©2018 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. eMedicineHealth does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See Additional Information.

Hesperidin

What other names is Hesperidin known by?

Bioflavonoid, Bioflavonoid Complex, Bioflavonoid Concentrate, Bioflavonoid Extract, Bioflavonoïde, Bioflavonoïde d'Agrume, Bioflavonoïdes d'Agrumes, Citrus Bioflavones, Citrus Bioflavonoid, Citrus Bioflavonoids, Citrus Bioflavonoid Extract, Citrus Flavones, Citrus Flavonoids, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes, Concentré de Bioflavonoïdes, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes, Extrait de Bioflavonoïdes d'Agrumes, Flavonoid, Flavonoïde, Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone, Hesperidina, Hespéridine, Trimethylhesperidin-chalcon.

What is Hesperidin?

Hesperidin is a plant chemical that is classified as a “bioflavonoid.” It is found primarily in citrus fruits. People use it as medicine.

Hesperidin alone, or in combination with other citrus bioflavonoids (diosmin, for example), is most often used for blood vessel conditions such as hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and poor circulation (venous stasis). It is also used to treat lymphedema, a condition involving fluid retention that can be a complication of breast cancer surgery.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Poor circulation in the legs (chronic venous insufficiency, CVI). Taking a particular product (Cyclo 3 Fort) containing hesperidin methyl chalcone, butcher's broom, and vitamin C by mouth seems to relieve the symptoms of poor circulation in the legs. Also, taking a specific product (Daflon 500, Les Laboratoires Servier) containing hesperidin and diosmin by mouth for 2-6 months seems to improve CVI symptoms, although taking the drug Venoruton might be more effective for treating this condition.
  • Hemorrhoids. Some research suggests that taking a specific product (Daflon 500, Les Laboratoires Servier) containing hesperidin and diosmin by mouth for up to 3 months improves symptoms of anal hemorrhoids. It may also prevent hemorrhoids from coming back after they have healed.
  • Leg ulcers from poor circulation (venous stasis ulcers). Taking a specific product (Daflon 500, Les Laboratoires Servier) containing hesperidin and diosmin by mouth for 2 months seems to improve the healing of small venous stasis ulcers when used along with compression dressings.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Diabetes. Early research suggests that taking one tablet of a specific product (Daflon 500, Les Laboratoires Servier) containing hesperidin and diosmin by mouth for 45 days decreases blood sugar levels and improves blood sugar control in women with type 2 diabetes.
  • Swelling of the arms (lymphedema). Early research suggests that taking a specific product (Cyclo 3 Fort) containing butcher's broom root extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone, and vitamin C by mouth for 90 days reduces swelling in the upper arm and forearm, and improves mobility and heaviness, in women with swelling of the arm after breast cancer treatment. However, other research shows that taking a specific product (Daflon 500, Les Laboratoires Servier) containing hesperidin and diosmin by mouth does not reduce arm swelling in women following breast cancer surgery.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early research suggests that drinking a beverage containing alpha-glucosyl hesperidin for 12 weeks improves symptoms of RA.
  • Varicose veins.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of hesperidin for these uses.

How does Hesperidin work?

Hesperidin may help blood vessels function better. It may also reduce inflammation.

Are there safety concerns?

Hesperidin is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth for up to 6 months. The safety of using it for a longer period of time is unknown. Side effects include stomach pain and upset, diarrhea, and headache.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Hesperidin is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth with diosmin.

Bleeding disorder: Hesperidin might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. In theory, hesperidin might make bleeding disorders worse.

Low blood pressure: Hesperidin might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking hesperidin might make blood pressure become too low in people who already have low blood pressure.

Surgery: Hesperidin might prolong bleeding. There is concern that hesperidin might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgical procedures. Stop taking hesperidin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

QUESTION

Everyone has hemorrhoids. See Answer

Are there any interactions with medications?


CeliprololInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin may reduce how much celiprolol the body absorbs. This might decrease how well celiprolol works. Do not take hesperidin with celiprolol.


DiltiazemInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin may reduce how much diltiazem the body absorbs. This might decrease how well diltiazem works. Do not take diltiazem with hesperidin.


Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin might decrease blood pressure. Taking hesperidin along with medications used to lower high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.


Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Hesperidin might make these pumps less active and increase the amount of some medications that get absorbed by the body. This might increase the amount of some medications in the body, which could lead to more side effects. But there is not enough information to know if this is a big concern.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.


Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin might slow blood clotting. Taking hesperidin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking hesperidin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), temazepam (Restoril), triazolam (Halcion), and others.


Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking hesperidin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. Taking hesperidin along with sedative medications used in surgery might cause prolonged sedation.

Some sedative medications include pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), thiopental (Pentothal), fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morphine, propofol (Diprivan), and others.


VerapamilInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Hesperidin may increase how much verapamil the body absorbs. This might increase the effects and side effects of verapamil. Do not take verapamil with hesperidin.

Dosing considerations for Hesperidin.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For the treatment of hemorrhoids inside the anus: 150 mg of hesperidin plus 1350 mg of diosmin twice daily for 4 days, followed by 100 mg of hesperidin and 900 mg of diosmin twice daily for 3 days.
  • For preventing the return of hemorrhoids inside the anus: 50 mg of hesperidin plus 450 mg of diosmin twice daily for 3 months.
  • For the treatment of leg ulcers caused by poor blood circulation (venous stasis ulcers): a combination of 100 mg of hesperidin and 900 mg of diosmin daily for up to 2 months.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 9/17/2019
References

Aghel, N., Ramezani, Z., and Beiranvand, S. Hesperidin from Citrus sinensis cultivated in Dezful, Iran. Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 10-15-2008;11(20):2451-2453. View abstract.

Ahmadi, A., Hosseinimehr, S. J., Naghshvar, F., Hajir, E., and Ghahremani, M. Chemoprotective effects of hesperidin against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in mice bone marrow cells. Arch.Pharm.Res. 2008;31(6):794-797. View abstract.

Akiyama, S., Katsumata, S., Suzuki, K., Nakaya, Y., Ishimi, Y., and Uehara, M. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hesperidin and cyclodextrin-clathrated hesperetin in Goto-Kakizaki rats with type 2 diabetes. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2009;73(12):2779-2782. View abstract.

Al Majed, A. A., Al Yahya, A. A., Al Bekairi, A. M., Al Shabanah, O. A., and Qureshi, S. Studies on the cytological and biochemical effects of valerian in somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(11):1830-1837. View abstract.

Al, Shaal L., Muller, R. H., and Keck, C. M. Preserving hesperetin nanosuspensions for dermal application. Pharmazie 2010;65(2):86-92. View abstract.

Aliev, S. A., Ibishov, K. G., and Aliev, E. S. [Certain aspects of pathogenesis of hemorheological and trophic disturbances and their pharmacological correction in patients with chronic venous insufficiency]. Vestn.Khir.Im I.I.Grek. 2008;167(2):39-43. View abstract.

Allegra, C., Bartolo, M., Jr., Carioti, B., and Cassiani, D. An original microhaemorheological approach to the pharmacological effects of Daflon 500 mg in severe chronic venous insufficiency. Int J Microcirc.Clin Exp 1995;15 Suppl 1:50-54. View abstract.

Amato, C. Advantage of a micronized flavonoidic fraction (Daflon 500 mg) in comparison with a nonmicronized diosmin. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):531-536. View abstract.

Ameer, B., Weintraub, R. A., Johnson, J. V., Yost, R. A., and Rouseff, R. L. Flavanone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;60(1):34-40. View abstract.

Amiel, M. and Barbe, R. [Study of the pharmacodynamic activity of daflon 500 mg]. Ann.Cardiol.Angeiol.(Paris) 1998;47(3):185-188. View abstract.

Ansorge, S., Reinhold, D., and Lendeckel, U. Propolis and some of its constituents down-regulate DNA synthesis and inflammatory cytokine production but induce TGF-beta1 production of human immune cells. Z Naturforsch.[C.] 2003;58(7-8):580-589. View abstract.

Aranganathan, S. and Nalini, N. Efficacy of the potential chemopreventive agent, hesperetin (citrus flavanone), on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(10):2594-2600. View abstract.

Aranganathan, S., Selvam, J. P., and Nalini, N. Effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, on bacterial enzymes and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in colon cancer rats: a dose-dependent study. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2008;60(10):1385-1392. View abstract.

Aranganathan, S., Selvam, J. P., Sangeetha, N., and Nalini, N. Modulatory efficacy of hesperetin (citrus flavanone) on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. Chem.Biol.Interact. 7-15-2009;180(2):254-261. View abstract.

Avila, M., Jaquet, M., Moine, D., Requena, T., Pelaez, C., Arigoni, F., and Jankovic, I. Physiological and biochemical characterization of the two alpha-L-rhamnosidases of Lactobacillus plantarum NCC245. Microbiology 2009;155(Pt 8):2739-2749. View abstract.

