Doctor's Notes on Kidney Transplant Surgery Requirements, Recovery, and Survival Rate
Kidney failure so advanced it cannot be reversed is called end-stage renal disease (ERSD). The kidneys in end-stage renal disease no longer function adequately to keep a person alive. End-stage renal disease cannot be treated with drugs. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are the only treatments for this condition.
Early stages of renal failure may not be present, or they may be very mild. Symptoms of kidney failure tend to occur when the condition has become severe or critical. Kidney failure itself is not painful, although there may be pain from damage to other systems. Symptoms of kidney failure include fluid retention (this causes puffiness, swelling of arms and legs, and shortness of breath [due to fluid collection in the lungs, called pulmonary edema]), dehydration, urinating less than usual, urinary frequency or urgency, bleeding due to impaired clotting, easy bruising, fatigue, confusion, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite; pain in the muscles, joints, flanks, chest; bone pain or fractures, itching, and pale skin (from anemia).
Kidney Disease : Test Your Medical IQ QuizQuestion
The only purpose of the kidneys is to filter blood.See Answer
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.