Picture of HIV-associated Dementia (HAD)
HIV can cause damage to the central nervous system and affect one's ability to think and function on a daily basis. When HIV crosses the blood-brain barrier and negatively impacts the central nervous system and spinal cord, the condition is known as HIV-associated dementia or AIDS dementia complex (ADC). This is a MRI of a 40-year-old woman with HIV.
Thankfully, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated dementia occurs much less frequently today than in the past.
Text Reference: AIDS.gov: “HIV and the Brain”