acne.
Possibly Effective for...
- Treating some types of acne. Guggul seems to work about as well as the antibiotic tetracycline in the treatment of nodulocystic acne. Both treatments decrease pain, swelling , and redness (inflammation), and the number of acne outbreaks.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Obesity. Some research suggests that taking a combination of guggul, phosphate, hydroxycitric acid, and L-tyrosine, along with exercise and a reduced-calorie diet, might slightly reduce weight. However, most other research suggests that guggul does not affect body weight in overweight or obese people.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- High cholesterol. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of guggul on cholesterol. Taking 3000 or 6000 mg of guggul daily does not seem to lower total cholesterol or triglycerides, or raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good') cholesterol in people with high cholesterol who eat a Western diet. However, guggul does seem to reduce cholesterol levels in people following an Indian diet.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that taking 500 mg of guggul (containing 3.5% guggulsterones) three times daily might improve arthritis pain.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that taking guggul 3000 mg daily for 4 months can improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Guggul is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. It has been used safely in clinical trials for up to 24 weeks. Some evidence also suggests that long-term use up to 75 weeks may be safe.
It can cause side effects such as stomach upset, headaches, nausea, vomiting, loose stools, diarrhea, belching, and hiccups. Guggul can also cause allergic reactions such as rash and itching. Guggul can also cause skin rash and itching that is not related to allergy. These adverse reactions are more common with higher doses, such as 6000 mg per day.
Bleeding disorders: Guggul can slow blood clotting and might cause bleeding or bruising in people with bleeding disorders.
Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Guggul might act like estrogen in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, do not use guggul.
Underactive or overactive thyroid (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism): Guggul might interfere with treatment for these conditions. If you have a thyroid condition, don't use guggul without your healthcare provider's supervision.
Surgery: Guggul might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using guggul at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
EstrogensInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Large amounts of guggul might theoretically increase the side effects of estrogen.
Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some birth control pills contain estrogen. Guggul might theoretically increase the side effects of birth control pills.
Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking guggul can decrease how much diltiazem (Cardizem) that the body absorbs. Taking guggul along with diltiazem (Cardizem) might decrease the effectiveness of diltiazem (Cardizem).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Guggul might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking guggul along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking guggul talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Guggul might slow blood clotting. Taking guggul along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Propranolol (Inderal)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Guggul might decrease how much propranolol (Inderal) the body absorbs. Taking guggul along with propranolol (Inderal) might decrease the effectiveness of propranolol (Inderal).
Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is used to help treat and prevent these types of cancer. Guggul could theoretically affect estrogen levels in the body. By affecting estrogen in the body, guggul might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take guggul if you are taking tamoxifen (Nolvadex).
Thyroid hormoneInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Guggul might increase thyroid hormone in the body. Taking guggul along with thyroid hormone pills might increase the effects and side effects of thyroid hormones.
Acne Care Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Almazari, I. and Surh, Y. J. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of guggulsterone. Top.Curr.Chem. 2013;329:35-60. View abstract.
Antonio J, Colker CM, Torina GC, and et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: A pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:220-227.
Arora, R. B., Kapoor, V., Gupta, S. K., and Sharma, R. C. Isolation of a crystalline steroidal compound from Commiphora mukul & its anti-inflammatory activity. Indian J Exp Biol 1971;9(3):403-404. View abstract.
Arora, R. B., Taneja, V., Sharma, R. C., and Gupta, S. K. Anti-inflammatory studies on a crystalline steroid isolated from Commiphora mukul. Indian J Med Res 1972;60(6):929-931. View abstract.
Arya VP. Gugulipid. Drugs Fut 1988;13:618-619.
Bai, S. and Jain, M. 1H and 13C assignments of five cembrenes from guggul. Magn Reson.Chem. 2008;46(8):791-793. View abstract.
Beg, M., Singhal, K. C., and Afzaal, S. A study of effect of guggulsterone on hyperlipidemia of secondary glomerulopathy. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1996;40(3):237-240. View abstract.