Bae, E. A., Han, M. J., and Kim, D. H. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of some flavonoids and their metabolites. Planta Med. 1999;65(5):442-443. View abstract.

Balakrishnan, A. and Menon, V. P. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin in nicotine-induced lung toxicity. Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol. 2007;21(5):535-546. View abstract.

Balakrishnan, A. and Menon, V. P. Effect of hesperidin on matrix metalloproteinases and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity. Toxicology 9-5-2007;238(2-3):90-98. View abstract.

Balakrishnan, A. and Menon, V. P. Protective effect of hesperidin on nicotine induced toxicity in rats. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 2007;45(2):194-202. View abstract.

Basile, A., Sorbo, S., Giordano, S., Ricciardi, L., Ferrara, S., Montesano, D., Castaldo, Cobianchi R., Vuotto, M. L., and Ferrara, L. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves. Fitoterapia 2000;71 Suppl 1:S110-S116. View abstract.

Belboukhari, N., Cheriti, A., Roussel, C., and Vanthuyne, N. Chiral separation of hesperidin and naringin and its analysis in a butanol extract of Launeae arborescens. Nat.Prod.Res. 2010;24(7):669-681. View abstract.

Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., de Sanctis, M. T., Incandela, L., Laurora, G., Fevrier, B., Wargon, C., and De, Gregoris P. Laser Doppler and transcutaneous oximetry: modern investigations to assess drug efficacy in chronic venous insufficiency. Int.J.Microcirc.Clin.Exp. 1995;15 Suppl 1:45-49. View abstract.

Bellocco, E., Barreca, D., Lagana, G., Leuzzi, U., Tellone, E., Ficarra, S., Kotyk, A., and Galtieri, A. Influence of L-rhamnosyl-D-glucosyl derivatives on properties and biological interaction of flavonoids. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2009;321(1-2):165-171. View abstract.

Beltramino, R., Penenory, A., and Buceta, A. M. An open-label, randomised multicentre study comparing the efficacy and safety of CYCLO 3 FORT versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Int Angiol. 1999;18(4):337-342. View abstract.

Bergan, J. J., Schmid-Schonbein, G. W., and Takase, S. Therapeutic approach to chronic venous insufficiency and its complications: place of Daflon 500 mg. Angiology 2001;52 Suppl 1:S43-S47. View abstract.

Bock, C., Waldmann, K. H., and Ternes, W. Mangiferin and hesperidin metabolites are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs after oral ingestion of a Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush tea) extract. Nutr.Res. 2008;28(12):879-891. View abstract.

Boisseau, M. R. Pharmacological targets of drugs employed in chronic venous and lymphatic insufficiency. Int Angiol. 2002;21(2 Suppl 1):33-39. View abstract.

BOOTH, A. N., JONES, F. T., and DeEDS, F. Metabolic fate of hesperidin, eriodictyol, homoeridictyol, and diosmin. J.Biol.Chem. 1958;230(2):661-668. View abstract.

Borradaile, N. M., Carroll, K. K., and Kurowska, E. M. Regulation of HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B metabolism by the citrus flavanones hesperetin and naringenin. Lipids 1999;34(6):591-598. View abstract.

Bouaziz, N., Michiels, C., Janssens, D., Berna, N., Eliaers, F., Panconi, E., and Remacle, J. Effect of Ruscus extract and hesperidin methylchalcone on hypoxia-induced activation of endothelial cells. Int Angiol. 1999;18(4):306-312. View abstract.

Bouskela, E. and Donyo, K. A. Effects of oral administration of purified micronized flavonoid fraction on increased microvascular permeability induced by various agents and on ischemia/reperfusion in the hamster cheek pouch. Angiology 1997;48(5):391-399. View abstract.

Boyle, P., Diehm, C., and Robertson, C. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of Cyclo 3 Fort in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Int Angiol. 2003;22(3):250-262. View abstract.

Brand, W., Padilla, B., van Bladeren, P. J., Williamson, G., and Rietjens, I. M. The effect of co-administered flavonoids on the metabolism of hesperetin and the disposition of its metabolites in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2010;54(6):851-860. View abstract.

Braune, A., Engst, W., and Blaut, M. Degradation of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone by human intestinal bacteria. J.Agric.Food Chem. 3-9-2005;53(5):1782-1790. View abstract.

Brett, G. M., Hollands, W., Needs, P. W., Teucher, B., Dainty, J. R., Davis, B. D., Brodbelt, J. S., and Kroon, P. A. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;101(5):664-675. View abstract.

Buckshee, K., Takkar, D., and Aggarwal, N. Micronized flavonoid therapy in internal hemorrhoids of pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1997;57(2):145-151. View abstract.

Calomme, M., Pieters, L., Vlietinck, A., and Vanden Berghe, D. Inhibition of bacterial mutagenesis by Citrus flavonoids. Planta Med 1996;62(3):222-226. View abstract.

Canton, R., Manzanares, J., Alvarez, E., and Zaragoza, F. In vitro and in vivo antiaggregant effects of magnesium halogenates. Thromb.Haemost. 12-18-1987;58(4):957-959. View abstract.

Cesarone, M. R., Belcaro, G., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Di Renzo, A., Vinciguerra, G., Ricci, A., Gizzi, G., Ippolito, E., Fano, F., Dugall, M., Acerbi, G., and Cacchio, M. HR, 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides, in comparison with diosmin+hesperidin in chronic venous insufficiency and venous microangiopathy: an independent, prospective, comparative registry study. Angiology 2005;56(1):1-8. View abstract.

Cesarone, M. R., Belcaro, G., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Vinciguerra, G., Ricci, A., Di Renzo, A., Ruffini, I., Gizzi, G., Ippolito, E., Fano, F., Dugall, M., Acerbi, G., Cornelli, U., Hosoi, M., and Cacchio, M. Venoruton vs Daflon: evaluation of effects on quality of life in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 2006;57(2):131-138. View abstract.

Cesarone, M. R., Belcaro, G., Rohdewald, P., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Vinciguerra, G., Ricci, A., Gizzi, G., Ippolito, E., Fano, F., Dugall, M., Acerbi, G., Cacchio, M., Di Renzo, A., Hosoi, M., Stuard, S., and Corsi, M. Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study. Clin Appl Thromb.Hemost. 2006;12(2):205-212. View abstract.

Chassignolle, J. F., Amiel, M., Lanfranchi, G., and et al. Activité thérapeutique de Daflon 500 mg dans l'insuffisance veineuse fonctionnelle [in French]. J Int Med 1987;99:32-37.

Chen, M. C., Ye, Y. Y., Ji, G., and Liu, J. W. Hesperidin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 to attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in hepatic L02 cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 3-24-2010;58(6):3330-3335. View abstract.

Chen, Y. C., Shen, S. C., and Lin, H. Y. Rutinoside at C7 attenuates the apoptosis-inducing activity of flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 10-1-2003;66(7):1139-1150. View abstract.

Chiba, H., Uehara, M., Wu, J., Wang, X., Masuyama, R., Suzuki, K., Kanazawa, K., and Ishimi, Y. Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits bone loss and decreases serum and hepatic lipids in ovariectomized mice. J.Nutr. 2003;133(6):1892-1897. View abstract.

Chinnam, N., Dadi, P. K., Sabri, S. A., Ahmad, M., Kabir, M. A., and Ahmad, Z. Dietary bioflavonoids inhibit Escherichia coli ATP synthase in a differential manner. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 6-1-2010;46(5):478-486. View abstract.

Chiou, C. S., Lin, J. W., Kao, P. F., Liu, J. C., Cheng, T. H., and Chan, P. Effects of hesperidin on cyclic strain-induced endothelin-1 release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol 2008;35(8):938-943. View abstract.

Cho, J. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin. Arch.Pharm.Res. 2006;29(8):699-706. View abstract.

Choi, E. J. Antioxidative effects of hesperetin against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced oxidative stress in mice. Life Sci. 5-23-2008;82(21-22):1059-1064. View abstract.

Choi, E. M. and Kim, Y. H. Hesperetin attenuates the highly reducing sugar-triggered inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Cell Biol.Toxicol. 2008;24(3):225-231. View abstract.

Choi, Y. J., Kang, J. S., Park, J. H., Lee, Y. J., Choi, J. S., and Kang, Y. H. Polyphenolic flavonoids differ in their antiapoptotic efficacy in hydrogen peroxide-treated human vascular endothelial cells. J Nutr 2003;133(4):985-991. View abstract.

Cirico, T. L. and Omaye, S. T. Additive or synergetic effects of phenolic compounds on human low density lipoprotein oxidation. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(4):510-516. View abstract.

Clayton, E. M., Jr., Feldhaus, W. D., and Phythyon, J. M. Effect of citrus bioflavonoid, carbazochrome salicylate, and ascorbic acid on the transplacental passage of fetal erythrocytes. Studies during normal pregnancy. Obstet.Gynecol. 1967;29(3):382-385. View abstract.

