Doctor's Notes on Insulin Resistance
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells found in the pancreas that has many actions within the body including those involved in metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids (fats), and proteins. When insulin resistance develops, tissues in the body – particularly muscle and fat tissues- do not respond appropriately to insulin and more insulin is needed to elicit the same response from these tissues. As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to continue to exert its physiologic effect.
Insulin resistance is associated with many medical conditions that can cause a wide variety of symptoms including metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, elevated cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, arteriosclerosis (which can cause coronary artery disease [angina and heart attack], strokes, and peripheral vascular disease), skin lesions, reproductive abnormalities in women, hyperandrogenism, and growth abnormalities.
Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ QuizQuestion
______________ is another term for type 2 diabetes.See Answer
Must Read Articles:
Heart DiseaseCoronary heart disease (CHD) is a group of different types of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease depend on the cause and inclue chest pain or angina, shortness of breath, palpitations, and dizziness. Many conditions causes heart disease, for example, genetics, obesity, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for heart disease depend on the cause and include diet and other lifestyle changes, medications, procedures, and surgery. The prognosis (outlook) and life span for someone with heart disease varies depending on the cause.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)High blood pressure (hypertension) may be present in an individual, without any symptoms. Thus, it is called the "silent killer." Causes of high blood pressure include heart disease, kidney disease, tumors, birth control, alcohol, thyroid dysfunction, and birth control pills.Treatment of high blood pressure is generally through diet, exercise, and medication if necessary.
High Cholesterol and ChildrenHigh cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease in adults, but some children may be at risk for premature coronary heart disease if they have high cholesterol levels. Lowering high cholesterol levels in children can be accomplished with diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
How to Lower CholesterolCholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is naturally present in the body. Diets high in fat, inactivity, and obesity contribute to high cholesterol. Some factors such as genetics are uncontrollable for having high cholesterol. You can lower your cholesterol levels naturally with lifestyle changes such as weight loss and control, exercise, diet, and quitting smoking. If these measures don't lower cholesterol enough a person may need to take cholesterol medications.
Metabolic SyndromeMetabolic syndrome refers to combination of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease that occur together, including: insulin resistance, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, and increased risk of blood clots. Causes include obesity, genetic factors, and smoking. Symptoms depend on factors present, but usually include large waistline. Treatment includes diet and exercise and medication.
ObesityMore than two-thirds of Americans are overweight, including at least one in five children. Nearly one-third are obese. Obesity is on the rise in our society because food is abundant and physical activity is optional. The safest way to lose weight is to eat less and exercise more. Treatment may also include medications, surgery, and behavior modification.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.