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What Are Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
Many people with HIV do not know they are infected. In the United States, it is likely that 14% of HIV-positive individuals are unaware of their infection. HIV infection progresses in three very general stages.
Stage 1: Acute HIV Infection
Many people do not develop symptoms or signs at all after they are infected with HIV. Others will have signs and symptoms in the first two to four weeks after HIV infection, referred to as primary or acute HIV infection.
These symptoms usually disappear within a few weeks.
Stage 2: Clinical Latency Stage (HIV Dormancy)
After acute infection, the virus appears to become dormant, and the person feels normal. This stage of HIV infection may last an average of eight to 10 years, but it can vary among individuals and strains of HIV. A recently identified aggressive HIV strain from Cuba has been found to progress to AIDS in as little as three years.
During the latent period, the virus continues to multiply actively. It infects and kills critical infection fighting cells, a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells or T helper cells (T cells). Even though the person has no symptoms, he or she is contagious and can pass HIV to others through the routes described above. At the end of this phase, as the virus overwhelms the CD4 cells, the HIV viral load starts to rise, and the CD4 cell count begins to drop. As this happens, the person may begin to have symptoms as the virus levels increase in the body. This is stage 3.
Stage 3: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
AIDS is the later stage of HIV infection, when the body is losing T cells and its ability to fight infections. Once the CD4 cell count falls low enough (under 500 cells/mL), an infected person is said to have AIDS or HIV disease. Sometimes, the diagnosis of AIDS is made because the person has unusual infections or cancers that signal how weak the immune system is.
The infections that occur with AIDS are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the opportunity to infect a weakened host. A person diagnosed with AIDS may need to be on antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent certain opportunistic infections from occurring. The infections include (but are not limited to) the following:
A weakened immune system can also lead to other unusual conditions:
Last Reviewed 8/31/2017
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