Bhatt, A. D., Dalal, D. G., Shah, S. J., Joshi, B. A., Gajjar, M. N., Vaidya, R. A., Vaidya, A. B., and Antarkar, D. S. Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad.Med 1995;41(1):5-7. View abstract.
Bordia, A. and Chuttani, S. K. Effect of gum guggulu on fibrinolysis and platelet adhesiveness in coronary heart disease. Indian J Med Res 1979;70:992-996. View abstract.
Burris, T. P., Montrose, C., Houck, K. A., Osborne, H. E., Bocchinfuso, W. P., Yaden, B. C., Cheng, C. C., Zink, R. W., Barr, R. J., Hepler, C. D., Krishnan, V., Bullock, H. A., Burris, L. L., Galvin, R. J., Bramlett, K., and Stayrook, K. R. The hypolipidemic natural product guggulsterone is a promiscuous steroid receptor ligand. Mol.Pharmacol. 2005;67(3):948-954. View abstract.
Cornick, C. L., Strongitharm, B. H., Sassano, G., Rawlins, C., Mayes, A. E., Joseph, A. N., O'Dowd, J., Stocker, C., Wargent, E., Cawthorne, M. A., Brown, A. L., and Arch, J. R. Identification of a novel agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma that may contribute to the anti-diabetic activity of guggulipid in Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2009;20(10):806-815. View abstract.
Cui, J., Huang, L., Zhao, A., Lew, J. L., Yu, J., Sahoo, S., Meinke, P. T., Royo, I., Pelaez, F., and Wright, S. D. Guggulsterone is a farnesoid X receptor antagonist in coactivator association assays but acts to enhance transcription of bile salt export pump. J Biol.Chem. 3-21-2003;278(12):10214-10220. View abstract.
Das Gupta RD. Gugulipid: pro-lipaemic effect. J Assoc Physicians India 1990;38(8):598.
Das, Gupta R. Pro-lipidaemic effect. J.Indian Med.Assoc. 1990;88(12):346. View abstract.
Deng, R. Therapeutic effects of guggul and its constituent guggulsterone: cardiovascular benefits. Cardiovasc.Drug Rev. 2007;25(4):375-390. View abstract.
Dev. Ethnotherapeutics and modern drug development: the potential of Ayurveda. Curr Sci 1997;73:909-928.
Dogra J, Aneja N, and Saxena VN. Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management. Ind J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990;56(1):381-383.
Duwiejua, M., Zeitlin, I. J., Waterman, P. G., Chapman, J., Mhango, G. J., and Provan, G. J. Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant family Burseraceae. Planta Med 1993;59(1):12-16. View abstract.
Francis, J. A., Raja, S. N., and Nair, M. G. Bioactive terpenoids and guggulusteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential anti-inflammatory interest. Chem.Biodivers. 2004;1(11):1842-1853. View abstract.
Gaur SP, Garg RK, Kar AM, et al. Gugulipid, a new hypolipidaemic agent, in patients of acute ischaemic stroke: effect on clinical outcome, platelet function and serum lipids. Asia Pacif J Pharm 1997;12:65-69.
Gelfand, J. M., Crawford, G. H., Brod, B. A., and Szazpary, P. O. Adverse cutaneous reactions to guggulipid. J.Am.Acad.Dermatol. 2005;52(3 Pt 1):533-534. View abstract.
Gopal, K., Saran, R. K., Nityanand, S., Gupta, P. P., Hasan, M., Das, S. K., Sinha, N., and Agarwal, S. S. Clinical trial of ethyl acetate extract of gum gugulu (gugulipid) in primary hyperlipidemia. J Assoc Physicians India 1986;34(4):249-251. View abstract.
Gujral ML, Sareen K, Reddy GS, and et al. Endocrinological studies on the oleo resin of gum guggul. Indian J Med Sci 1962;16:847-851.
Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16(26):2935-2947. View abstract.
Ichikawa, H. and Aggarwal, B. B. Guggulsterone inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and by tumor cells by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Clin.Cancer Res. 1-15-2006;12(2):662-668. View abstract.
Jain JP. Clinical assessment of the value of oleo-resin of Commiphora mukul (Guggul) in obesity and hyperlipidemia. ICMR Bull 1980;10:83-84.