Clowers, B. H. and Hill, H. H., Jr. Influence of cation adduction on the separation characteristics of flavonoid diglycoside isomers using dual gate-ion mobility-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. J.Mass Spectrom. 2006;41(3):339-351. View abstract.

Cluzan, R. V., Alliot, F., Ghabboun, S., and Pascot, M. Treatment of secondary lymphedema of the upper limb with CYCLO 3 FORT. Lymphology 1996;29(1):29-35. View abstract.

Coleridge Smith, P. D. From skin disorders to venous leg ulcers: pathophysiology and efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in ulcer healing. Angiology 2003;54 Suppl 1:S45-S50. View abstract.

Corpet, D. E. and Pierre, F. Point: From animal models to prevention of colon cancer. Systematic review of chemoprevention in min mice and choice of the model system. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(5):391-400. View abstract.

Cospite, M. and Dominici, A. Double blind study of the pharmacodynamic and clinical activities of 5682 SE in venous insufficiency. Advantages of the new micronized form. Int Angiol. 1989;8(4 Suppl):61-65. View abstract.

Cospite, M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of clinical activity and safety of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. Drugs Today 1995;31(Suppl E):49-55.

Cummings, J., Kerr, D. J., Kaye, S. B., and Smyth, J. F. Optimisation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of flavone acetic acid and its major human metabolites in plasma and urine. J Chromatogr 9-23-1988;431(1):77-85. View abstract.

Cypriani, B., Limasset, B., Carrie, M. L., le Doucen, C., Roussie, M., de Paulet, A. C., and Damon, M. Antioxidant activity of micronized diosmin on oxygen species from stimulated human neutrophils. Biochem Pharmacol 4-6-1993;45(7):1531-1535. View abstract.

Damon, M., Flandre, O., Michel, F., Perdrix, L., Labrid, C., and Crastes de, Paulet A. Effect of chronic treatment with a purified flavonoid fraction on inflammatory granuloma in the rat. Study of prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha and thromboxane B2 release and histological changes. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37(10):1149-1153. View abstract.

das Neves, R. N., Carvalho, F., Carvalho, M., Fernandes, E., Soares, E., de Bastos, M. L., and de Pereira, M. L. Protective activity of hesperidin and lipoic acid against sodium arsenite acute toxicity in mice. Toxicol.Pathol. 2004;32(5):527-535. View abstract.

Di Mauro, A., Fallico, B., Passerini, A., Rapisarda, P., and Maccarone, E. Recovery of hesperidin from orange peel by concentration of extracts on styrene-divinylbenzene resin. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47(10):4391-4397. View abstract.

Di, Donna L., De, Luca G., Mazzotti, F., Napoli, A., Salerno, R., Taverna, D., and Sindona, G. Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides. J.Nat.Prod. 2009;72(7):1352-1354. View abstract.

Dimpfel, W. Different anticonvulsive effects of hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin on electrical activity in the rat hippocampus in-vitro. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2006;58(3):375-379. View abstract.

Ding, L., Luo, X., Tang, F., Yuan, J., Liu, Q., and Yao, S. Simultaneous determination of flavonoid and alkaloid compounds in Citrus herbs by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-electrospray mass spectrometry. J.Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci. 10-1-2007;857(2):202-209. View abstract.

Doostdar, H., Burke, M. D., and Mayer, R. T. Bioflavonoids: selective substrates and inhibitors for cytochrome P450 CYP1A and CYP1B1. Toxicology 4-3-2000;144(1-3):31-38. View abstract.

El-Readi, M. Z., Hamdan, D., Farrag, N., El-Shazly, A., and Wink, M. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity by limonin and other secondary metabolites from Citrus species in human colon and leukaemia cell lines. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1-25-2010;626(2-3):139-145. View abstract.

Erlund, I., Silaste, M. L., Alfthan, G., Rantala, M., Kesaniemi, Y. A., and Aro, A. Plasma concentrations of the flavonoids hesperetin, naringenin and quercetin in human subjects following their habitual diets, and diets high or low in fruit and vegetables. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(9):891-898. View abstract.

Essien, E. M. and Okogun, J. I. Effect of the root extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides on blood coagulation. Thromb.Haemost. 12-31-1976;36(3):525-531. View abstract.

Fang, Y. S., Shan, D. M., Liu, J. W., Xu, W., Li, C. L., Wu, H. Z., and Ji, G. Effect of constituents from Fructus Aurantii Immaturus and Radix Paeoniae Alba on gastrointestinal movement. Planta Med. 2009;75(1):24-31. View abstract.

Fenton, J. I. and Hord, N. G. Flavonoids promote cell migration in nontumorigenic colon epithelial cells differing in Apc genotype: implications of matrix metalloproteinase activity. Nutr.Cancer 2004;48(2):182-188. View abstract.

Fernandez, S. P., Wasowski, C., Paladini, A. C., and Marder, M. Synergistic interaction between hesperidin, a natural flavonoid, and diazepam. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 4-11-2005;512(2-3):189-198. View abstract.

Franke, A. A., Cooney, R. V., Custer, L. J., Mordan, L. J., and Tanaka, Y. Inhibition of neoplastic transformation and bioavailability of dietary flavonoid agents. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;439:237-248. View abstract.

Friesenecker, B., Tsai, A. G., Allegra, C., and Intaglietta, M. Oral administration of purified micronized flavonoid fraction suppresses leukocyte adhesion in ischemia-reperfusion injury: in vivo observations in the hamster skin fold. Int.J.Microcirc.Clin.Exp. 1994;14(1-2):50-55. View abstract.

Fujita, T., Shiura, T., Masuda, M., Tokunaga, M., Kawase, A., Iwaki, M., Gato, T., Fumuro, M., Sasaki, K., Utsunomiya, N., and Matsuda, H. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice. J.Nat.Med. 2008;62(2):202-206. View abstract.

Galley, P. and Thiollet, M. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol. 1993;12(1):69-72. View abstract.

Gandhi, C., Upaganalawar, A., and Balaraman, R. Protection against in vivo focal myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced arrhythmias and apoptosis by hesperidin. Free Radic.Res. 2009;43(9):817-827. View abstract.

Gardana, C., Guarnieri, S., Riso, P., Simonetti, P., and Porrini, M. Flavanone plasma pharmacokinetics from blood orange juice in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2007;98(1):165-172. View abstract.

Garg, A., Garg, S., Zaneveld, L. J., and Singla, A. K. Chemistry and pharmacology of the Citrus bioflavonoid hesperidin. Phytother.Res. 2001;15(8):655-669. View abstract.

Garner, R. C., Garner, J. V., Gregory, S., Whattam, M., Calam, A., and Leong, D. Comparison of the absorption of micronized (Daflon 500 mg) and nonmicronized 14C-diosmin tablets after oral administration to healthy volunteers by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. J Pharm Sci 2002;91(1):32-40. View abstract.

Geroulakos, G. and Nicolaides, A. N. Controlled studies of Daflon 500 mg in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):549-553. View abstract.

Gil-Izquierdo, A., Gil, M. I., Ferreres, F., and Tomas-Barberan, F. A. In vitro availability of flavonoids and other phenolics in orange juice. J Agric.Food Chem 2001;49(2):1035-1041. View abstract.

Gilly, R., Pillion, G., and Frileux, C. Evaluation of a new venoactive micronized flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in symptomatic disturbances of the venolymphatic circulation of the lower limb: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phlebology. 1994;9(2):67-70.

Glinski, W, Chodynicka, B., Roszkiewicz, J., and et al. The beneficial augmentative effect of micronised purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on the healing of leg ulcers: an open, multicentre, controlled, randomised study. Phlebology. 1999;14(4):151-157.

Godeberge, P. Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease: a demonstrated efficacy in comparison with placebo. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):574-578. View abstract.

Guardia, T., Rotelli, A. E., Juarez, A. O., and Pelzer, L. E. Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco 2001;56(9):683-687. View abstract.

Guex, J. J., Enrici, E., Boussetta, S., Avril, L., Lis, C., and Taieb, C. Correlations between ankle circumference, symptoms, and quality of life demonstrate the clinical relevance of minimal leg swelling reduction: results of a study in 1,036 Argentinean patients. Dermatol.Surg. 2008;34(12):1666-1675. View abstract.

Guilhou, J. J., Fevrier, F., Debure, C., Dubeaux, D., Gillet-Terver, M. N., Guillot, B., Levesque, H., Marzin, L., Mignot, J., Ouvry, P., Pillion, G., Van, Landuyt H., Zuccarelli, F., and Nicolaides, A. N. Benefit of a 2-month treatment with a micronized, purified flavonoidic fraction on venous ulcer healing. A randomized, double-blind, controlled versus placebo trial. Int.J.Microcirc.Clin.Exp. 1997;17 Suppl 1:21-26. View abstract.

