What is Heat Exhaustion? What is Heat Stroke (Definitions)?
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are both a type of heat-related illness. Other types of heat illnesses include heat rash, heat cramps, and heat syncope (fainting). Heat exhaustion often occurs when people work or play in a hot, humid environment and body fluids are lost through sweating, which causes the body to overheat and become dehydrated. The temperature may be elevated, but not above 104 F (40 C).
Heat stroke (also called heatstroke or sunstroke) also is a heat-related illness, and it is a life-threatening medical condition. It usually develops because of untreated heat exhaustion. The body's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point at which brain damage or damage to other internal organs may result (temperature may reach 105 F or greater [40.5 C or greater]).
Which is Worse, Heat Exhaustion or Heat Stroke?
Heat stroke is a more dangerous health condition than heat exhaustion because a person suffering from heat stroke can die. The body’s core temperature can become so high that brain damage or damage to internal organs may happen, which can permanently damage a person's health.
Both heat-related illnesses are more dangerous when they happen in children or the elderly, or in people that have certain pre-existing health conditions.
Chart of Differences between Heat Exhaustion vs. Heat Stroke Symptoms and Warning Signs
Symptoms of heat exhaustion are milder than symptoms of heat stroke, which can be severe. The signs and symptoms of these heat-related illnesses may not always be apparent in children or the elderly.
Chart Comparing Heat Exhaustion vs. Heat Stroke Symptoms and Signs
|Heat Exhaustion Symptoms & Warning Signs||Heat Stroke Symptoms & Warning Signs|
|Pale, cool, clammy skin||Flushed, hot, dry skin|
|Profuse sweating||The person may no longer sweat due to dehydration.|
|Core body temperature usually is elevated to more than 100 F (37.7 C), but not above 104 F (40 C)||Core body temperature is 105 F (40.5 C) or more.|
|Dizziness or lightheadedness||Fainting, confusion, coma|
|Blood pressure changes (may be high or low)|
|Hyperventilation (rapid breathing)|
Which Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke Symptoms Are the Same?
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke have similar symptoms, for example:
The difference is that heat stroke will progress beyond those symptoms to more severe symptoms that are a danger to your health. If heat stroke isn't treated, the person can die.
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What Causes Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke?
Heat exhaustion often happens when you work or play in humid, hot weather or other environment; and your body has not adjusted to the heat. Your body usually cools itself through sweating. When it is hot and humid, and you sweat excessively you can become dehydrated from the loss of essential fluids and salts (electrolytes).
If you have heat exhaustion and do not receive prompt treatment, heat stroke can occur because sweating can no longer cool your body. Moreover, heat stroke develops rapidly, and can lead to death if medical attention is not sought for treatment.
What Is the First Aid Treatment for Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke? Can You Die from Them?
Heat exhaustion treatment begins with treating dehydration by drinking cool (not ice cold) sports drinks (with 6% or less glucose), not plain water. If a you can't keep fluids down, a doctor or other health care professional may use intravenous (IV) fluid for rehydration. You'll need to rest in a cool environment for several days.
If you or someone you know is suffering from heat stroke, they need medical treatment immediately or they may die. There is no home treatment. A doctor or other health care professional may use immersion, evaporative, or invasive cooling techniques to reduce the patient’s core body temperature. An IV is started to give fluids, and treatment will continue until the patient’s core body temperature is about 101.3-102.2 F (38.5-39 C). Hospital admission may be necessary for further tests and observation.
What Should I Do If I think I May Have Heat Exhaustion or Heat Stroke?
If you think you or someone you know is suffering from heat exhaustion, call a doctor or healthcare provider, or get to an emergency department. If you think the person has heat stroke, call 911 immediately.
Heat stroke is a life-threatening medical emergency. If you suspect heat stroke, call 911 or get to a hospital immediately.
Go to an emergency department right away if the person is unable to keep fluids down (vomiting) or if their mental status begins to deteriorate and there are symptoms of confusion or delirium. Shortness of breath, chest pain, or abdominal pain may be signs of additional medical problems.
Reviewed on 5/25/2018
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. "Heat Injury and Heat Exhaustion." Updated: June 2016.
CDC. "About Extreme Heat." Updated: June 19, 2017.
Helman, RS, MD. "Heat Stroke." Medscape. Updated: May 18, 2017.