Kaul, S. and Kapoor, N. K. Reversal of changes of lipid peroxide, xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase by cardio-protective drugs in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1989;27(7):625-627. View abstract.
Kesava, Reddy G. and Dhar, S. C. Effect of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent on lysosomal stability in adjuvant induced arthritis. Ital J Biochem 1987;36(4):205-217. View abstract.
Kesava, Reddy G., Dhar, S. C., and Singh, G. B. Urinary excretion of connective tissue metabolites under the influence of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent in adjuvant induced arthritis. Agents Actions 1987;22(1-2):99-105. View abstract.
Khanna, D., Sethi, G., Ahn, K. S., Pandey, M. K., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Sung, B., Aggarwal, A., and Aggarwal, B. B. Natural products as a gold mine for arthritis treatment. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2007;7(3):344-351. View abstract.
Kishore P, Devi Das KV, and Banarjee S. Clinical studies on the treatment of Amavata-Rheumatoid arthritis with Sunthi-Guggulu. J Res Ayur Siddha 1982;3(3-4):133-146.
Kolonte, A., Guillot, B., and Raison-Peyron, N. Allergic contact dermatitis to guggul extract contained in an anticellulite gel-cream. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54(4):226-227. View abstract.
Kotiyal JP, Bisht DB, and Singh DS. Double blind cross-over trial of gum guggulu (Commiphora mukul) Fraction A in hypercholesterolemia. J Res Indian Med Yoga Hom 1979;14:11-16.
Kotiyal JP, Singh DS, and Bisht DB. Gum guggulu (Commiphora mukul) fraction 'A' in obesity -- a double-blind clinical trial. J Res Ayur and Siddha 1985;6(1,3,4):20-35.
Kotiyal JP. Double blind cross over trial of C.mukul (Fraction A) in hypercholesterolaemia and obesity. J Res Ayur Siddha 1980;1(3):355.
Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Koteswara Rao T, and et al. Effect of guggulu (Commiphora mukul-Engl) on serum lipids in obese subjects. J Res Indian Med 1973;8(4):1-8.
Mahesh S, Pandit M, and Hakala C. A study of Shuddha Guggulu on rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatism 1981;16(2):54-67.
Majumdar KA. A clinical study of R-Arthritis with A-Compound - a herbal formulation. Rheumatism 1984;19(3):66-74.
Majumdar KA. Role of gum guggulu with gold in rheumatic and other allied disorders. Rheumatism 1984;20(1):9-15.
Manjula, N., Gayathri, B., Vinaykumar, K. S., Shankernarayanan, N. P., Vishwakarma, R. A., and Balakrishnan, A. Inhibition of MAP kinases by crude extract and pure compound isolated from Commiphora mukul leads to down regulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-2. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(2):122-132. View abstract.
Mehta, V. L., Malhotra, C. L., and Kalrah, N. S. The effects of various fractions of gum guggul on experimentally produced hypercholestraemia in chicks. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1968;12(3):91-95. View abstract.
Mester, L., Mester, M., and Nityanand, S. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by "guggulu" steroids. Planta Med 1979;37(4):367-369. View abstract.
Miller, A. L. Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease. Altern.Med Rev. 1998;3(6):422-431. View abstract.
Nies, L. K., Cymbala, A. A., Kasten, S. L., Lamprecht, D. G., and Olson, K. L. Complementary and alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(11):1984-1992. View abstract.
Nityanand, S. and Kapoor, N. K. Cholesterol lowering activity of the various fractions of the guggal. Indian J Exp Biol 1973;11(5):395-396. View abstract.
Nityanand, S. and Kapoor, N. K. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Commiphora mukul resin (guggal). Indian J Exp Biol 1971;9(3):376-377. View abstract.
No author. Guggulipid supplements for high cholesterol questionable. Mayo Clin.Health Lett. 2004;22(6):4. View abstract.
Nohr, L. A., Rasmussen, L. B., and Straand, J. Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study. Complement Ther.Med. 2009;17(1):16-22. View abstract.