Guillot, B. Techniques used to evaluate the cutaneous microcirculation: application of photoplethysmography to the assessment of a phlebotropic agent in the treatment of leg ulcers. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):542-548. View abstract.

Guzman-Gutierrez, S. L. and Navarrete, A. Pharmacological exploration of the sedative mechanism of hesperidin identified as the active principle of Citrus sinensis flowers. Planta Med. 2009;75(4):295-301. View abstract.

Habauzit, V., Nielsen, I. L., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Trzeciakiewicz, A., Morand, C., Chee, W., Barron, D., Lebecque, P., Davicco, M. J., Williamson, G., Offord, E., Coxam, V., and Horcajada, M. N. Increased bioavailability of hesperetin-7-glucoside compared with hesperidin results in more efficient prevention of bone loss in adult ovariectomised rats. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;102(7):976-984. View abstract.

Ho, Y. H., Foo, C. L., Seow-Choen, F., and Goh, H. S. Prospective randomized controlled trial of a micronized flavonidic fraction to reduce bleeding after haemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg. 1995;82(8):1034-1035. View abstract.

Horcajada, M. N., Habauzit, V., Trzeciakiewicz, A., Morand, C., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Mardon, J., Lebecque, P., Davicco, M. J., Chee, W. S., Coxam, V., and Offord, E. Hesperidin inhibits ovariectomized-induced osteopenia and shows differential effects on bone mass and strength in young and adult intact rats. J.Appl.Physiol 2008;104(3):648-654. View abstract.

Hosseinimehr, S. J. and Nemati, A. Radioprotective effects of hesperidin against gamma irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells. Br.J.Radiol. 2006;79(941):415-418. View abstract.

Hosseinimehr, S. J., Ahmadi, A., Beiki, D., Habibi, E., and Mahmoudzadeh, A. Protective effects of hesperidin against genotoxicity induced by (99m)Tc-MIBI in human cultured lymphocyte cells. Nucl.Med.Biol. 2009;36(7):863-867. View abstract.

Huang, Z., Fang, F., Wang, J., and Wong, C. W. Structural activity relationship of flavonoids with estrogen-related receptor gamma. FEBS Lett. 1-4-2010;584(1):22-26. View abstract.

Hwang, S. L. and Yen, G. C. Neuroprotective effects of the citrus flavanones against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 2-13-2008;56(3):859-864. View abstract.

Ibegbuna, V., Nicolaides, A. N., Sowade, O., Leon, M., and Geroulakos, G. Venous elasticity after treatment with Daflon 500 mg. Angiology 1997;48(1):45-49. View abstract.

Iqbal, M. F. and Zhu, W. Y. Bioactivation of flavonoid diglycosides by chicken cecal bacteria. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 2009;295(1):30-41. View abstract.

Ishii, K., Furuta, T., and Kasuya, Y. Determination of naringin and naringenin in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography utilizing solid-phase extraction. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 12-19-1997;704(1-2):299-305. View abstract.

Itoh, K., Masuda, M., Naruto, S., Murata, K., and Matsuda, H. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice. J.Nat.Med. 2009;63(4):443-450. View abstract.

Jantet, G. Chronic venous insufficiency: worldwide results of the RELIEF study. Reflux assEssment and quaLity of lIfe improvEment with micronized Flavonoids. Angiology 2002;53(3):245-256. View abstract.

Jean, T. and Bodinier, M. C. Mediators involved in inflammation: effects of Daflon 500 mg on their release. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):554-559. View abstract.

Jeong, Y. J., Choi, Y. J., Kwon, H. M., Kang, S. W., Park, H. S., Lee, M., and Kang, Y. H. Differential inhibition of oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells treated with different flavonoids. Br.J.Nutr. 2005;93(5):581-591. View abstract.

Jiang, Y., Shi, R., Liu, B., Wang, Q., and Dai, Y. [Studies on chemical components of Lobelia chinensis]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(3):294-297. View abstract.

Jin, Y. R., Han, X. H., Zhang, Y. H., Lee, J. J., Lim, Y., Chung, J. H., and Yun, Y. P. Antiplatelet activity of hesperetin, a bioflavonoid, is mainly mediated by inhibition of PLC-gamma2 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-1 activity. Atherosclerosis 2007;194(1):144-152. View abstract.

Jin, Y. R., Han, X. H., Zhang, Y. H., Lee, J. J., Lim, Y., Kim, T. J., Yoo, H. S., and Yun, Y. P. Hesperetin, a bioflavonoid, inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation by arresting cell cycle. J.Cell Biochem. 5-1-2008;104(1):1-14. View abstract.

Joubert, E., Manley, M., and Botha, M. Use of NIRS for quantification of mangiferin and hesperidin contents of dried green honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) plant material. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-26-2006;54(15):5279-5283. View abstract.

Jung, U. J., Lee, M. K., Jeong, K. S., and Choi, M. S. The hypoglycemic effects of hesperidin and naringin are partly mediated by hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J.Nutr. 2004;134(10):2499-2503. View abstract.

Jung, U. J., Lee, M. K., Park, Y. B., Kang, M. A., and Choi, M. S. Effect of citrus flavonoids on lipid metabolism and glucose-regulating enzyme mRNA levels in type-2 diabetic mice. Int.J.Biochem.Cell Biol. 2006;38(7):1134-1145. View abstract.

Juteau, N., Bakri, F., Pomies, J. P., Foulon, C., Rigaudy, P., Pillion, G., Lange, G., Genre, O., and Cron, J. P. The human saphenous vein in pharmacology: effect of a new micronized flavonoidic fraction (Daflon 500 mg) on norepinephrine induced contraction. Int Angiol. 1995;14(3 Suppl 1):8-13. View abstract.

Kalpana, K. B., Srinivasan, M., and Menon, V. P. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of hesperidin and its protective effect on H2O2 induced oxidative damage on pBR322 DNA and RBC cellular membrane. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2009;323(1-2):21-29. View abstract.

Kamaraj, S., Ramakrishnan, G., Anandakumar, P., Jagan, S., and Devaki, T. Antioxidant and anticancer efficacy of hesperidin in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. Invest New Drugs 2009;27(3):214-222. View abstract.

Kanaze, F. I., Bounartzi, M. I., Georgarakis, M., and Niopas, I. Pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavanone aglycones hesperetin and naringenin after single oral administration in human subjects. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;61(4):472-477. View abstract.

Kanaze, F. I., Kokkalou, E., Georgarakis, M., and Niopas, I. A validated solid-phase extraction HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of the citrus flavanone aglycones hesperetin and naringenin in urine. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 9-21-2004;36(1):175-181. View abstract.

Kanaze, F. I., Kokkalou, E., Georgarakis, M., and Niopas, I. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method utilizing solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of naringenin and hesperetin in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt.Technol Biomed Life Sci 3-5-2004;801(2):363-367. View abstract.

Kanaze, F. I., Termentzi, A., Gabrieli, C., Niopas, I., Georgarakis, M., and Kokkalou, E. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece-Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2009;23(3):239-249. View abstract.

Kaul, T. N., Middleton E Jr, and Ogra, P. L. Antiviral effect of flavonoids on human viruses. J.Med.Virol. 1985;15(1):71-79. View abstract.

Kaur, G., Tirkey, N., and Chopra, K. Beneficial effect of hesperidin on lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity. Toxicology 9-21-2006;226(2-3):152-160. View abstract.

Kawaguchi, K., Kikuchi, S., Hasunuma, R., Maruyama, H., Yoshikawa, T., and Kumazawa, Y. A citrus flavonoid hesperidin suppresses infection-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27(5):679-683. View abstract.

Kawaguchi, K., Maruyama, H., Kometani, T., and Kumazawa, Y. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by oral administration of the citrus flavonoid hesperidin. Planta Med. 2006;72(5):477-479. View abstract.

Kawaii, S., Tomono, Y., Katase, E., Ogawa, K., and Yano, M. HL-60 differentiating activity and flavonoid content of the readily extractable fraction prepared from citrus juices. J Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47(1):128-135. View abstract.

Kazlowska, K., Hsu, T., Hou, C. C., Yang, W. C., and Tsai, G. J. Anti-inflammatory properties of phenolic compounds and crude extract from Porphyra dentata. J.Ethnopharmacol. 3-2-2010;128(1):123-130. View abstract.

Keenoy, B., Vertommen, J., and De, Leeuw, I. The effect of flavonoid treatment on the glycation and antioxidant status in Type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Nutr Metab 1999;12(4):256-263. View abstract.

Kim, D. H., Jung, E. A., Sohng, I. S., Han, J. A., Kim, T. H., and Han, M. J. Intestinal bacterial metabolism of flavonoids and its relation to some biological activities. Arch Pharm.Res. 1998;21(1):17-23. View abstract.

