Doctor's Notes on Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism is the result of an overproduction of a hormone called parathyroid hormone (or PTH) from the parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium levels in the body. If calcium levels are low, parathyroid hormone levels increase. If calcium is high, PTH levels are reduced.
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are due to elevated calcium levels (hypercalcemia) so the symptoms are the same as those of hypercalcemia including high blood pressure (hypertension). Symptoms are often described as "moans, stones, groans, and bones." “Moans” symptoms refer to gastrointestinal conditions including abdominal pain, constipation, decreased appetite, nausea, and peptic ulcer disease. “Stones” symptoms refer to kidney-related conditions and include flank pain, frequent urination, and kidney stones. “Groans” symptoms refer to psychological conditions and include confusion, dementia, depression, and memory loss. “Bones” symptoms refer to bone pain and bone-related conditions including bone aches and pains, curving of the spine and loss of height, and fractures.
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Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.