Posadzki, P., Watson, L. K., and Ernst, E. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews. Clin Med 2013;13(1):7-12. View abstract.
Rahimi, R., Shams-Ardekani, M. R., and Abdollahi, M. A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 9-28-2010;16(36):4504-4514. View abstract.
Saeed, M. A. and Sabir, A. W. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul. Fitoterapia 2004;75(2):204-208. View abstract.
Sahni, S., Hepfinger, C. A., and Sauer, K. A. Guggulipid use in hyperlipidemia: case report and review of the literature. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 8-15-2005;62(16):1690-1692. View abstract.
Salavert, M., Amarger, S., Le Bouedec, M. C., Roger, H., Souteyrand, P., and D'incan, M. Allergic contact dermatitis to guggul in a slimming cream. Contact Dermatitis 2007;56(5):286-287. View abstract.
Satyavati, G. V. Gum guggul (Commiphora mukul)--the success story of an ancient insight leading to a modern discovery. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:327-335. View abstract.
Saxena, G., Singh, S. P., Pal, R., Singh, S., Pratap, R., and Nath, C. Gugulipid, an extract of Commiphora whighitii with lipid-lowering properties, has protective effects against streptozotocin-induced memory deficits in mice. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2007;86(4):797-805. View abstract.
Shah, R., Gulati, V., and Palombo, E. A. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul. Phytother.Res. 2012;26(11):1594-1605. View abstract.
Sharma K, Puri AS, Sharma R, and et al. Effect of gum guggul on serum lipids in obese subjects. J Res Indian Med Yoga Hom 1976;11(2):132.
Sharma, J. N. and Sharma, J. N. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora mukul (an indigenous drug) with those of phenylbutazone and ibuprofen in experimental arthritis induced by mycobacterial adjuvant. Arzneimittelforschung 1977;27(7):1455-1457. View abstract.
Sheela, C. G. and Augusti, K. T. Effects of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide isolated from Allium sativum Linn and gugulipid on some enzymes and fecal excretions of bile acids and sterols in cholesterol fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1995;33(10):749-751. View abstract.
Shields, K. M. and Moranville, M. P. Guggul for hypercholesterolemia. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 5-15-2005;62(10):1012-1014. View abstract.
Shishodia, S., Harikumar, K. B., Dass, S., Ramawat, K. G., and Aggarwal, B. B. The guggul for chronic diseases: ancient medicine, modern targets. Anticancer Res. 2008;28(6A):3647-3664. View abstract.
Shishodia, S., Sethi, G., Ahn, K. S., and Aggarwal, B. B. Guggulsterone inhibits tumor cell proliferation, induces S-phase arrest, and promotes apoptosis through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, suppression of Akt pathway, and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene products. Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-30-2007;74(1):118-130. View abstract.
Sidhu LS, Sharma K, Puri AS, and et al. Effect of gum guggul on body weight and subcutaneous tissue folds. J Res Indian Med Yoga Hom 1976;11(2):16-22.
Singh K, Chander R, and Kapoor NK. Guggulsterone, a potent hypolipidaemic, prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Phytother Res 1997;11:291-294.
Singh RP, Singh R, Ram P, and et al. Use of Pushkar-Guggul, an indigenous antiischemic combination, in the management of ischemic heart disease. Int J Pharmacog 1993;31(2):147-160.
Singh, B. B., Mishra, L. C., Vinjamury, S. P., Aquilina, N., Singh, V. J., and Shepard, N. The effectiveness of Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2003;9(3):74-79. View abstract.
Singh, B. B., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kubik, E., Mishra, L. C., Shepard, N. P., Singh, V. J., Meier, M., and Madhu, S. G. Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs. Altern.Ther Health Med 2007;13(4):22-28. View abstract.
Singh, G. B. and Atal, C. K. Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Agents Actions 1986;18(3-4):407-412. View abstract.
Singh, S. V., Choi, S., Zeng, Y., Hahm, E. R., and Xiao, D. Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Cancer Res. 8-1-2007;67(15):7439-7449. View abstract.