Kim, J. Y., Jung, K. J., Choi, J. S., and Chung, H. Y. Modulation of the age-related nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway by hesperetin. Aging Cell 2006;5(5):401-411. View abstract.

Kim, M., Kometani, T., Okada, S., and Shimuzu, M. Permeation of hesperidin glycosides across Caco-2 cell monolayers via the paracellular pathway. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 1999;63(12):2183-2188. View abstract.

Kobayashi, S. and Tanabe, S. Evaluation of the anti-allergic activity of Citrus unshiu using rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells as well as basophils of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen. Int J Mol.Med 2006;17(3):511-515. View abstract.

Kobayashi, S., Tanabe, S., Sugiyama, M., and Konishi, Y. Transepithelial transport of hesperetin and hesperidin in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2008;1778(1):33-41. View abstract.

Kokotkiewicz, A., Wnuk, M., Bucinski, A., and Luczkiewicz, M. In vitro cultures of Cyclopia plants (honeybush) as a source of bioactive xanthones and flavanones. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2009;64(7-8):533-540. View abstract.

Kometani, T., Fukuda, T., Kakuma, T., Kawaguchi, K., Tamura, W., Kumazawa, Y., and Nagata, K. Effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin, a bioactive food material, on collagen-induced arthritis in mice and rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2008;30(1):117-134. View abstract.

Korthuis, R. J. and Gute, D. C. Adhesion molecule expression in postischemic microvascular dysfunction: activity of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction. J Vasc.Res 1999;36 Suppl 1:15-23. View abstract.

Koseki, T., Mese, Y., Nishibori, N., Masaki, K., Fujii, T., Handa, T., Yamane, Y., Shiono, Y., Murayama, T., and Iefuji, H. Characterization of an alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus kawachii and its gene. Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2008;80(6):1007-1013. View abstract.

Kroeze, J. H. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone is not a taste enhancer in aqueous sucrose solutions. Chem.Senses 2000;25(5):555-559. View abstract.

Kumar, P. and Kumar, A. Protective effect of hesperidin and naringin against 3-nitropropionic acid induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats: possible role of nitric oxide. Behav.Brain Res. 1-5-2010;206(1):38-46. View abstract.

La Torre, F., Nicolai, A. P., and Otti, M. [Hemorrhoids and conservative treatment. Review of the literature on the use of diosmin and micronized hesperidin]. Minerva Chir 1999;54(12):909-916. View abstract.

Larocca, L. M., Piantelli, M., Leone, G., Sica, S., Teofili, L., Panici, P. B., Scambia, G., Mancuso, S., Capelli, A., and Ranelletti, F. O. Type II oestrogen binding sites in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukaemias: growth inhibitory effect of oestrogen and flavonoids. Br J Haematol. 1990;75(4):489-495. View abstract.

Lascasas-Porto, C. L., Milhomens, A. L., Virgini-Magalhaes, C. E., Fernandes, F. F., Sicuro, F. L., and Bouskela, E. Use of microcirculatory parameters to evaluate clinical treatments of chronic venous disorder (CVD). Microvasc.Res. 2008;76(1):66-72. View abstract.

Launois, R. At the crossroads of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoidal disease: Daflon 500 mg--repercussions of venous insufficiency on everyday life. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):495-504. View abstract.

Lay, H. L., Chen, C. C., Huang, S. C., Cham, T. M., Wu, T. S., and Lin, I. H. Simultaneous analysis of nine components in patch preparations of Ru-Yi-Jin-Huang-San by high-performance liquid chromatography. J.Nat.Med. 2010;64(2):194-202. View abstract.

Lee, C. J., Wilson, L., Jordan, M. A., Nguyen, V., Tang, J., and Smiyun, G. Hesperidin suppressed proliferations of both human breast cancer and androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Phytother.Res. 2010;24 Suppl 1:S15-S19. View abstract.

Lee, K. H., Yeh, M. H., Kao, S. T., Hung, C. M., Liu, C. J., Huang, Y. Y., and Yeh, C. C. The inhibitory effect of hesperidin on tumor cell invasiveness occurs via suppression of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Toxicol.Lett. 4-15-2010;194(1-2):42-49. View abstract.

Lee, N. K., Choi, S. H., Park, S. H., Park, E. K., and Kim, D. H. Antiallergic activity of hesperidin is activated by intestinal microflora. Pharmacology 2004;71(4):174-180. View abstract.

Lee, S., Khoo, C. S., Pearson, J. L., Hennell, J. R., and Bensoussan, A. Liquid chromatographic determination of narirutin and hesperidin in Zhi Ke (Citrus aurantium L.) in the form of the raw herb and of the dried aqueous extract. J.AOAC Int. 2009;92(3):789-796. View abstract.

Lewin, G., Maciuk, A., Thoret, S., Aubert, G., Dubois, J., and Cresteil, T. Semisynthesis of natural flavones inhibiting tubulin polymerization, from hesperidin. J.Nat.Prod. 4-23-2010;73(4):702-706. View abstract.

Li, K., Yuan, J., and Su, W. Determination of liquiritin, naringin, hesperidin, thymol, imperatorin, honokiol, isoimperatorin, and magnolol in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huoxiang-zhengqi liquid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126(11):1185-1190. View abstract.

Li, R., Cai, L., Xie, X. F., Yang, F., and Li, J. Hesperidin suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats by inhibiting synoviocyte activity. Phytother.Res. 2010;24 Suppl 1:S71-S76. View abstract.

Li, R., Li, J., Cai, L., Hu, C. M., and Zhang, L. Suppression of adjuvant arthritis by hesperidin in rats and its mechanisms. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2008;60(2):221-228. View abstract.

Li, Y. M., Li, X. M., Li, G. M., Du, W. C., Zhang, J., Li, W. X., Xu, J., Hu, M., and Zhu, Z. In vivo pharmacokinetics of hesperidin are affected by treatment with glucosidase-like BglA protein isolated from yeasts. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56(14):5550-5557. View abstract.

Limasset, B., le Doucen, C., Dore, J. C., Ojasoo, T., Damon, M., and Crastes, de Paulet. Effects of flavonoids on the release of reactive oxygen species by stimulated human neutrophils. Multivariate analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR). Biochem.Pharmacol 10-5-1993;46(7):1257-1271. View abstract.

Liu, L., Xu, D. M., and Cheng, Y. Y. Distinct effects of naringenin and hesperetin on nitric oxide production from endothelial cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 2-13-2008;56(3):824-829. View abstract.

Liu, R., Meng, F., Liu, Y., Bai, H., and Liu, B. W. [Inhibitory effect of Isorhamnetin and Hesperidin on LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2007;30(6):677-681. View abstract.

Liu, R., Zhang, J., Liang, M., Zhang, W., Yan, S., and Lin, M. Simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet by HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV. J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 2-19-2007;43(3):1007-1012. View abstract.

Liu, Y., Li, Y., Liu, S., Li, J., and Yao, S. Monitoring the self-assembly of chitosan/glutaraldehyde/cysteamine/Au-colloid and the binding of human serum albumin with hesperidin. Biomaterials 2004;25(26):5725-5733. View abstract.

Liu, Z. L., Song, Z. Q., and Zhang, L. Comparison of main chemical components in prescription granules and decoction of Fructus aurantii immaturus. Journal of China Pharmacy (China) 2007;18:438-440.

Loscalzo, L. M., Wasowski, C., Paladini, A. C., and Marder, M. Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 2-12-2008;580(3):306-313. View abstract.

Lu, Y., Zhang, C., Bucheli, P., and Wei, D. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr 2006;61(2):57-65. View abstract.

Ly, A. and Drewnowski, A. PROP (6-n-Propylthiouracil) tasting and sensory responses to caffeine,sucrose, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and chocolate. Chem.Senses 2001;26(1):41-47. View abstract.

Lyseng-Williamson, K. A. and Perry, C. M. Micronised purified flavonoid fraction: a review of its use in chronic venous insufficiency, venous ulcers and haemorrhoids. Drugs 2003;63(1):71-100. View abstract.

Ma, Y., Ye, X., Hao, Y., Xu, G., Xu, G., and Liu, D. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of hesperidin from Penggan (Citrus reticulata) peel. Ultrason.Sonochem. 2008;15(3):227-232. View abstract.

Maiti, K., Mukherjee, K., Murugan, V., Saha, B. P., and Mukherjee, P. K. Exploring the effect of Hesperetin-HSPC complex--a novel drug delivery system on the in vitro release, therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics. AAPS.PharmSciTech. 2009;10(3):943-950. View abstract.

Majumdar, S. and Srirangam, R. Solubility, stability, physicochemical characteristics and in vitro ocular tissue permeability of hesperidin: a natural bioflavonoid. Pharm.Res. 2009;26(5):1217-1225. View abstract.

Manach, C., Morand, C., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Bouteloup-Demange, C., and Remesy, C. Bioavailability in humans of the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin after the ingestion of two doses of orange juice. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;57(2):235-242. View abstract.

