Is There a Substitute for Human Blood?: There is currently no substitute for human blood, despite more than 70 years of research. For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Most of the human blood substitute products in advanced-phase clinical trials are derivatives of hemoglobin and are called hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs).
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AnemiaAnemia can be caused by many conditions and diseases such as iron deficiency, poor diet and nutrition, cancers, bone marrow problems, and more. Symptoms of anemia depend upon the cause, and progression of the disease. Treatment depends upon the cause of anemia.
Wilderness: BleedingBleeding episodes can be minor, or major, depending on the trauma caused that creates the bleeding situation. Bleeding can lead to symptoms of: pale, cool, clammy skin; low blood pressure; lightheadedness, unconsciousness, and fast heart rate.
Internal BleedingInternal bleeding is serious and requires medical treatment. Internal bleeding causes include trauma, medications, or insufficient clotting factors. Signs of internal bleeding include such symptoms as pain, referred pain, change in stool color, blood in the urine, or change in vision, or change in mental function. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause.
Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)Thrombocytopenia or low blood platelets, is caused by impaired production of platelets, increased destruction or consumption of platelets, or splenic sequestration of platelets. These three categories are associated with specific diseases and conditions. The treatment of thrombocytopenia depends on the cause.