Singh, S. V., Zeng, Y., Xiao, D., Vogel, V. G., Nelson, J. B., Dhir, R., and Tripathi, Y. B. Caspase-dependent apoptosis induction by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells is mediated by Bax and Bak. Mol.Cancer Ther 2005;4(11):1747-1754. View abstract.
Sosa S, Tubaro R, Della Loggia R, and et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora mukul extracts. Pharmacol Res 1993;27(suppl 1):89-90.
Thompson Coon, J. S. and Ernst, E. Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view. J Fam.Pract. 2003;52(6):468-478. View abstract.
Tripathi, S. N., Gupta, M., Sen, S. P., and Udupa, K. N. Effect of a keto-steroid of Commifora mukul L. on hypercholesterolemia & hyperlipidemia induced by neomercazole & cholesterol mixture in chicks. Indian J Exp Biol 1975;13(1):15-18. View abstract.
Tripathi, S. N., Upadhyay, B. N., Sharma, S. D., Gupta, V. K., and Tripathi. Role of pushkara guggulu in the management of ischaemic heart disease. Anc.Sci.Life 1984;4(1):9-19. View abstract.
Tripathi, Y. B., Malhotra, O. P., and Tripathi, S. N. Thyroid stimulating action of Z-guggulsterone obtained from Commiphora mukul. Planta Med 1984;(1):78-80. View abstract.
Ulbricht, C., Basch, E., Szapary, P., Hammerness, P., Axentsev, S., Boon, H., Kroll, D., Garraway, L., Vora, M., and Woods, J. Guggul for hyperlipidemia: a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Complement Ther.Med. 2005;13(4):279-290. View abstract.
Upadhyaya BN, Tripathi SN, and Dwivedi LD. Hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic action of gum guggulu in patients of coronary heart disease. J Res Indian Med Yoga Hom 1976;11(2):1-8.
Urizar, N. L. and Moore, D. D. GUGULIPID: a natural cholesterol-lowering agent. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 2003;23:303-313. View abstract.
Urizar, N. L., Liverman, A. B., Dodds, D. T., Silva, F. V., Ordentlich, P., Yan, Y., Gonzalez, F. J., Heyman, R. A., Mangelsdorf, D. J., and Moore, D. D. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science 5-31-2002;296(5573):1703-1706. View abstract.
Wu, J., Xia, C., Meier, J., Li, S., Hu, X., and Lala, D. S. The hypolipidemic natural product guggulsterone acts as an antagonist of the bile acid receptor. Mol.Endocrinol. 2002;16(7):1590-1597. View abstract.
Yellapu, R. K., Mittal, V., Grewal, P., Fiel, M., and Schiano, T. Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review. Can.J.Gastroenterol. 2011;25(3):157-160. View abstract.
Yu, B. Z., Kaimal, R., Bai, S., El Sayed, K. A., Tatulian, S. A., Apitz, R. J., Jain, M. K., Deng, R., and Berg, O. G. Effect of guggulsterone and cembranoids of Commiphora mukul on pancreatic phospholipase A(2): role in hypocholesterolemia. J.Nat.Prod. 2009;72(1):24-28. View abstract.
Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial of gugulipid – a new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary hyperlipidemia. Ind J Med Res 1986;84:626-34. View abstract.
Al Faraj S. Antagonism of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin caused by the use of Commiphora molmol as a herbal medication: a case report. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2005;99:219-20. View abstract.
Antonio J, Colker CM, Torina GC, et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: a pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:220-7.
Ashar B, Vargo E. Shark cartilage-induced hepatitis [letter]. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:780-1. View abstract.
Baldwa VS, Sharma RC, Ranka PC, et al. Effect of Commiphora mukul (guggul) on fibrinolytic activity and platelet aggregation in coronary artery disease. Rajas Med J 1980;19:84-86.
Bianchi A, Cantu P, Firenzuoli F, et al. Rhabdomyolysis caused by Commiphora mukul, a natural lipid-lowering agent. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:1222-5. View abstract.
Brobst DE, Ding X, Creech KL, et al. Guggulsterone activates multiple nuclear receptors and induces CYP3A gene expression through the pregnane X receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;310:528-35. View abstract.
Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: DK Publ, Inc., 2000.
Conquer JA, Maiani G, Azzini E, et al. Supplementation with quercetin markedly increases plasma quercetin concentration without effect on selected risk factors for heart disease in healthy subjects. J Nutr 1998;128:593-7. View abstract.
Dalvi SS, Nayak VK, Pohujani SM, et al. Effect of gugulipid on bioavailability of diltiazem and propranolol. J Assoc Phys India 1994;42:454-5. View abstract.
Gelfand JM, Crawford GH, Brod BA, Szazpary PO. Adverse cutaneous reactions to guggulipid. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:533-4
Ghorai M, Mandal SC, Pal M, et al. A comparative study on hypocholesterolaemic effect of allicin, whole germinated seeds of bengal gram and guggulipid of gum gugglu. Phytother.Res 2000;14:200-2. View abstract.
Grieco, A., Miele, L., Pompili, M., Biolato, M., Vecchio, F. M., Grattagliano, I., and Gasbarrini, G. Acute hepatitis caused by a natural lipid-lowering product: when "alternative" medicine is no "alternative" at all. J Hepatol 2009;50(6):1273-1277. View abstract.
Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can J Cardiol 2011;27(4):488-505. View abstract.
Kaul S, Kapoor NK. Cardiac sarcolemma enzymes & liver microsomal cytochrome P450 in isoproterenol treated rats. Indian J Med Res 1989;90:62-8. View abstract.
Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Rao TK, Sitaraman R. Effect of guggulu (Commiphora mukul--Engl.) on serum lipids in obese, hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipemic cases. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26:367-373. View abstract.
Malhotra SC, Ahuja MM, Sundaram KR. Long term clinical studies on the hypolipidaemic effect of Commiphora mukul (Guggulu) and clofibrate. Indian J Med Res 1977;65:390-5. View abstract.
Malhotra SC, Ahuja MM. Comparative hypolipidaemic effectiveness of gum guggulu (Commiphora mukul) fraction 'A', ethyl-P-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate and Ciba-13437-Su. Indian J Med Res 1971;59:1621-1632. View abstract.
Mester L, Mester M, Nityanand S. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by "guggulu" steroids. Planta Med 1979;37:367-9. View abstract.
Nityanand S, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP. Clinical trials with gugulipid. A new hypolipidaemic agent. J Assoc Phys India 1989;37:323-8. View abstract.
Panda S, Kar A. Gugulu (Commiphora mukul) induces triiodothyronine production: possible involvement of lipid peroxidation. Life Sci 1999;65:PL137-41. View abstract.
Singh BB, Mishra L, Aquilina N, Kohlbeck F. Usefulness of guggul (Commiphora mukul) for osteoarthritis of the knee: An experimental case study. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7:120,112-4. View abstract.
Singh BB, Mishra L, Aquilina N, Kohlbeck F. Effectiveness of Commiphora mukul as an adjunctive therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. Alt Ther 2001;7:S30.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994;8:659-64. View abstract.
Singh V, Kaul S, Chander R, Kapoor NK. Stimulation of low density lipoprotein receptor activity in liver membrane of guggulsterone treated rats. Pharmacol Res 1990;22:37-44. View abstract.
Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, et al. Guggulipid for treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:765-72. View abstract.
Thappa DM, Dogra J. Nodulocystic acne: oral gugulipid versus tetracycline. J Dermatol 1994;21:729-31. View abstract.
Tripathi SN, Upadhyay BN. A clinical trial of Commiphora mukul in the patients of ischaemic heart disease. J Mol and Cell Cardiol 1978;10(suppl 1):124.
Tripathi YB, Tripathi P, Malhotra OP, Tripathi SN. Thyroid stimulatory action of (Z)-guggulsterone: mechanism of action. Planta Med 1988;54:271-7. View abstract.
Verma SK, Bordia A. Effect of Commiphora mukul (gum guggulu) in patients of hyperlipidemia with special reference to HDL-cholesterol. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:356-360. View abstract.