Mandalari, G., Bennett, R. N., Bisignano, G., Trombetta, D., Saija, A., Faulds, C. B., Gasson, M. J., and Narbad, A. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry. J.Appl.Microbiol. 2007;103(6):2056-2064. View abstract.

Markaryan, A. A. A new method for express analysis of flavonoid fraction in nephrophite plant extract and prediction of its antioxidant effects. Bull.Exp.Biol.Med. 2006;141(6):763-764. View abstract.

Marshall, M. [Varicose vein drugs--new attempts at objectivation of the effects of therapy]. Fortschr Med 8-16-1984;102(29-30):772-774. View abstract.

Martinez, M. C., Fernandez, S. P., Loscalzo, L. M., Wasowski, C., Paladini, A. C., Marder, M., Medina, J. H., and Viola, H. Hesperidin, a flavonoid glycoside with sedative effect, decreases brain pERK1/2 levels in mice. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2009;92(2):291-296. View abstract.

McKay, D. L. and Blumberg, J. B. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother.Res 2006;20(8):619-633. View abstract.

Menyhei, G., Acsady, G., Hetenyi, A., and et al. Chronobiology and clinical activity of Daflon 500 mg in chronic venous insufficiency. Phlebology. 1994;9(1):53-59.

Meyer, O. C. Safety and security of Daflon 500 mg in venous insufficiency and in hemorrhoidal disease. Angiology 1994;45(6 Pt 2):579-584. View abstract.

Mishra, P. R., Al, Shaal L., Muller, R. H., and Keck, C. M. Production and characterization of Hesperetin nanosuspensions for dermal delivery. Int.J.Pharm. 4-17-2009;371(1-2):182-189. View abstract.

Miwa, Y., Mitsuzumi, H., Sunayama, T., Yamada, M., Okada, K., Kubota, M., Chaen, H., Mishima, Y., and Kibata, M. Glucosyl hesperidin lowers serum triglyceride level in hypertriglyceridemic subjects through the improvement of very low-density lipoprotein metabolic abnormality. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2005;51(6):460-470. View abstract.

Miwa, Y., Mitsuzumi, H., Yamada, M., Arai, N., Tanabe, F., Okada, K., Kubota, M., Chaen, H., Sunayama, T., and Kibata, M. Suppression of apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells by glucosyl hesperidin. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2006;52(3):223-231. View abstract.

Miwa, Y., Yamada, M., Sunayama, T., Mitsuzumi, H., Tsuzaki, Y., Chaen, H., Mishima, Y., and Kibata, M. Effects of glucosyl hesperidin on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects: preferential reduction in elevated serum triglyceride level. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2004;50(3):211-218. View abstract.

Miyauchi, K., Zhu, X., Foong, C., Hosoya, H., and Murata-Hori, M. Aurora B kinase activity is required to prevent polar cortical ingression during cytokinesis. Cell Cycle 10-15-2007;6(20):2549-2553. View abstract.

Mlakar, B. and Kosorok, P. Flavonoids to reduce bleeding and pain after stapled hemorrhoidopexy: a randomized controlled trial. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 2005;117(15-16):558-560. View abstract.

Morikawa, K., Nonaka, M., Mochizuki, H., Handa, K., Hanada, H., and Hirota, K. Naringenin and hesperetin induce growth arrest, apoptosis, and cytoplasmic fat deposit in human preadipocytes. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-26-2008;56(22):11030-11037. View abstract.

Morin, B., Nichols, L. A., Zalasky, K. M., Davis, J. W., Manthey, J. A., and Holland, L. J. The citrus flavonoids hesperetin and nobiletin differentially regulate low density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription in HepG2 liver cells. J.Nutr. 2008;138(7):1274-1281. View abstract.

Mucsi, I. and Pragai, B. M. Inhibition of virus multiplication and alteration of cyclic AMP level in cell cultures by flavonoids. Experientia 7-15-1985;41(7):930-931. View abstract.

Nguyen, T. D. and Canada, A. T. Citrus flavonoids stimulate secretion by human colonic T84 cells. J Nutr 1993;123(2):259-268. View abstract.

Nicolaides, A. N. From symptoms to leg edema: efficacy of Daflon 500 mg. Angiology 2003;54 Suppl 1:S33-S44. View abstract.

Nielsen, I. L., Chee, W. S., Poulsen, L., Offord-Cavin, E., Rasmussen, S. E., Frederiksen, H., Enslen, M., Barron, D., Horcajada, M. N., and Williamson, G. Bioavailability is improved by enzymatic modification of the citrus flavonoid hesperidin in humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. J Nutr 2006;136(2):404-408. View abstract.

Nizamutdinova, I. T., Jeong, J. J., Xu, G. H., Lee, S. H., Kang, S. S., Kim, Y. S., Chang, K. C., and Kim, H. J. Hesperidin, hesperidin methyl chalone and phellopterin from Poncirus trifoliata (Rutaceae) differentially regulate the expression of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2008;8(5):670-678. View abstract.

Ou, S. [Pharmacological action of hesperidin]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2002;25(7):531-533. View abstract.

Park, H. J., Kim, M. J., Ha, E., and Chung, J. H. Apoptotic effect of hesperidin through caspase3 activation in human colon cancer cells, SNU-C4. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1-2):147-151. View abstract.

Patil, J. R., Chidambara Murthy, K. N., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Chetti, M. B., and Patil, B. S. Bioactive compounds from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) juice induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57(22):10933-10942. View abstract.

Paysant, J., Sansilvestri-Morel, P., Bouskela, E., and Verbeuren, T. J. Different flavonoids present in the micronized purified flavonoid fraction (Daflon 500 mg) contribute to its anti-hyperpermeability effect in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Int.Angiol. 2008;27(1):81-85. View abstract.

Piantelli, M., Rinelli, A., Macri, E., Maggiano, N., Larocca, L. M., Scerrati, M., Roselli, R., Iacoangeli, M., Scambia, G., Capelli, A., and . Type II estrogen binding sites and antiproliferative activity of quercetin in human meningiomas. Cancer 1-1-1993;71(1):193-198. View abstract.

Pokrovsky, A. V., Saveljev, V. S., Kirienko, A. I., Bogachev, V. Y., Zolotukhin, I. A., Sapelkin, S. V., Shvalb, P. G., Zhukov, B. N., Vozlubleny, S. I., Sabelnikov, V. V., Voskanian, Y. E., Katelnitsky, I. I., Burleva, E. P., and Tolstikhin, V. Y. Surgical correction of varicose vein disease under micronized diosmin protection (results of the Russian multicenter controlled trial DEFANS). Angiol.Sosud.Khir. 2007;13(2):47-55. View abstract.

Pollard, S. E., Whiteman, M., and Spencer, J. P. Modulation of peroxynitrite-induced fibroblast injury by hesperetin: a role for intracellular scavenging and modulation of ERK signalling. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 9-8-2006;347(4):916-923. View abstract.

Pradeep, K., Park, S. H., and Ko, K. C. Hesperidin a flavanoglycone protects against gamma-irradiation induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 6-10-2008;587(1-3):273-280. View abstract.

Proteggente, A. R., Basu-Modak, S., Kuhnle, G., Gordon, M. J., Youdim, K., Tyrrell, R., and Rice-Evans, C. A. Hesperetin glucuronide, a photoprotective agent arising from flavonoid metabolism in human skin fibroblasts. Photochem.Photobiol. 2003;78(3):256-261. View abstract.

Ramelet, A. A. Clinical benefits of Daflon 500 mg in the most severe stages of chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 2001;52 Suppl 1:S49-S56. View abstract.

Rao, Y. K., Fang, S. H., and Tzeng, Y. M. Antiinflammatory activities of flavonoids and a triterpene caffeate isolated from Bauhinia variegata. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(7):957-962. View abstract.

Rapavi, E., Szentmihalyi, K., Feher, E., Lugasi, A., Szekely, E., Kurucz, T., Pallai, Z., and Blazovics, A. Effects of citrus flavonoids on redox homeostasis of toxin-injured liver in rat. Acta Biol.Hung. 2006;57(4):415-422. View abstract.

Ross, J. A. and Kasum, C. M. Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr 2002;22:19-34. View abstract.

Ross, S. A., Ziska, D. S., Zhao, K., and ElSohly, M. A. Variance of common flavonoids by brand of grapefruit juice. Fitoterapia 2000;71(2):154-161. View abstract.

Roumy, J., Herault, S., Tobal, N., Besnard, S., and Arbeille, P. Effect of a venotonic agent on the main arteries and veins during a 5 day HDT. Acta Astronaut. 2001;49(3-10):161-166. View abstract.

Rovensky, J., Svik, K., Rovenska, E., Stvrtinova, V., and Stancikova, M. Effects of purified micronized flavonoid fraction (Detralex) on prophylactic treatment of adjuvant arthritis with methotrexate in rats. Isr.Med.Assoc.J. 2008;10(5):377-380. View abstract.

Rudofsky, G. [Improving venous tone and capillary sealing. Effect of a combination of Ruscus extract and hesperidine methyl chalcone in healthy probands in heat stress]. Fortschr.Med 6-30-1989;107(19):52, 55-52, 58. View abstract.

Rudofsky, G. and Nobbe, F. [Effect of a drug combination on venous capacity]. Fortschr.Med. 7-1-1982;100(25):1217-1220. View abstract.

Saha, R. K., Takahashi, T., and Suzuki, T. Glucosyl hesperidin prevents influenza a virus replication in vitro by inhibition of viral sialidase. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2009;32(7):1188-1192. View abstract.

Sakata, K., Hirose, Y., Qiao, Z., Tanaka, T., and Mori, H. Inhibition of inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase by flavonoid hesperidin in mouse macrophage cell line. Cancer Lett. 9-25-2003;199(2):139-145. View abstract.

Sansone, F., Rossi, A., Del, Gaudio P., De, Simone F., Aquino, R. P., and Lauro, M. R. Hesperidin gastroresistant microparticles by spray-drying: preparation, characterization, and dissolution profiles. AAPS.PharmSciTech. 2009;10(2):391-401. View abstract.

Santus, R., Perdrix, L., Haigle, J., Morliere, P., Maziere, J. C., Maziere, C., and Labrid, C. Daflon as a cellular antioxidant and a membrane-stabilizing agent in human fibroblasts irradiated by ultraviolet A radiation. Photodermatol.Photoimmunol.Photomed. 1991;8(5):200-205. View abstract.

Scambia, G., Ranelletti, F. O., Benedetti, Panici P., Bonanno, G., De Vincenzo, R., Piantelli, M., and Mancuso, S. Synergistic antiproliferative activity of quercetin and cisplatin on ovarian cancer cell growth. Anticancer Drugs 1990;1(1):45-48. View abstract.

Scambia, G., Ranelletti, F. O., Benedetti, Panici P., Piantelli, M., Rumi, C., Battaglia, F., Larocca, L. M., Capelli, A., and Mancuso, S. Type-II estrogen binding sites in a lymphoblastoid cell line and growth-inhibitory effect of estrogen, anti-estrogen and bioflavonoids. Int.J.Cancer 12-15-1990;46(6):1112-1116. View abstract.

Scambia, G., Ranelletti, F. O., Panici, P. B., Piantelli, M., Bonanno, G., De, Vincenzo R., Ferrandina, G., Rumi, C., Larocca, L. M., and Mancuso, S. Inhibitory effect of quercetin on OVCA 433 cells and presence of type II oestrogen binding sites in primary ovarian tumours and cultured cells. Br.J.Cancer 1990;62(6):942-946. View abstract.

Scholz, E. P., Zitron, E., Kiesecker, C., Thomas, D., Kathofer, S., Kreuzer, J., Bauer, A., Katus, H. A., Remppis, A., Karle, C. A., and Greten, J. Orange flavonoid hesperetin modulates cardiac hERG potassium channel via binding to amino acid F656. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2007;17(9):666-675. View abstract.

Sgro, C., Taque, R., Zoll, A., and Hillon, P. Cytolytic hepatitis with a venotonic drug. J.Hepatol. 1995;22(2):251. View abstract.

Shen, J., Nakamura, H., Fujisaki, Y., Tanida, M., Horii, Y., Fuyuki, R., Takumi, H., Shiraishi, K., Kometani, T., and Nagai, K. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature. Neurosci.Lett. 9-11-2009;461(1):30-35. View abstract.

Si-Ahmed, K., Tazerouti, F., Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, A. Y., Aturki, Z., D'Orazio, G., Rocco, A., and Fanali, S. Analysis of hesperetin enantiomers in human urine after ingestion of blood orange juice by using nano-liquid chromatography. J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1-5-2010;51(1):225-229. View abstract.

Si-Ahmed, K., Tazerouti, F., Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, A. Y., Aturki, Z., D'Orazio, G., Rocco, A., and Fanali, S. Optical isomer separation of flavanones and flavanone glycosides by nano-liquid chromatography using a phenyl-carbamate-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase. J.Chromatogr.A 2-12-2010;1217(7):1175-1182. View abstract.

Silberberg, M., Morand, C., Mathevon, T., Besson, C., Manach, C., Scalbert, A., and Remesy, C. The bioavailability of polyphenols is highly governed by the capacity of the intestine and of the liver to secrete conjugated metabolites. Eur.J.Nutr. 2006;45(2):88-96. View abstract.

Smith, P. D. Neutrophil activation and mediators of inflammation in chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc.Res 1999;36 Suppl 1:24-36. View abstract.

So, F. V., Guthrie, N., Chambers, A. F., Moussa, M., and Carroll, K. K. Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr.Cancer 1996;26(2):167-181. View abstract.

Srirangam, R. and Majumdar, S. Passive asymmetric transport of hesperetin across isolated rabbit cornea. Int.J.Pharm. 7-15-2010;394(1-2):60-67. View abstract.

Struckmann, J. R. and Nicolaides, A. N. Flavonoids. A review of the pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and related disorders. Angiology 1994;45(6):419-428. View abstract.

Struckmann, J. R. Clinical efficacy of micronized purified flavonoid fraction: an overview. J Vasc.Res 1999;36 Suppl 1:37-41. View abstract.

Takase, S., Pascarella, L., Lerond, L., Bergan, J. J., and Schmid-Schonbein, G. W. Venous hypertension, inflammation and valve remodeling. Eur.J.Vasc.Endovasc.Surg. 2004;28(5):484-493. View abstract.

Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Kawabata, K., Mori, H., Kakumoto, M., Satoh, K., Hara, A., Sumida, T., Fukutani, K., Tanaka, T., and Ogawa, H. Modulation of N-methyl-N-amylnitrosamine-induced rat oesophageal tumourigenesis by dietary feeding of diosmin and hesperidin, both alone and in combination. Carcinogenesis 1997;18(4):761-769. View abstract.

Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Kawabata, K., Mori, H., Kakumoto, M., Satoh, K., Hara, A., Sumida, T., Tanaka, T., and Ogawa, H. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring flavonoids, diosmin and hesperidin. Carcinogenesis 1997;18(5):957-965. View abstract.

Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Ohnishi, M., Hirose, Y., Wang, A., Mori, H., Satoh, K., Hara, A., and Ogawa, H. Chemoprevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin and hesperidin: comparison with the protective effect of beta-carotene. Cancer Res 9-1-1994;54(17):4653-4659. View abstract.

Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Ohnishi, M., Mori, H., Satoh, K., Hara, A., Sumida, T., Fukutani, K., Tanaka, T., and Ogawa, H. Chemoprevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats by flavonoids diosmin and hesperidin, each alone and in combination. Cancer Res. 1-15-1997;57(2):246-252. View abstract.

Tarun, E. I., Kurchenko, V. P., and Metelitsa, D. I. [Flavonoids as effective protectors of urease from ultrasonic inactivation in solutions]. Bioorg.Khim. 2006;32(4):391-398. View abstract.

Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., Kuhad, A., and Chopra, K. Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, decreases the oxidative stress produced by carbon tetrachloride in rat liver and kidney. BMC.Pharmacol. 1-31-2005;5:2. View abstract.

Trzeciakiewicz, A., Habauzit, V., Mercier, S., Barron, D., Urpi-Sarda, M., Manach, C., Offord, E., and Horcajada, M. N. Molecular mechanism of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, the main circulating metabolite of hesperidin, involved in osteoblast differentiation. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1-13-2010;58(1):668-675. View abstract.

Trzeciakiewicz, A., Habauzit, V., Mercier, S., Lebecque, P., Davicco, M. J., Coxam, V., Demigne, C., and Horcajada, M. N. Hesperetin stimulates differentiation of primary rat osteoblasts involving the BMP signalling pathway. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2010;21(5):424-431. View abstract.

Tsai, Y. H., Lee, K. F., Huang, Y. B., Huang, C. T., and Wu, P. C. In vitro permeation and in vivo whitening effect of topical hesperetin microemulsion delivery system. Int.J.Pharm. 3-30-2010;388(1-2):257-262. View abstract.

Uehara, M. [Prevention of osteoporosis by foods and dietary supplements. Hesperidin and bone metabolism]. Clin.Calcium 2006;16(10):1669-1676. View abstract.

Vallejo, F., Larrosa, M., Escudero, E., Zafrilla, M. P., Cerda, B., Boza, J., Garcia-Conesa, M. T., Espin, J. C., and Tomas-Barberan, F. A. Concentration and solubility of flavanones in orange beverages affect their bioavailability in humans. J.Agric.Food Chem. 5-26-2010;58(10):6516-6524. View abstract.

Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernandez-Lopez, J., and Perez-Alvarez, J. A. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella. Meat.Sci. 2010;85(3):568-576. View abstract.

Wacker, A. and Eilmes, H. G. [Antiviral activity of plant components. 1st communication: Flavonoids (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung 1978;28(3):347-350. View abstract.

Wang, C. Y., Zhang, W. M., Zhang, D. S., An, F., and Tian, J. M. [Study on the optimal extraction process of chaihushugan powder]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2009;32(11):1746-1748. View abstract.

Wang, C., Pan, Y., Fan, G., Chai, Y., and Wu, Y. Application of an efficient strategy based on MAE, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and HSCCC for the rapid extraction, identification, separation and purification of flavonoids from Fructus Aurantii Immaturus. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2010;24(3):235-244. View abstract.

Wang, W., Xu, X., Bin, Q., Ling, J., and Chen, G. A new method for fabrication of an integrated indium tin oxide electrode on electrophoresis microchips with amperometric detection and its application for determination of synephrine and hesperidin in pericarpium citri reticulatae. Electrophoresis 2006;27(21):4174-4181. View abstract.

Wilcox, L. J., Borradaile, N. M., de Dreu, L. E., and Huff, M. W. Secretion of hepatocyte apoB is inhibited by the flavonoids, naringenin and hesperetin, via reduced activity and expression of ACAT2 and MTP. J.Lipid Res. 2001;42(5):725-734. View abstract.

Xia, J., Kotani, A., Hakamata, H., and Kusu, F. Determination of hesperidin in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae by semi-micro HPLC with electrochemical detection. J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 6-16-2006;41(4):1401-1405. View abstract.

Xiaoting, L., Xiangyun, Z., Shumei, L., Minghua, D., and Liang, X. Effect of hesperidin on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelial cells. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 2010;664:193-201. View abstract.

Xie, M. X., Xu, X. Y., and Wang, Y. D. Interaction between hesperetin and human serum albumin revealed by spectroscopic methods. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 6-20-2005;1724(1-2):215-224. View abstract.

Xu, F., Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., Yang, C., and Tian, Y. Quasi-MSn identification of flavanone 7-glycoside isomers in Da Chengqi Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chin Med. 2009;4:15. View abstract.

Yamada, M., Tanabe, F., Arai, N., Mitsuzumi, H., Miwa, Y., Kubota, M., Chaen, H., and Kibata, M. Bioavailability of glucosyl hesperidin in rats. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2006;70(6):1386-1394. View abstract.

Yamamoto, M., Suzuki, A., Jokura, H., Yamamoto, N., and Hase, T. Glucosyl hesperidin prevents endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nutrition 2008;24(5):470-476. View abstract.

Yanez, J. A., Remsberg, C. M., Miranda, N. D., Vega-Villa, K. R., Andrews, P. K., and Davies, N. M. Pharmacokinetics of selected chiral flavonoids: hesperetin, naringenin and eriodictyol in rats and their content in fruit juices. Biopharm.Drug Dispos. 2008;29(2):63-82. View abstract.

Yang, M., Tanaka, T., Hirose, Y., Deguchi, T., Mori, H., and Kawada, Y. Chemopreventive effects of diosmin and hesperidin on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary-bladder carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. Int.J.Cancer 11-27-1997;73(5):719-724. View abstract.

Yang, Q. S., Zhang, J. J, and Zhao, X. H. Determination of hesperidin and arctii in Xiaoer Jindan Pian by HPLC. Chinese Journal of New Drugs 2008;17:60-62.

Yang, Z. J., Zheng, Y. N., and Xiang, L. [Study on chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2007;30(10):1248-1250. View abstract.

Yeh, C. C., Kao, S. J., Lin, C. C., Wang, S. D., Liu, C. J., and Kao, S. T. The immunomodulation of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by hesperidin in vivo and in vitro. Life Sci. 4-24-2007;80(20):1821-1831. View abstract.

Yen, G. C., Duh, P. D., Tsai, H. L., and Huang, S. L. Pro-oxidative properties of flavonoids in human lymphocytes. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2003;67(6):1215-1222. View abstract.

Yoo, K. M., Hwang, I. K., Park, J. H., and Moon, B. Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress. J.Food Sci. 2009;74(6):C462-C468. View abstract.

Yoo, S. W., Kim, J. S., Kang, S. S., Son, K. H., Chang, H. W., Kim, H. P., Bae, K., and Lee, C. O. Constituents of the fruits and leaves of Euodia daniellii. Arch Pharm Res 2002;25(6):824-830. View abstract.

Yoshida, H., Takamura, N., Shuto, T., Ogata, K., Tokunaga, J., Kawai, K., and Kai, H. The citrus flavonoids hesperetin and naringenin block the lipolytic actions of TNF-alpha in mouse adipocytes. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 4-9-2010;394(3):728-732. View abstract.

Zhang, H., Chen, S., Qin, F., Huang, X., Ren, P., and Gu, X. Simultaneous determination of 12 chemical constituents in the traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Xiao-Yao-San-Jia-Wei by HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 12-15-2008;48(5):1462-1466. View abstract.

Zheng, G., Yang, D., Wang, D., Zhou, F., Yang, X., and Jiang, L. Simultaneous determination of five bioactive flavonoids in pericarpium Citri reticulatae from china by high-performance liquid chromatography with dual wavelength detection. J.Agric.Food Chem. 8-12-2009;57(15):6552-6557. View abstract.

Zheng, Q., Hirose, Y., Yoshimi, N., Murakami, A., Koshimizu, K., Ohigashi, H., Sakata, K., Matsumoto, Y., Sayama, Y., and Mori, H. Further investigation of the modifying effect of various chemopreventive agents on apoptosis and cell proliferation in human colon cancer cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002;128(10):539-546. View abstract.

Zhou, D. Y., Xu, Q., Xue, X. Y., Zhang, F. F., Jing, Y., and Liang, X. M. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analyses of flavanone aglycones in Fructus aurantii by HPLC ion-trap MS. J.Sep.Sci. 2007;30(6):858-867. View abstract.

Zhou, X., Sun, S. Q., and Huang, Q. H. [Identification of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae from different years using FTIR]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2008;28(1):72-74. View abstract.

Zielinska-Przyjemska, M. and Ignatowicz, E. Citrus fruit flavonoids influence on neutrophil apoptosis and oxidative metabolism. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(12):1557-1562. View abstract.

Beltramino R, Penenory A, Buceta AM. An open-label, randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of Cyclo 3 Fort versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Angiology 2000;51:535-44.. View abstract.

Cappelli R, Nicora M, Di Perri T. Use of extract of Ruscus aculeatus in venous disease in the lower limbs. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1988;14:277-83. View abstract.

Cho, YA, Choi, DH, and Choi, JS. Effect of hesperidin on the oral pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(6):825-829. View abstract.

Cospite M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of clinical activity and safety of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. Angiology 1994;45:566-73. View abstract.

Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:491-9. View abstract.

Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F. Flavonoids: Old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs. Life Sci 1999;65:337-53. View abstract.

Erlund I, Meririnne E, Alfthan G, Aro A. Plasma kinetics and urinary excretion of the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin in humans after ingestion of orange juice and grapefruit juice. J Nutr 2001;131:235-41. View abstract.

Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology 1997;48:77-85.. View abstract.

Ho Y, Tan M, Seow-Choen F. Micronized purified flavonidic fraction compared favorably with rubber band ligation and fiber alone in the management of bleeding hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:66-9. View abstract.

Koyuncu H, Berkarda B, Baykut F, et al. Preventive effect of hesperidin against inflammation in CD-1 mouse skin caused by tumor promoter. Anticancer Res 1999;19:3237-41.

Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, et al. HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1095-100. View abstract.

Middleton E. Some biological properties of plant flavonoids. Ann Allergy 1988;61:53-7. View abstract.

Misra MC, Parshad R. Randomized clinical trial of micronized flavonoids in the early control of bleeding from acute internal haemorrhoids. Br J Surgery 2000;87:868-72. View abstract.

Pecking AP, Fevrier B, Wargon C, Pillion G. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of lymphedema (secondary to conventional therapy of breast cancer). Angiology 1997;48:93-8.. View abstract.

Piao, YJ and Choi, JS. Enhanced bioavailability of verapamil after oral administration with hesperidin in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31(4):518-522. View abstract.

Rizk, S. M and Sabri, N. A. Evaluation of Clinical Activity and Safety of Dalfon® 500mg in Type 2 Diabetic Femal Patients. Saudi Pharmacetical Journal 3-17-2009;199-209.

Uesawa, Y. and Mohri, K. Hesperidin in orange juice reduces the absorption of celiprolol in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2008;29(3):185-188. View abstract.

Vinson, J. A., Liang, X., Proch, J., Hontz, B. A., Dancel, J., and Sandone, N. Polyphenol antioxidants in citrus juices: in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;505:113-122. View abstract.

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors