Other Name(s):

2-Amino-5-(diaminomethylidene amino) pentanoic acid, 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic Acid, (2S)-2-Amino-5-{[amino (imino) methyl]amino}pentanoic Acid, (S)-2-Amino-5- Guanidinopentanoic Acid, Acide 2-Amino-5-Guanidinopentanoïque, Arg, Arginine, Arginine Ethyl Ester, Arginine Ethyl Ester Dihydrochloride, Arginine Ethyl Ester HCl, Arginine HCl, Arginine Hydrochloride, Di-Arginine Malate, Di-Arginine Orotate, Di-L-Arginine-L-Malate, Dl-Arginine, L-Arginina, L-Arginine Ethyl Ester Dichloride, L-Arginine HCl, L-Arginine Hexanoate, L-Arginine Hydrochloride, L-Arginine Ketoisocaproic Acid, L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Taurinate, Malate de Di-Arginine, Orotate de Di-Arginine, R-Gene 10.


L-arginine is a chemical building block called "an amino acid." It is obtained from the diet and is necessary for the body to make proteins. L-arginine is found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. It can also be made in a laboratory and used as medicine.

L-arginine is used for heart and blood vessel conditions including congestive heart failure (CHF), chest pain, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart surgery, recovery after heart transplant, heart attack, and coronary artery disease. L-arginine is also used for recurrent pain in the legs due to blocked arteries (intermittent claudication), decreased mental capacity in the elderly (senile dementia), erectile dysfunction (ED), altitude sickness, nitrate tolerance, diabetes, diabetic nerve pain, kidney toxicity from cyclosporine, kidney disease, tuberculosis, critical illness, head and neck cancer, obesity, ovary disease (polycystic ovary syndrome), pressure ulcers, respiratory infections, sickle cell disease, stress, and male infertility.

Some people use L-arginine for preventing the common cold, improving kidney function after a kidney transplant, high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), improving athletic performance, boosting the immune system, and preventing inflammation and tissue death of the digestive tract in premature infants (necrotizing enterocolitis) and preventing slowing of growth of the baby within the uterus.

L-arginine is used in combination with a number of over-the-counter and prescription medications for various conditions. For example, L-arginine is used along with ibuprofen for migraine headaches; with conventional chemotherapy drugs for treating breast cancer; with other amino acids for treating weight loss in people with AIDS; and with fish oil and other supplements for reducing infections, improving wound healing, and shortening recovery time after surgery.

Some people apply L-arginine to the skin to speed wound healing, healing of small rips of the anus, and for increasing blood flow to cold hands and feet, especially in people with diabetes. It is also used as a cream for sexual problems in both men and women. Arginine has also been used for dental caries and dental hypersensitivity.

Finally, arginine has been injected into the vein for recurrent pain in the legs due to blocked arteries (intermittent claudication), reduced blood flow to the limbs (peripheral artery disease), for detecting growth hormone deficiency, disease due to defective mitochondria (mitochondrial encephalomyopathies), chest pain due to gastric problems, restenosis, kidney transplant, nutrition for the critically ill, metabolic acidosis, and increased blood pressure in the artery of the lungs (pulmonary hypertension) in newborns.

How does it work?

L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved blood flow. L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body.

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Chest pain (angina). Taking L-arginine seems to decrease symptoms and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in people with angina. However, L-arginine does not seem to help widen the blood vessels that are narrowed in angina.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED). Taking 5 grams of L-arginine by mouth daily seems to improve sexual function in men with ED. Taking lower doses might not be effective. However, there is some early evidence that taking L-arginine with maritime pine bark extract and other ingredients, might improve the effectiveness of low-dose L-arginine for ED.
  • High blood pressure. There is early evidence that taking L-arginine by mouth can reduce blood pressure in healthy people, people with high blood pressure, and people with slightly high blood pressure with or without diabetes.
  • Inflammation and tissue death in the digestive tract in premature infants (necrotizing enterocolitis). Adding L-arginine to formula seems to prevent inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants. A total of 5 premature infants need to receive arginine to prevent one instance of digestive tract inflammation.
  • Nitrate tolerance. Taking L-arginine by mouth seems to prevent nitrate tolerance in people taking nitroglycerin for chest pain (angina pectoris).
  • Leg pain associated with poor blood flow (peripheral arterial disease). Research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) for up to 8 weeks increases blood flow in people with peripheral arterial disease. However, long-term use (up to 6 months) does not improve walking speed or distance in people with peripheral arterial disease.
  • Improving recovery after surgery. Taking L-arginine with ribonucleic acid (RNA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) before surgery or afterwards seems to help reduce the recovery time, reduce the number of infections, and improve wound healing after surgery.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Most research shows that L-arginine can reduce blood pressure in women with this condition. L-arginine might also prevent this condition in pregnant women.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Kidney disease. Most early research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) does not improve kidney function in most people with kidney failure or kidney disease. However, taking L-arginine by mouth might improve kidney function and reverse anemia in elderly people with kidney disease-associated anemia.
  • Heart attack. Taking L-arginine does not seem to help prevent a heart attack. It also does not seem to be beneficial for treating a heart attack after it has occurs. In fact, there is concern that L-arginine might be harmful for people after a recent heart attack. Do not take L-arginine if you have had a recent heart attack.
  • Tuberculosis. Adding arginine to standard treatment for tuberculosis does not seem to help improve symptoms or clear the infection.
  • Wound healing. Taking L-arginine does not seem to improve wound healing.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • AIDS-related wasting. Taking L-arginine by mouth, along with hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) and glutamine, for 8 weeks seems to increase body weight and improve immune function in people with HIV/AIDS. However, taking L-arginine by mouth, along with omega-3 fatty acids and a balanced nutritional supplement, for 6 months does not improve body weight or fat mass, energy intake, or immune function in people who are HIV-positive.
  • Altitude sickness. Early research suggests that L-arginine does not reduce altitude sickness.
  • Anal fissures. There is inconsistent evidence about that effects of L-arginine for treating anal fissures. Applying a topical gel containing L-arginine for at least 12 weeks might heal anal fissures in people who do not respond to traditional care. However, applying L-arginine to the skin does not seem to be better than surgery for anal fissures.
  • Breast cancer. Early research shows that taking L-arginine before chemotherapy does not improve the response rate in people with breast cancer.
  • Heart failure. Taking L-arginine by mouth, together with conventional treatment, seems to improve kidney function in people with heart failure. However, it might not improve the ability to exercise, quality of life, or blood circulation. L-arginine should not be used in place of conventional treatment.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. There is mixed evidence about the effects of L-arginine in protecting the heart during CABG. Some research suggests that giving L-arginine intravenously (by IV) may be helpful in people undergoing CABG. Other research shows that it does not help.
  • Clogged blood vessels (coronary artery disease). Early research suggests that taking L-arginine intravenously (by IV) before exercising can improve blood vessel function in people with coronary artery disease. However, it does not improve blood flow to the heart.
  • Critical illness (trauma). Research shows that taking L-arginine by mouth with glutamine, nucleotides, and omega-3 fatty acids reduces the recovery time, the need for help with breathing, and risk of infections in people who are critically ill. However, it does not reduce the risk of death.
  • Memory loss (dementia). Early research suggests that L-arginine might improve memory loss related to aging.
  • Cavities. Early research suggests that using a sugarless mint containing an arginine complex (CaviStat) for one year reduces the number of cavities in molars of children compared with sugarless mints that do not contain arginine.
  • Sensitive teeth. Early research suggests that using a toothpaste containing arginine, calcium, and fluoride reduces tooth sensitivity when used twice daily.
  • Diabetes. Taking L-arginine by mouth seems to improve blood sugar control in people with existing diabetes. However, it is unclear if arginine helps prevent people with pre-diabetes from developing diabetes.
  • Diabetic foot ulcers. Early research shows that applying L-arginine to the feet daily can improve circulation in people with diabetes, which might be helpful in preventing diabetic foot ulcers. However, if there is already an ulcer on the foot, injecting L-arginine under the skin near the ulcer does not seem to shorten healing time or lower the chance of needing an amputation in the future.
  • Nerve damage due to diabetes. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine daily for 3 months does not improve nerve damage related to diabetes.
  • Muscle problems in the esophagus. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth or as an infusion can reduces the number and intensity of chest pain attacks in people with chest pain that is not related to the heart.
  • Exercise performance. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of L-arginine on exercise performance. Some evidence shows that taking 6 grams of L-arginine in a drink increases exercise time until becoming tired. Also taking arginine with grape seed extract appears to improve working ability in men and decreases their tiredness. However, taking arginine 6 grams once does not affect strength during exercise.
  • Head and neck cancer. Supplementing a feeding tube with L-arginine does not seem to improve immune function, reduce tumor size, or improve healing in people with head and neck cancer.
  • Heart transplant. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth for 6 weeks increases walking distance and improves breathing in people with a heart transplant.
  • Infertility. There is inconsistent evidence about the effectiveness of L-arginine for infertility. Some early research suggests that taking 16 grams of L-arginine daily increases egg counts collected in women undergoing IVF. However, it does not seem to improve pregnancy rates. Other research suggests that taking L-arginine does not improve semen quality in men with unexplained infertility.
  • Bladder inflammation. Taking L-arginine by mouth seems to reduce pain and some symptoms of bladder inflammation, although improvements may take 3 months to occur. However, L-arginine does not seem to reduce the need to urinate at night or improve the frequency of urination.
  • Poor growth of fetus during pregnancy. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine during pregnancy can increase the birthweight of babies who show poor growth while still in their mother's womb. However, L-arginine does not seem to increase birthweight or reduce the risk of the baby dying if the baby has extremely poor growth while in the womb.
  • Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (a group of disorders that lead to muscle and nervous system problems). There is some interest in using L-arginine to improve symptoms associated with MELAS (myoclonic epilepsy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome. Early research suggests that administering L-arginine intravenously (by IV) within one hour of stroke-like symptoms improves headaches, nausea, vomiting, blindness, and the appearance of bright spots in people with this condition.
  • Migraine headache. Taking L-arginine by mouth along with the painkiller ibuprofen seems to be effective for treating migraine headache. This combination sometimes starts to work within 30 minutes. However, it is hard to know how much of the pain relief is due to L-arginine, since ibuprofen can relieve migraine pain on its own.
  • Obesity. Early research suggests that taking a specific arginine supplement (NOW Foods, Bloomingdale, IL) 3 grams three times daily may decrease waist size and weight in women (91193).
  • Ovarian disease (polycystic ovarian syndrome). Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl-cysteine and L-arginine daily for 6 months can improve menstrual function and reduces insulin resistance in people with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • Pressure ulcers. Taking L-arginine by mouth along with the painkiller ibuprofen seems to be effective for treating migraine headache. This combination sometimes starts to work within 30 minutes. However, it is hard to know how much of the pain relief is due to L-arginine, since ibuprofen can relieve migraine pain on its own.
  • Restricted blood flow (restenosis). Some research suggests that giving L-arginine during stent implantation followed by L-arginine supplementation by mouth for 2 weeks after stent implantation does not reduce the risk of restricted blood flow. However, other evidence suggests that administering L-arginine at the site of stent implantation may reduce artery wall thickening.
  • Kidney transplant. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of L-arginine for people with kidney transplants. It is unclear if it helps.
  • Respiratory infections. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth for 60 days prevents the recurrence of respiratory infections in children.
  • Sickle-cell disease. Early research suggests that taking L-arginine for 5 days might be useful for people with sickle cell disease who have high blood pressure in the lungs.
  • Stress. Some early research suggests that taking a combination of L-lysine and L-arginine for up to 10 days reduces stress and anxiety in healthy people and those prone to stress.
  • Prevention of the common cold.
  • Female sexual problems.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of L-arginine for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).


In the U.S., 1 in every 4 deaths is caused by heart disease. See Answer

Side Effects

L-arginine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken appropriately by mouth, administered as a shot, or applied to the skin, short-term. It can cause some side effects such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gout, blood abnormalities, allergies, airway inflammation, worsening of asthma, and low blood pressure.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: L-arginine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short-term during pregnancy. Not enough is known about using L-arginine long-term in pregnancy or during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: L-arginine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by mouth in premature infants in appropriate doses. However, L-arginine is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in high doses. Doses that are too high can cause serious side effects including death in children.

Allergies or asthma: L-arginine can cause an allergic response or make swelling in the airways worse. If you are prone to allergies or asthma and decide to take L-arginine, use it with caution.

Cirrhosis: L-arginine should be used with caution in people with cirrhosis.

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: People with this inherited condition are unable to convert arginine and other similar chemicals into creatine. To prevent complications associated with this condition, these people should not take arginine.

Herpes: There is a concern that L-arginine might make herpes worse. There is some evidence that L-arginine is needed for the herpes virus to multiply.

Low blood pressure: L-arginine might lower blood pressure. This could be a problem if you already have low blood pressure.

Recent heart attack: There is a concern that L-arginine might increase the risk of death after a heart attack, especially in older people. If you have had a heart attack recently, don't take L-arginine.

Kidney disease: L-arginine has caused high potassium levels when used by people with kidney disease. In some cases, this has resulted in a potentially life-threatening irregular heartbeat.

Surgery: L-arginine might affect blood pressure. There is a concern that it might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking L-arginine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.

L-arginine seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine seems to decrease blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking L-arginine along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with certain medications for high blood pressure, called ACE inhibitors might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Also, ACE inhibitors can increase potassium levels. L-arginine may also increase potassium levels. Taking L-arginine with ACE inhibitors might cause potassium levels to become too high.

Some ACE inhibitors include benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik).

Medications for high blood pressure (Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs))Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

The ARBs include losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartan (Atacand), telmisartan (Micardis), and eprosartan (Teveten).

Medications for high blood pressure (Isoproterenol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine seems to decrease blood pressure. Isoproterenol is a drug that is used to lower blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with isoproterenol might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Medications that increase blood flow to the heart (Nitrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine increases blood flow. Taking L-arginine with medications that increase blood flow to the heart might increase the chance of dizziness and lightheadedness.

Some of these medications that increase blood flow to the heart include nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid, Nitro-Dur, Nitrostat), and isosorbide (Imdur, Isordil, Sorbitrate).

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine seems to slow blood clotting. Taking L-arginine along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Sildenafil (Viagra)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sildenafil (Viagra) can lower blood pressure. L-arginine can also lower blood pressure. Taking sildenafil (Viagra) and L-arginine together might cause the blood pressure to go too low. Blood pressure that is too low can cause dizziness and other side effects.

Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

L-arginine might increase potassium levels in the body. Some "water pills" might also increase potassium in the body. In theory, taking L-arginine along with some "water pills" might cause too much potassium to be in the body. Some water pills include amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium).

Some "water pills" that increase potassium in the body include spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene (Dyrenium), and amiloride (Midamor).


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For chest pain associated with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris): 3-6 grams three times per day for up to one month.
  • For preventing the loss of the effectiveness of nitroglycerin in relieving pain in people with chest pain due to coronary artery disease (angina pectoris): 700 mg four times daily.
  • For organic erectile dysfunction (ED): 5 grams per day. Taking lower doses might not be effective.
  • For high blood pressure: 4-24 grams per day for 2-24 weeks.
  • For preventing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants: 261 mg/kg added to oral feedings daily for the first 28 days of life.
  • For reducing pain when walking in people with a disease called peripheral arterial disease: 6 grams for up to 8 weeks.
  • For preventing high blood pressure during pregnancy: 3 grams daily for 3 weeks. Two bars of a medical food (Heart Bars) with arginine 6.6 grams and antioxidant vitamins daily starting at 14-32 weeks gestation and continuing until delivery. 4 grams arginine (Bioarginina, Damor, Italy) daily for 10-12 weeks.
  • For reducing pain when walking in people with a disease called peripheral arterial disease: 6 grams for up to 8 weeks.


Abdelhamed, A. I., Reis, S. E., Sane, D. C., Brosnihan, K. B., Preli, R. B., and Herrington, D. M. No effect of an L-arginine-enriched medical food (HeartBars) on endothelial function and platelet aggregation in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am Heart J 2003;145(3):E15. View abstract.

Acevedo, A. M., Montero, M., Rojas-Sanchez, F., Machado, C., Rivera, L. E., Wolff, M., and Kleinberg, I. Clinical evaluation of the ability of CaviStat in a mint confection to inhibit the development of dental caries in children. J Clin.Dent. 2008;19(1):1-8. View abstract.

Adams, M. R., Forsyth, C. J., Jessup, W., Robinson, J., and Celermajer, D. S. Oral L-arginine inhibits platelet aggregation but does not enhance endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young men. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1995;26(4):1054-1061. View abstract.

Amin, H. J., Soraisham, A. S., and Sauve, R. S. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with l-arginine for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis. J Paediatr.Child Health 2009;45(4):219-223. View abstract.

Amore, A., Gianoglio, B., Ghigo, D., Peruzzi, L., Porcellini, M. G., Bussolino, F., Costamagna, C., Cacace, G., Picciotto, G., Mazzucco, G., and . A possible role for nitric oxide in modulating the functional cyclosporine toxicity by arginine. Kidney Int. 1995;47(6):1507-1514. View abstract.

Andoh, T. F., Gardner, M. P., and Bennett, W. M. Protective effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Transplantation 11-15-1997;64(9):1236-1240. View abstract.

Angdin, M., Settergren, G., Liska, J., and Astudillo, R. No effect of L-arginine supplementation on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 2001;45(4):441-448. View abstract.

Aoki, H., Nagao, J., Ueda, T., Strong, J. M., Schonlau, F., Yu-Jing, S., Lu, Y., and Horie, S. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol(R) and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother.Res. 2012;26(2):204-207. View abstract.

Assis, S. M., Monteiro, J. L., and Seguro, A. C. L-Arginine and allopurinol protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Transplantation 4-27-1997;63(8):1070-1073. View abstract.

Ast, J., Jablecka, A., Bogdanski, P., Smolarek, I., Krauss, H., and Chmara, E. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild hypertension assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Med.Sci.Monit. 2010;16(5):CR266-CR271. View abstract.

Ayad, F., Ayad, N., Delgado, E., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Cummins, D., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in Mississauga, Canada. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(4):115-122. View abstract.

Baecker, N., Boese, A., Schoenau, E., Gerzer, R., and Heer, M. L-arginine, the natural precursor of NO, is not effective for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner.Res 2005;20(3):471-479. View abstract.

Bai, Y., Sun, L., Yang, T., Sun, K., Chen, J., and Hui, R. Increase in fasting vascular endothelial function after short-term oral L-arginine is effective when baseline flow-mediated dilation is low: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(1):77-84. View abstract.

Bailey, S. J., Winyard, P. G., Vanhatalo, A., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., Wilkerson, D. P., and Jones, A. M. Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance. J Appl.Physiol 2010;109(5):1394-1403. View abstract.

Baligan, M., Giardina, A., Giovannini, G., Laghi, M. G., and Ambrosioni, G. [L-arginine and immunity. Study of pediatric subjects]. Minerva Pediatr 1997;49(11):537-542. View abstract.

Baris, N., Erdogan, M., Sezer, E., Saygili, F., Mert, Ozgonul A., Turgan, N., and Ersoz, B. Alterations in L-arginine and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. Acta Diabetol. 2009;46(4):309-316. View abstract.

Battaglia, C., Mancini, F., Battaglia, B., Facchinetti, F., Artini, P. G., and Venturoli, S. L-arginine plus drospirenone-ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of patients with PCOS: a prospective, placebo controlled, randomised, pilot study. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2010;26(12):861-868. View abstract.

Battaglia, C., Salvatori, M., Maxia, N., Petraglia, F., Facchinetti, F., and Volpe, A. Adjuvant L-arginine treatment for in-vitro fertilization in poor responder patients. Hum.Reprod. 1999;14(7):1690-1697. View abstract.

Beale, R. J., Bryg, D. J., and Bihari, D. J. Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical outcome. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(12):2799-2805. View abstract.

Bednarz, B., Wolk, R., Chamiec, T., Herbaczynska-Cedro, K., Winek, D., and Ceremuzynski, L. Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris. Int.J Cardiol 9-15-2000;75(2-3):205-210. View abstract.

Bello, E., Caramelo, C., Martell, N., Alcazar, J. M., Gonzalez, J., Lopez, M. D., Ruilope, L. M., Gonzalez, F. R., Rovira, A. M., Gazapo, R., Soldevilla, M. J., and Casado, S. Impairment of renal vasodilation with l-arginine is related to more severe disease in untreated hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001;38(4):907-912. View abstract.

Bennett-Richards, K. J., Kattenhorn, M., Donald, A. E., Oakley, G. R., Varghese, Z., Bruckdorfer, K. R., Deanfield, J. E., and Rees, L. Oral L-arginine does not improve endothelial dysfunction in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 2002;62(4):1372-1378. View abstract.

Berk, L., James, J., Schwartz, A., Hug, E., Mahadevan, A., Samuels, M., and Kachnic, L. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a beta-hydroxyl beta-methyl butyrate, glutamine, and arginine mixture for the treatment of cancer cachexia (RTOG 0122). Support.Care Cancer 2008;16(10):1179-1188. View abstract.

Bescos, R., Gonzalez-Haro, C., Pujol, P., Drobnic, F., Alonso, E., Santolaria, M. L., Ruiz, O., Esteve, M., and Galilea, P. Effects of dietary L-arginine intake on cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptation in athletes. Int.J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2009;19(4):355-365. View abstract.

Binder, I. and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 1: Background and basic principles]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39(3):205-214. View abstract.

Binder, I., Rossbach, G., and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 2: Treatment]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39(4):289-297. View abstract.

Bode-Boger, S. M., Boger, R. H., Alfke, H., Heinzel, D., Tsikas, D., Creutzig, A., Alexander, K., and Frolich, J. C. L-arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia. A randomized, controlled study. Circulation 1-1-1996;93(1):85-90. View abstract.

Bode-Boger, S. M., Boger, R. H., Creutzig, A., Tsikas, D., Gutzki, F. M., Alexander, K., and Frolich, J. C. L-arginine infusion decreases peripheral arterial resistance and inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1994;87(3):303-310. View abstract.

Bode-Boger, S. M., Muke, J., Surdacki, A., Brabant, G., Boger, R. H., and Frolich, J. C. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial function in healthy individuals older than 70 years. Vasc.Med. 2003;8(2):77-81. View abstract.

Boger, R. H., Sullivan, L. M., Schwedhelm, E., Wang, T. J., Maas, R., Benjamin, E. J., Schulze, F., Xanthakis, V., Benndorf, R. A., and Vasan, R. S. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and incidence of cardiovascular disease and death in the community. Circulation 3-31-2009;119(12):1592-1600. View abstract.

Bortolotti, M., Brunelli, F., Sarti, P., and Miglioli, M. Clinical and manometric effects of L-arginine in patients with chest pain and oesophageal motor disorders. Ital J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1997;29(4):320-324. View abstract.

Bracci, M., Tomasetti, M., Malavolta, M., Bonacucina, V., Mocchegiani, E., and Santarelli, L. L-arginine reduces mercury accumulation in thymus of mercury-exposed mice: role of nitric oxide synthase activity and metallothioneins. Ind.Health 2008;46(6):567-574. View abstract.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., and Di, Carlo, V. Nutritional approach in malnourished surgical patients: a prospective randomized study. Arch.Surg. 2002;137(2):174-180. View abstract.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Radaelli, G., Vignali, A., Mari, G., Gentilini, O., and Di, Carlo, V. Perioperative immunonutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery: results of a randomized double-blind phase 3 trial. Arch.Surg. 1999;134(4):428-433. View abstract.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Vignali, A., and Carlo, V. D. Preoperative oral arginine and n-3 fatty acid supplementation improves the immunometabolic host response and outcome after colorectal resection for cancer. Surgery 2002;132(5):805-814. View abstract.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Vignali, A., Cestari, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after major abdominal surgery: impact of route of administration and composition of the diet. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(1):24-30. View abstract.

Braga, M., Vignali, A., Gianotti, L., Cestari, A., Profili, M., and Carlo, V. D. Immune and nutritional effects of early enteral nutrition after major abdominal operations. Eur.J Surg. 1996;162(2):105-112. View abstract.

Brittenden, J., Heys, S. D., Miller, I., Sarkar, T. K., Hutcheon, A. W., Needham, G., Gilbert, F., McKean, M., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine in patients with breast cancer (> 4 cm) receiving multimodality treatment: report of a feasibility study. Br J Cancer 1994;69(5):918-921. View abstract.

Brittenden, J., Heys, S. D., Ross, J., Park, K. G., and Eremin, O. Natural cytotoxicity in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: effects of L-arginine supplementation. Eur.J Surg.Oncol. 1994;20(4):467-472. View abstract.

Budoff, M. J., Ahmadi, N., Gul, K. M., Liu, S. T., Flores, F. R., Tiano, J., Takasu, J., Miller, E., and Tsimikas, S. Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. Prev.Med. 2009;49(2-3):101-107. View abstract.

Bushinsky, D. A. and Gennari, F. J. Life-threatening hyperkalemia induced by arginine. Ann.Intern.Med. 1978;89(5 Pt 1):632-634. View abstract.

Cahill, N. E., Dhaliwal, R., Day, A. G., Jiang, X., and Heyland, D. K. Nutrition therapy in the critical care setting: what is "best achievable" practice? An international multicenter observational study. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(2):395-401. View abstract.

Camic, C. L., Housh, T. J., Zuniga, J. M., Hendrix, R. C., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., and Schmidt, R. J. Effects of arginine-based supplements on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(5):1306-1312. View abstract.

Campo, C., Lahera, V., Garcia-Robles, R., Cachofeiro, V., Alcazar, J. M., Andres, A., Rodicio, J. L., and Ruilope, L. M. Aging abolishes the renal response to L-arginine infusion in essential hypertension. Kidney Int.Suppl 1996;55:S126-S128. View abstract.

Carey, P. E., Halliday, J., Snaar, J. E., Morris, P. G., and Taylor, R. Direct assessment of muscle glycogen storage after mixed meals in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2003;284(4):E688-E694. View abstract.

Carrier, M., Pellerin, M., Perrault, L. P., Bouchard, D., Page, P., Searle, N., and Lavoie, J. Cardioplegic arrest with L-arginine improves myocardial protection: results of a prospective randomized clinical trial. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2002;73(3):837-841. View abstract.

Carrier, M., Perrault, L. P., Fortier, A., Bouchard, D., and Pellerin, M. L-arginine supplemented nondiluted blood cardioplegia: a clinical trial. J Cardiovasc.Surg.(Torino) 2010;51(2):283-287. View abstract.

Cartledge, J. J., Davies, A. M., and Eardley, I. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the efficacy of L-arginine in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. BJU.Int. 2000;85(4):421-426. View abstract.

Casas-Rodera, P., Gomez-Candela, C., Benitez, S., Mateo, R., Armero, M., Castillo, R., and Culebras, J. M. Immunoenhanced enteral nutrition formulas in head and neck cancer surgery: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Nutr.Hosp. 2008;23(2):105-110. View abstract.

Cassone, Faldetta M., Laurenti, O., Desideri, G., Bravi, M. C., De, Luca O., Marinucci, M. C., De, Mattia G., and Ferri, C. L-arginine infusion decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations through increased nitric oxide production and decreased oxidative status in Type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia 2002;45(8):1120-1127. View abstract.

Celik, J. B., Gezginc, K., Ozcelik, K., and Celik, C. The role of immunonutrition in gynecologic oncologic surgery. Eur.J Gynaecol.Oncol. 2009;30(4):418-421. View abstract.

Cen, Y., Luo, X. S., and Liu, X. X. [Effect of L-arginine supplementation on partial-thickness burned patients]. Zhongguo Xiu.Fu Chong.Jian.Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 1999;13(4):227-231. View abstract.

Chen, S., Kim, W., Henning, S. M., Carpenter, C. L., and Li, Z. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial. J Int.Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:13. View abstract.

Childress, B., Stechmiller, J. K., and Schultz, G. S. Arginine metabolites in wound fluids from pressure ulcers: a pilot study. Biol.Res Nurs. 2008;10(2):87-92. View abstract.

Chilosi, A., Leuzzi, V., Battini, R., Tosetti, M., Ferretti, G., Comparini, A., Casarano, M., Moretti, E., Alessandri, M. G., Bianchi, M. C., and Cioni, G. Treatment with L-arginine improves neuropsychological disorders in a child with creatine transporter defect. Neurocase. 2008;14(2):151-161. View abstract.

Chin-Dusting, J. P., Alexander, C. T., Arnold, P. J., Hodgson, W. C., Lux, A. S., and Jennings, G. L. Effects of in vivo and in vitro L-arginine supplementation on healthy human vessels. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 1996;28(1):158-166. View abstract.

Chung, H. T., Choi, B. M., Kwon, Y. G., and Kim, Y. M. Interactive relations between nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO): heme oxygenase-1/CO pathway is a key modulator in NO-mediated antiapoptosis and anti-inflammation. Methods Enzymol. 2008;441:329-338. View abstract.

Claris-Appiani, A., Ardissino, G., Coppo, R., Bonaudo, R., Dacco, V., Bettinelli, A., and Tirelli, A. S. Effect of renal function of arginine supplementation in children with chronic renal insufficiency. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1993;4(3):766.

Coeffier, M. and Dechelotte, P. Combined infusion of glutamine and arginine: does it make sense? Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2010;13(1):70-74. View abstract.

Colagrande, L., Formica, F., Porta, F., Brustia, M., Avalli, L., Sangalli, F., Muratore, M., and Paolini, G. L-arginine effects on myocardial stress in cardiac surgery: preliminary results. Ital Heart J 2005;6(11):904-910. View abstract.

Colagrande, L., Formica, F., Porta, F., Martino, A., Sangalli, F., Avalli, L., and Paolini, G. Reduced cytokines release and myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass patients due to L-arginine cardioplegia supplementation. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2006;81(4):1256-1261. View abstract.

Dallinger, S., Sieder, A., Strametz, J., Bayerle-Eder, M., Wolzt, M., and Schmetterer, L. Vasodilator effects of L-arginine are stereospecific and augmented by insulin in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2003;284(6):E1106-E1111. View abstract.

Daly, J. M., Reynolds, J., Sigal, R. K., Shou, J., and Liberman, M. D. Effect of dietary protein and amino acids on immune function. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(2 Suppl):S86-S93. View abstract.

Daly, J. M., Weintraub, F. N., Shou, J., Rosato, E. F., and Lucia, M. Enteral nutrition during multimodality therapy in upper gastrointestinal cancer patients. Ann.Surg. 1995;221(4):327-338. View abstract.

Davis, J. S. and Anstey, N. M. Is plasma arginine concentration decreased in patients with sepsis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(2):380-385. View abstract.

de Gouw, H. W., Verbruggen, M. B., Twiss, I. M., and Sterk, P. J. Effect of oral L-arginine on airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax 1999;54(11):1033-1035. View abstract.

De Luis, D. A., Aller, R., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., and Terroba, M. C. Postsurgery enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2002;56(11):1126-1129. View abstract.

De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., and Aller, R. Randomized clinical trial with an enteral arginine-enhanced formula in early postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2004;58(11):1505-1508. View abstract.

De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., Martin, T., and Aller, R. Clinical and biochemical outcomes after a randomized trial with a high dose of enteral arginine formula in postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2007;61(2):200-204. View abstract.

De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., Martin, T., and Aller, R. High dose of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition in postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. A randomized clinical trial. Eur.Rev.Med.Pharmacol Sci 2009;13(4):279-283. View abstract.

De, Aloysio D., Mantuano, R., Mauloni, M., and Nicoletti, G. The clinical use of arginine aspartate in male infertility. Acta Eur.Fertil. 1982;13(3):133-167. View abstract.

De, Nicola L., Bellizzi, V., Minutolo, R., Andreucci, M., Capuano, A., Garibotto, G., Corso, G., Andreucci, V. E., and Cianciaruso, B. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of arginine supplementation in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999;56(2):674-684. View abstract.

Debats, I. B., Booi, D. I., Wehrens, K. M., Cleutjens, J., Deutz, N. E., van de Hogen, E., Bemelmans, M., and van der Hulst, R. R. Oral arginine supplementation and the effect on skin graft donor sites: a randomized clinical pilot study. J Burn Care Res 2009;30(3):417-426. View abstract.

Dell'Omo, G., Catapano, G., Ebel, M., Gazzano, A., Ducci, M., Del, Chicca M., Clerico, A., and Pedrinelli, R. [Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of systemic infusion of L-arginine in hypertensive patients]. Ann.Ital Med.Int. 1995;10(2):107-112. View abstract.

Desneves, K. J., Todorovic, B. E., Cassar, A., and Crowe, T. C. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24(6):979-987. View abstract.

Di, Carlo, V, Gianotti, L., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Braga, M. Complications of pancreatic surgery and the role of perioperative nutrition. Dig.Surg. 1999;16(4):320-326. View abstract.

Docimo, R., Montesani, L., Maturo, P., Costacurta, M., Bartolino, M., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Delgado, E., Cummins, D., Dibart, S., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark commercial desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study in Rome, Italy. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(4):137-143. View abstract.

Doley, J. Nutrition management of pressure ulcers. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25(1):50-60. View abstract.

Dong, J. Y., Qin, L. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Arigoni, F., and Zhang, W. Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Am.Heart J 2011;162(6):959-965. View abstract.

Doutreleau, S., Rouyer, O., Di, Marco P., Lonsdorfer, E., Richard, R., Piquard, F., and Geny, B. L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;91(5):1261-1267. View abstract.

Drover, J. W., Dhaliwal, R., Weitzel, L., Wischmeyer, P. E., Ochoa, J. B., and Heyland, D. K. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am.Coll.Surg. 2011;212(3):385-99, 399. View abstract.

Dudek, D., Legutko, J., Heba, G., Bartus, S., Partyka, L., Huk, I., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Kaluza, G. L., and Dubiel, J. S. L-arginine supplementation does not inhibit neointimal formation after coronary stenting in human beings: an intravascular ultrasound study. Am Heart J 2004;147(4):E12. View abstract.

Egashira, K., Hirooka, Y., Kuga, T., Mohri, M., and Takeshita, A. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms. Circulation 7-15-1996;94(2):130-134. View abstract.

Elam, R. P., Hardin, D. H., Sutton, R. A., and Hagen, L. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 1989;29(1):52-56. View abstract.

Ellinger, S. and Stehle, P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2009;12(6):588-595. View abstract.

Eshghi F. The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;7(3):481-484.

Facchinetti, F., Longo, M., Piccinini, F., Neri, I., and Volpe, A. L-arginine infusion reduces blood pressure in preeclamptic women through nitric oxide release. J Soc Gynecol.Investig. 1999;6(4):202-207. View abstract.

Facchinetti, F., Saade, G. R., Neri, I., Pizzi, C., Longo, M., and Volpe, A. L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2007;26(1):121-130. View abstract.

Fallon, E. M., Nehra, D., Potemkin, A. K., Gura, K. M., Simpser, E., Compher, C., and Puder, M. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support of neonatal patients at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2012;36(5):506-523. View abstract.

Fan, X. Y., van den Berg, A., Snoek, M., van der Flier, L. G., Smids, B., Jansen, H. M., Liu, R. Y., and Lutter, R. Arginine deficiency augments inflammatory mediator production by airway epithelial cells in vitro. Respir.Res 2009;10:62. View abstract.

Farreras, N., Artigas, V., Cardona, D., Rius, X., Trias, M., and Gonzalez, J. A. Effect of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition on wound healing in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Clin.Nutr 2005;24(1):55-65. View abstract.

Finco, C., Magnanini, P., Sarzo, G., Vecchiato, M., Luongo, B., Savastano, S., Bortoliero, M., Barison, P., and Merigliano, S. Prospective randomized study on perioperative enteral immunonutrition in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg.Endosc. 2007;21(7):1175-1179. View abstract.

Fons, C., Sempere, A., Arias, A., Lopez-Sala, A., Poo, P., Pineda, M., Mas, A., Vilaseca, M. A., Salomons, G. S., Ribes, A., Artuch, R., and Campistol, J. Arginine supplementation in four patients with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2008;31(6):724-728. View abstract.

Fricke, O., Baecker, N., Heer, M., Tutlewski, B., and Schoenau, E. The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women. Clin.Physiol Funct.Imaging 2008;28(5):307-311. View abstract.

Furuno T, Mullen MJ Thorne SA Thomson H Donald AE Powe A et al. Intravenous L-arginine restores endothelial function in healthy young smokers (abstract). Circulation 1996;94:3052.

Gad, M. Z., El-Mesallamy, H. O., and Sanad, E. F. hsCRP, sICAM-1 and TAFI in hemodialysis patients: linking inflammation and hypofibrinolysis to cardiovascular events. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31(6):391-397. View abstract.

Garhofer, G., Resch, H., Lung, S., Weigert, G., and Schmetterer, L. Intravenous administration of L-arginine increases retinal and choroidal blood flow. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(1):69-76. View abstract.

Gaston, R. S., Schlessinger, S. D., Sanders, P. W., Barker, C. V., Curtis, J. J., and Warnock, D. G. Cyclosporine inhibits the renal response to L-arginine in human kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995;5(7):1426-1433. View abstract.

Gentile, V., Antonini, G., Antonella, Bertozzi M., Dinelli, N., Rizzo, C., Ashraf, Virmani M., and Koverech, A. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(9):2223-2228. View abstract.

George, J., Shmuel, S. B., Roth, A., Herz, I., Izraelov, S., Deutsch, V., Keren, G., and Miller, H. L-arginine attenuates lymphocyte activation and anti-oxidized LDL antibody levels in patients undergoing angioplasty. Atherosclerosis 2004;174(2):323-327. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Gentilini, O., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreas 2000;21(4):344-351. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., Beneduce, A., and Di, Carlo, V. A randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral supplementation with a specialized diet in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterology 2002;122(7):1763-1770. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Vignali, A., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Effect of route of delivery and formulation of postoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing major operations for malignant neoplasms. Arch.Surg. 1997;132(11):1222-1229. View abstract.

Giger, U., Buchler, M., Farhadi, J., Berger, D., Husler, J., Schneider, H., Krahenbuhl, S., and Krahenbuhl, L. Preoperative immunonutrition suppresses perioperative inflammatory response in patients with major abdominal surgery-a randomized controlled pilot study. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2007;14(10):2798-2806. View abstract.

Giuggioli, D., Colaci, M., Sebastiani, M., and Ferri, C. L-Arginine in pregnant scleroderma patients. Clin.Rheumatol. 2010;29(8):937-939. View abstract.

Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Coppola, L., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Giunta, R., Nappo, F., Lucarelli, C., and D'Onofrio, F. Vascular effects of acute hyperglycemia in humans are reversed by L-arginine. Evidence for reduced availability of nitric oxide during hyperglycemia. Circulation 4-1-1997;95(7):1783-1790. View abstract.

Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Coppola, L., Cozzolino, D., and D'Onofrio, F. The vascular effects of L-Arginine in humans. The role of endogenous insulin. J Clin.Invest 2-1-1997;99(3):433-438. View abstract.

Glueck, C. J., Munjal, J., Khan, A., Umar, M., and Wang, P. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase T-786C mutation, a reversible etiology of Prinzmetal's angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 3-15-2010;105(6):792-796. View abstract.

Goligorsky, M. S. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: from structure to function in one aspartic substitution. Kidney Int. 2009;75(3):255-257. View abstract.

Gosselink, M. P., Darby, M., Zimmerman, D. D., Gruss, H. J., and Schouten, W. R. Treatment of chronic anal fissure by application of L-arginine gel: a phase II study in 15 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48(4):832-837. View abstract.

Grasemann, H., Grasemann, C., Kurtz, F., Tietze-Schillings, G., Vester, U., and Ratjen, F. Oral L-arginine supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: a placebo-controlled study. Eur.Respir.J 2005;25(1):62-68. View abstract.

Gryglewski, R. J., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Korbut, R., Bieroon, K., Goszcz, A., and Slawinski, M. Treatment with L-arginine is likely to stimulate generation of nitric oxide in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 1996;108(4):111-116. View abstract.

Guttman, H., Zimlichman, R., Boaz, M., Matas, Z., and Shargorodsky, M. Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 6-7-2010; View abstract.

Hackett, A., Gillard, J., and Wilcken, B. n of 1 trial for an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency carrier. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(2):157-161. View abstract.

Hayde, M., Vierhapper, H., Lubec, B., Popow, C., Weninger, M., Xi, Z., and Lubec, G. Low-dose dietary L-arginine increases plasma interleukin 1 alpha but not interleukin 1 beta in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cytokine 1994;6(1):79-82. View abstract.

Helminen, H., Raitanen, M., and Kellosalo, J. Immunonutrition in elective gastrointestinal surgery patients. Scand.J Surg. 2007;96(1):46-50. View abstract.

Herman, W. H., Fajans, S. S., Smith, M. J., Polonsky, K. S., Bell, G. I., and Halter, J. B. Diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine in nondiabetic subjects with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha/MODY1 gene. Diabetes 1997;46(11):1749-1754. View abstract.

Hertz, P. and Richardson, J. A. Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients. Arch.Intern.Med. 1972;130(5):778-780. View abstract.

Heyman, H., Van De Looverbosch, D. E., Meijer, E. P., and Schols, J. M. Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents. J Wound Care 2008;17(11):476-8, 480. View abstract.

Heys, S. D., Ogston, K., Miller, I., Hutcheon, A. W., Walker, L. G., Sarker, T. K., Dewar, J., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Potentiation of the response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer by dietary supplementation with L-arginine: results of a randomised controlled trial. Int.J Oncol. 1998;12(1):221-225. View abstract.

Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ono, N., Hiraga, H., Yoshimura, M., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., Kambe, M., and Kajiyama, G. Intravenous administration of L-arginine inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme in humans. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1995;80(7):2198-2202. View abstract.

Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ozono, R., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., and Kajiyama, G. Effects of L-arginine infusion on renal hemodynamics in patients with mild essential hypertension. Hypertension 1995;25(4 Pt 2):898-902. View abstract.

Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G. C., Lafayette, R. A., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., and Myers, B. D. Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107(4):886-895. View abstract.

Houwing, R. H., Rozendaal, M., Wouters-Wesseling, W., Beulens, J. W., Buskens, E., and Haalboom, J. R. A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22(4):401-405. View abstract.

Hrncic, D., Rasic-Markovic, A., Krstic, D., Macut, D., Djuric, D., and Stanojlovic, O. The role of nitric oxide in homocysteine thiolactone-induced seizures in adult rats. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2010;30(2):219-231. View abstract.

Huang, C. C., Lin, T. J., Lu, Y. F., Chen, C. C., Huang, C. Y., and Lin, W. T. Protective effects of L-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):306-315. View abstract.

Huang, C. C., Tsai, S. C., and Lin, W. T. Potential ergogenic effects of L-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats. Exp.Gerontol. 2008;43(6):571-577. View abstract.

Hughes, N., Mason, S., Jeffery, P., Welton, H., Tobin, M., O'Shea, C., and Browne, M. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. J Clin.Dent. 2010;21(2):49-55. View abstract.

Jahangir, E., Vita, J. A., Handy, D., Holbrook, M., Palmisano, J., Beal, R., Loscalzo, J., and Eberhardt, R. T. The effect of L-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. Vasc.Med. 2009;14(3):239-248. View abstract.

Jezova, D., Makatsori, A., Smriga, M., Morinaga, Y., and Duncko, R. Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutr.Neurosci. 2005;8(3):155-160. View abstract.

Jiang, X. H., Li, N., Zhu, W. M., Wu, G. H., Quan, Z. W., and Li, J. S. Effects of postoperative immune-enhancing enteral nutrition on the immune system, inflammatory responses, and clinical outcome. Chin Med.J (Engl.) 2004;117(6):835-839. View abstract.

Jiang, Z. M., Gu, Z. Y., Chen, F. L., Wang, X. R., Li, Z. J., Xu, Y., and Li, R. [The role of immune enhanced enteral nutrition on plasma amino acid, gut permeability and clinical outcome (a randomized, double blind, controlled, multi-center clinical trail with 120 cases)]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 2001;23(5):515-518. View abstract.

Jovanovic, A., Gerrard, J., and Taylor, R. The second-meal phenomenon in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(7):1199-1201. View abstract.

Jude, E. B., Dang, C., and Boulton, A. J. Effect of L-arginine on the microcirculation in the neuropathic diabetic foot in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabet.Med. 2010;27(1):113-116. View abstract.

Kato, G. J. and Gladwin, M. T. Evolution of novel small-molecule therapeutics targeting sickle cell vasculopathy. JAMA 12-10-2008;300(22):2638-2646. View abstract.

Kato, G. J., Wang, Z., Machado, R. F., Blackwelder, W. C., Taylor, J. G., and Hazen, S. L. Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in sickle cell disease: abnormal levels and correlations with pulmonary hypertension, desaturation, haemolysis, organ dysfunction and death. Br J Haematol. 2009;145(4):506-513. View abstract.

Kawano, H., Motoyama, T., Hirai, N., Kugiyama, K., Yasue, H., and Ogawa, H. Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is improved by L-arginine administration: possible role of oxidative stress. Atherosclerosis 2002;161(2):375-380. View abstract.

Kernohan, A. F., McIntyre, M., Hughes, D. M., Tam, S. W., Worcel, M., and Reid, J. L. An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 2005;59(1):85-93. View abstract.

Khan, F. and Belch, J. J. Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation. J Rheumatol. 1999;26(11):2389-2394. View abstract.

Khan, F., Litchfield, S. J., McLaren, M., Veale, D. J., Littleford, R. C., and Belch, J. J. Oral L-arginine supplementation and cutaneous vascular responses in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(2):352-357. View abstract.

Kimber, J., Watson, L., and Mathias, C. J. Cardiovascular and neurohormonal responses to i. v. l-arginine in two groups with primary autonomic failure. J Neurol. 2001;248(12):1036-1041. View abstract.

Kirk, S. J., Hurson, M., Regan, M. C., Holt, D. R., Wasserkrug, H. L., and Barbul, A. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 1993;114(2):155-159. View abstract.

Kiziltepe, U., Tunctan, B., Eyileten, Z. B., Sirlak, M., Arikbuku, M., Tasoz, R., Uysalel, A., and Ozyurda, U. Efficiency of L-arginine enriched cardioplegia and non-cardioplegic reperfusion in ischemic hearts. Int.J Cardiol 2004;97(1):93-100. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szczepanek, K., Szybinski, P., Scislo, L., Walewska, E., Kubisz, A., and Szczepanik, A. M. Standard and immunomodulating enteral nutrition in patients after extended gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin.Nutr 2008;27(4):504-512. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szybinski, P., Szczepanek, K., Kubisz, A., Kowalczyk, T., Gach, T., Pach, R., and Szczepanik, A. M. The impact of immunostimulating nutrition on infectious complications after upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Ann.Surg. 2008;248(2):212-220. View abstract.

Knechtle, B. and Bosch, A. The influence of arginine supplementation on performance and metabolism in athletes. INTERNATIONAL SPORTMED JOURNAL 2008;9(1):22-31.

Kobayashi, N., Nakamura, M., and Hiramori, K. Effects of infusion of L-arginine on exercise-induced myocardial ischemic ST-segment changes and capacity to exercise of patients with stable angina pectoris. Coron.Artery Dis 1999;10(5):321-326. View abstract.

Koga, Y. [L-arginine therapy on MELAS]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2008;48(11):1010-1012. View abstract.

Koga, Y., Akita, Y., Junko, N., Yatsuga, S., Povalko, N., Fukiyama, R., Ishii, M., and Matsuishi, T. Endothelial dysfunction in MELAS improved by l-arginine supplementation. Neurology 6-13-2006;66(11):1766-1769. View abstract.

Koga, Y., Akita, Y., Nishioka, J., Yatsuga, S., Povalko, N., Tanabe, Y., Fujimoto, S., and Matsuishi, T. L-arginine improves the symptoms of strokelike episodes in MELAS. Neurology 2-22-2005;64(4):710-712. View abstract.

Koga, Y., Povalko, N., Nishioka, J., Katayama, K., Kakimoto, N., and Matsuishi, T. MELAS and L-arginine therapy: pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2010;1201:104-110. View abstract.

Koifman, B., Wollman, Y., Bogomolny, N., Chernichowsky, T., Finkelstein, A., Peer, G., Scherez, J., Blum, M., Laniado, S., Iaina, A., and . Improvement of cardiac performance by intravenous infusion of L-arginine in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol 11-1-1995;26(5):1251-1256. View abstract.

Koller-Strametz, J., Wolzt, M., Fuchs, C., Putz, D., Wisser, W., Mensik, C., Eichler, H. G., Laufer, G., and Schmetterer, L. Renal hemodynamic effects of L-arginine and sodium nitroprusside in heart transplant recipients. Kidney Int. 1999;55(5):1871-1877. View abstract.

Komers, R., Komersova, K., Kazdova, L., Ruzickova, J., and Pelikanova, T. Effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade on renal and blood pressure response to L-arginine in humans. J Hypertens. 2000;18(1):51-59. View abstract.

Koppo, K., Taes, Y. E., Pottier, A., Boone, J., Bouckaert, J., and Derave, W. Dietary arginine supplementation speeds pulmonary VO2 kinetics during cycle exercise. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009;41(8):1626-1632. View abstract.

Lagudis, S., Yamada, A. T., Vieira, M. L., Medeiros, C. C., Mansur, A. J., and Lage, S. G. The effect of dobutamine without and with L-arginine on arterial compliance in heart failure patients. Echocardiography. 2009;26(8):934-942. View abstract.

Lakhan, S. E. and Vieira, K. F. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review. Nutr J 2010;9:42. View abstract.

Langkamp-Henken, B., Herrlinger-Garcia, K. A., Stechmiller, J. K., Nickerson-Troy, J. A., Lewis, B., and Moffatt, L. Arginine supplementation is well tolerated but does not enhance mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2000;24(5):280-287. View abstract.

Lauer, T., Kleinbongard, P., Rath, J., Schulz, R., Kelm, M., and Rassaf, T. L-arginine preferentially dilates stenotic segments of coronary arteries thereby increasing coronary flow. J Intern.Med. 2008;264(3):237-244. View abstract.

Ledda, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., and Schonlau, F. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU.Int. 2010;106(7):1030-1033. View abstract.

Lee, J., Ryu, H., and Kowall, N. W. Motor neuronal protection by L-arginine prolongs survival of mutant SOD1 (G93A) ALS mice. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-10-2009;384(4):524-529. View abstract.

Lekakis, J. P., Papathanassiou, S., Papaioannou, T. G., Papamichael, C. M., Zakopoulos, N., Kotsis, V., Dagre, A. G., Stamatelopoulos, K., Protogerou, A., and Stamatelopoulos, S. F. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. Int.J Cardiol 2002;86(2-3):317-323. View abstract.

Little, J. A., Hauser, K. P., Martyr, S. E., Harris, A., Maric, I., Morris, C. R., Suh, J. H., Taylor, J., Castro, O., Machado, R., Kato, G., and Gladwin, M. T. Hematologic, biochemical, and cardiopulmonary effects of L-arginine supplementation or phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in patients with sickle cell disease who are on hydroxyurea therapy. Eur.J Haematol. 2009;82(4):315-321. View abstract.

Lobo, D. N., Williams, R. N., Welch, N. T., Aloysius, M. M., Nunes, Q. M., Padmanabhan, J., Crowe, J. R., Iftikhar, S. Y., Parsons, S. L., Neal, K. R., Allison, S. P., and Rowlands, B. J. Early postoperative jejunostomy feeding with an immune modulating diet in patients undergoing resectional surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Clin.Nutr 2006;25(5):716-726. View abstract.

Lubec, B., Hayn, M., Kitzmuller, E., Vierhapper, H., and Lubec, G. L-Arginine reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1997;22(1-2):355-357. View abstract.

Lucotti, P., Monti, L., Setola, E., La, Canna G., Castiglioni, A., Rossodivita, A., Pala, M. G., Formica, F., Paolini, G., Catapano, A. L., Bosi, E., Alfieri, O., and Piatti, P. Oral L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and inflammation in cardiopathic nondiabetic patients after an aortocoronary bypass. Metabolism 2009;58(9):1270-1276. View abstract.

Lucotti, P., Setola, E., Monti, L. D., Galluccio, E., Costa, S., Sandoli, E. P., Fermo, I., Rabaiotti, G., Gatti, R., and Piatti, P. Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2006;291(5):E906-E912. View abstract.

Malenfant, D., Catton, M., and Pope, J. E. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology.(Oxford) 2009;48(7):791-795. View abstract.

Mansoor, J. K., Morrissey, B. M., Walby, W. F., Yoneda, K. Y., Juarez, M., Kajekar, R., Severinghaus, J. W., Eldridge, M. W., and Schelegle, E. S. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m. High Alt.Med.Biol. 2005;6(4):289-300. View abstract.

Mantovani, F., Patelli, E., Colombo, F., Pozzoni, F., Confalonieri, S., and Pisani, E. [Erectile dysfunction after non-nerve sparing radical pelvic surgery. Therapeutical experience with sildenafil and L-arginine evaluated by Buckling test]. Minerva Med. 2001;92(4):285-287. View abstract.

Marfella, R., Acampora, R., Verrazzo, G., Ziccardi, P., De, Rosa N., Giunta, R., and Giugliano, D. Metformin improves hemodynamic and rheological responses to L-arginine in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1996;19(9):934-939. View abstract.

Marietta, M., Facchinetti, F., Neri, I., Piccinini, F., Volpe, A., and Torelli, G. L-arginine infusion decreases platelet aggregation through an intraplatelet nitric oxide release. Thromb.Res 10-15-1997;88(2):229-235. View abstract.

Marik, P. E. and Zaloga, G. P. Immunonutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34(11):1980-1990. View abstract.

Marik, P. E. and Zaloga, G. P. Immunonutrition in high-risk surgical patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2010;34(4):378-386. View abstract.

Marin, V. B., Rodriguez-Osiac, L., Schlessinger, L., Villegas, J., Lopez, M., and Castillo-Duran, C. Controlled study of enteral arginine supplementation in burned children: impact on immunologic and metabolic status. Nutrition 2006;22(7-8):705-712. View abstract.

Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Knight-Madden, J. M., and Martinez-Zapata, M. J. Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;11:CD008394. View abstract.

Martina, V., Masha, A., Gigliardi, V. R., Brocato, L., Manzato, E., Berchio, A., Massarenti, P., Settanni, F., Della, Casa L., Bergamini, S., and Iannone, A. Long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008;31(5):940-944. View abstract.

Masha, A., Manieri, C., Dinatale, S., Bruno, G. A., Ghigo, E., and Martina, V. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol.Invest 2009;32(11):870-872. View abstract.

Matsumoto, K., Mizuno, M., Mizuno, T., Dilling-Hansen, B., Lahoz, A., Bertelsen, V., Munster, H., Jordening, H., Hamada, K., and Doi, T. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle proteolysis induced by moderate exercise in young individuals. Int.J Sports Med. 2007;28(6):531-538. View abstract.

Maxwell AJ, Anderson B. A nutritional product designed to enhance nitric oxide activity restores endothelium-dependent function in hypercholesterolemia (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33(1):282A.

Maxwell, A. J., Anderson, B. E., and Cooke, J. P. Nutritional therapy for peripheral arterial disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of HeartBar. Vasc.Med. 2000;5(1):11-19. View abstract.

McCarter, M. D., Gentilini, O. D., Gomez, M. E., and Daly, J. M. Preoperative oral supplement with immunonutrients in cancer patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1998;22(4):206-211. View abstract.

McConell, G. K. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2007;10(1):46-51. View abstract.

McGovern, M. M., Wasserstein, M. P., Aron, A., and Perrine, S. P. Biochemical effect of intravenous arginine butyrate in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. J Pediatr 2003;142(6):709-713. View abstract.

McMahon, L., Tamary, H., Askin, M., Adams-Graves, P., Eberhardt, R. T., Sutton, M., Wright, E. C., Castaneda, S. A., Faller, D. V., and Perrine, S. P. A randomized phase II trial of Arginine Butyrate with standard local therapy in refractory sickle cell leg ulcers. Br.J Haematol. 2010;151(5):516-524. View abstract.

Mehta, S., Stewart, D. J., and Levy, R. D. The hypotensive effect of L-arginine is associated with increased expired nitric oxide in humans. Chest 1996;109(6):1550-1555. View abstract.

Mehta, S., Stewart, D. J., Langleben, D., and Levy, R. D. Short-term pulmonary vasodilation with L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 9-15-1995;92(6):1539-1545. View abstract.

Mhanni, A. A., Chan, A., Collison, M., Seifert, B., Lehotay, D. C., Sokoro, A., Huynh, H. Q., and Greenberg, C. R. Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH) presenting with acute fulminant hepatic failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2008;46(3):312-315. View abstract.

Miller, H. I., Dascalu, A., Rassin, T. A., Wollman, Y., Chernichowsky, T., and Iaina, A. Effects of an acute dose of L-arginine during coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal failure: a randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Am J Nephrol. 2003;23(2):91-95. View abstract.

Miroueh, A. Effect of arginine on oligospermia. Fertil.Steril. 1970;21(3):217-219. View abstract.

Morgante, G., Scolaro, V., Tosti, C., Di, Sabatino A., Piomboni, P., and De, Leo, V. [Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2010;62(3):213-218. View abstract.

Morris, C. R., Kuypers, F. A., Larkin, S., Sweeters, N., Simon, J., Vichinsky, E. P., and Styles, L. A. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2000;111(2):498-500. View abstract.

Mou, J., Fang, H., Jing, F., Wang, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, H., Shang, L., Wang, X., and Xu, W. Design, synthesis and primary activity evaluation of L-arginine derivatives as amino-peptidase N/CD13 inhibitors. Bioorg.Med.Chem. 7-1-2009;17(13):4666-4673. View abstract.

Moutaouakil, F., El, Otmani H., Fadel, H., Sefrioui, F., and Slassi, I. [l-arginine efficiency in MELAS syndrome. A case report]. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2009;165(5):482-485. View abstract.

Nagaya, N., Uematsu, M., Oya, H., Sato, N., Sakamaki, F., Kyotani, S., Ueno, K., Nakanishi, N., Yamagishi, M., and Miyatake, K. Short-term oral administration of L-arginine improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir.Crit Care Med. 2001;163(4):887-891. View abstract.

Napoli, C., Farzati, B., Sica, V., Iannuzzi, E., Coppola, G., Silvestroni, A., Balestrieri, M. L., Florio, A., and Matarazzo, A. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow cell infusion and antioxidants/L-arginine in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2008;15(6):709-718. View abstract.

Nathoo, S., Delgado, E., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Cummins, D., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride relative to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in New Jersey, USA. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(4):123-130. View abstract.

Nelson, R. L., Thomas, K., Morgan, J., and Jones, A. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD003431. View abstract.

Neri, I., Blasi, I., and Facchinetti, F. Effects of acute L-arginine infusion on non-stress test in hypertensive pregnant women. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;16(1):23-26. View abstract.

Neri, I., Jasonni, V. M., Gori, G. F., Blasi, I., and Facchinetti, F. Effect of L-arginine on blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19(5):277-281. View abstract.

Neri, I., Monari, F., Sgarbi, L., Berardi, A., Masellis, G., and Facchinetti, F. L-arginine supplementation in women with chronic hypertension: impact on blood pressure and maternal and neonatal complications. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23(12):1456-1460. View abstract.

Nitenberg, A., Ledoux, S., Attali, J. R., and Valensi, P. [Response of the coronary arteries to cold test and flow velocity increase is improved by deferoxamine but not by L-arginine in diabetic patients]. Arch.Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1997;90(8):1037-1041. View abstract.

O'Rourke, D. J., Ryan, S., Salomons, G., Jakobs, C., Monavari, A., and King, M. D. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51(5):404-407. View abstract.

Oka, R. K., Szuba, A., Giacomini, J. C., and Cooke, J. P. A pilot study of L-arginine supplementation on functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease. Vasc.Med. 2005;10(4):265-274. View abstract.

Okamoto, Y., Okano, K., Izuishi, K., Usuki, H., Wakabayashi, H., and Suzuki, Y. Attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and infectious complications after gastrectomy with preoperative oral arginine and omega-3 fatty acids supplemented immunonutrition. World J Surg. 2009;33(9):1815-1821. View abstract.

Olek, R. A., Ziemann, E., Grzywacz, T., Kujach, S., Luszczyk, M., Antosiewicz, J., and Laskowski, R. A single oral intake of arginine does not affect performance during repeated Wingate anaerobic test. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2010;50(1):52-56. View abstract.

Ozbek, M., Erdogan, M., Karadeniz, M., Cetinkalp, S., Ozgen, A. G., Saygili, F., Yilmaz, C., and Tuzun, M. Evaluation of beta cell dysfunction by mixed meal tolerance test and oral L-arginine in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp.Clin.Endocrinol.Diabetes 2009;117(10):573-576. View abstract.

Palloshi, A., Fragasso, G., Piatti, P., Monti, L. D., Setola, E., Valsecchi, G., Galluccio, E., Chierchia, S. L., and Margonato, A. Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries. Am J Cardiol 4-1-2004;93(7):933-935. View abstract.

Park, K. G., Heys, S. D., Blessing, K., Kelly, P., McNurlan, M. A., Eremin, O., and Garlick, P. J. Stimulation of human breast cancers by dietary L-arginine. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1992;82(4):413-417. View abstract.

Parnell, M. M., Holst, D. P., and Kaye, D. M. Augmentation of endothelial function following exercise training is associated with increased L-arginine transport in human heart failure. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2005;109(6):523-530. View abstract.

Pedrinelli, R., Ebel, M., Catapano, G., Dell'Omo, G., Ducci, M., Del, Chicca M., and Clerico, A. Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of L-arginine in essential hypertensives. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol. 1995;48(3-4):195-201. View abstract.

Petrou, I., Heu, R., Stranick, M., Lavender, S., Zaidel, L., Cummins, D., Sullivan, R. J., Hsueh, C., and Gimzewski, J. K. A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(1):23-31. View abstract.

Pezza, V., Bernardini, F., Pezza, E., Pezza, B., and Curione, M. Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide. Am.J Hypertens. 1998;11(10):1267-1270. View abstract.

Piatti, P. M., Monti, L. D., Valsecchi, G., Magni, F., Setola, E., Marchesi, F., Galli-Kienle, M., Pozza, G., and Alberti, K. G. Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2001;24(5):875-880. View abstract.

Pryor, J. P., Blandy, J. P., Evans, P., Chaput De Saintonge, D. M., and Usherwood, M. Controlled clinical trial of arginine for infertile men with oligozoospermia. Br J Urol. 1978;50(1):47-50. View abstract.

Puiman, P. J., Stoll, B., van Goudoever, J. B., and Burrin, D. G. Enteral arginine does not increase superior mesenteric arterial blood flow but induces mucosal growth in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2011;141(1):63-70. View abstract.

Quyyumi, A. A. Does acute improvement of endothelial dysfunction in coronary artery disease improve myocardial ischemia? A double-blind comparison of parenteral D- and L-arginine. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1998;32(4):904-911. View abstract.

Riso, S., Aluffi, P., Brugnani, M., Farinetti, F., Pia, F., and D'Andrea, F. Postoperative enteral immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Clin.Nutr 2000;19(6):407-412. View abstract.

Ruel, M., Beanlands, R. S., Lortie, M., Chan, V., Camack, N., deKemp, R. A., Suuronen, E. J., Rubens, F. D., DaSilva, J. N., Sellke, F. W., Stewart, D. J., and Mesana, T. G. Concomitant treatment with oral L-arginine improves the efficacy of surgical angiogenesis in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease: the Endothelial Modulation in Angiogenic Therapy randomized controlled trial. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2008;135(4):762-70, 770. View abstract.

Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Korbut, R., and Zdebski, Z. Effects of prolonged oral supplementation with l-arginine on blood pressure and nitric oxide synthesis in preeclampsia. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2005;35(1):32-37. View abstract.

Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Lauterbach, R., Grzyb, A., and Basta, A. Effects of oral L-arginine on the foetal condition and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia: a preliminary report. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2006;99(2):146-152. View abstract.

Sakurai, Y., Masui, T., Yoshida, I., Tonomura, S., Shoji, M., Nakamura, Y., Isogaki, J., Uyama, I., Komori, Y., and Ochiai, M. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of perioperative use of immune-enhancing enteral formula on metabolic and immunological status in patients undergoing esophagectomy. World J Surg. 2007;31(11):2150-2157. View abstract.

Saleh, A. I., Abdel Maksoud, S. M., El-Maraghy, S. A., and Gad, M. Z. Protective effect of L-arginine in experimentally induced myocardial ischemia: comparison with aspirin. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;16(1):53-62. View abstract.

Savoye, G., Jemaa, Y., Mosni, G., Savoye-Collet, C., Morcamp, P., Dechelotte, P., Bouin, M., Denis, P., and Ducrotte, P. Effects of intragastric L-arginine administration on proximal stomach tone under basal conditions and after an intragastric diet. Dig.Dis Sci. 2006;51(12):2147-2153. View abstract.

Sax, H. C. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1994;18(6):559-560. View abstract.

Scavella, A., Leiva, L., Monjure, H., Zea, A. H., and Gardner, R. V. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55(2):318-323. View abstract.

Schachter, A., Friedman, S., Goldman, J. A., and Eckerling, B. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 1973;11(5):206-209. View abstract.

Schachter, A., Goldman, J. A., and Zukerman, Z. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. J Urol. 1973;110(3):311-313. View abstract.

Schaefer, A., Piquard, F., Geny, B., Doutreleau, S., Lampert, E., Mettauer, B., and Lonsdorfer, J. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. Int.J Sports Med. 2002;23(6):403-407. View abstract.

Schellong, S. M., Boger, R. H., Burchert, W., Bode-Boger, S. M., Galland, A., Frolich, J. C., Hundeshagen, H., and Alexander, K. Dose-related effect of intravenous L-arginine on muscular blood flow of the calf in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a H215O positron emission tomography study. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;93(2):159-165. View abstract.

Schilling, J., Vranjes, N., Fierz, W., Joller, H., Gyurech, D., Ludwig, E., Marathias, K., and Geroulanos, S. Clinical outcome and immunology of postoperative arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotide-enriched enteral feeding: a randomized prospective comparison with standard enteral and low calorie/low fat i.v. solutions. Nutrition 1996;12(6):423-429. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Ahlers, B. A., Parnell, M. M., and Kaye, D. M. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated, nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilatation is abnormal in early hypertension: restoration by L-arginine. J Hypertens. 2004;22(10):1917-1925. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Jacobi, J., John, S., Delles, C., Fleischmann, I., and Schmieder, R. E. Is l-arginine infusion an adequate tool to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the human renal vasculature? Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2000;99(4):293-302. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Oehmer, S., Schneider, M. P., Delles, C., Schmidt, B. M., and Schmieder, R. E. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and L-arginine on renal haemodynamics in young patients at high cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis 2007;192(1):155-160. View abstract.

Schramm, L., La, M., Heidbreder, E., Hecker, M., Beckman, J. S., Lopau, K., Zimmermann, J., Rendl, J., Reiners, C., Winderl, S., Wanner, C., and Schmidt, H. H. L-arginine deficiency and supplementation in experimental acute renal failure and in human kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. 2002;61(4):1423-1432. View abstract.

Schulze, F., Glos, S., Petruschka, D., Altenburg, C., Maas, R., Benndorf, R., Schwedhelm, E., Beil, U., and Boger, R. H. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides. Nutr.Res 2009;29(5):291-297. View abstract.

Scibona, M., Meschini, P., Capparelli, S., Pecori, C., Rossi, P., and Menchini Fabris, G. F. [L-arginine and male infertility]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 1994;46(4):251-253. View abstract.

Senkal, M., Mumme, A., Eickhoff, U., Geier, B., Spath, G., Wulfert, D., Joosten, U., Frei, A., and Kemen, M. Early postoperative enteral immunonutrition: clinical outcome and cost-comparison analysis in surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(9):1489-1496. View abstract.

Senkal, M., Zumtobel, V., Bauer, K. H., Marpe, B., Wolfram, G., Frei, A., Eickhoff, U., and Kemen, M. Outcome and cost-effectiveness of perioperative enteral immunonutrition in patients undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal tract surgery: a prospective randomized study. Arch.Surg. 1999;134(12):1309-1316. View abstract.

Settergren, M., Bohm, F., Malmstrom, R. E., Channon, K. M., and Pernow, J. L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 2009;204(1):73-78. View abstract.

Shao, A. and Hathcock, J. N. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol 2008;50(3):376-399. View abstract.

Shigemi, R., Fukuda, M., Suzuki, Y., Morimoto, T., and Ishii, E. L-arginine is effective in stroke-like episodes of MELAS associated with the G13513A mutation. Brain Dev. 2011;33(6):518-520. View abstract.

Siasos, G., Tousoulis, D., Vlachopoulos, C., Antoniades, C., Stefanadi, E., Ioakeimidis, N., Andreou, I., Zisimos, K., Papavassiliou, A. G., and Stefanadis, C. Short-term treatment with L-arginine prevents the smoking-induced impairment of endothelial function and vascular elastic properties in young individuals. Int.J Cardiol 6-6-2008;126(3):394-399. View abstract.

Sieroszewski, P., Suzin, J., and Karowicz-Bilinska, A. Ultrasound evaluation of intrauterine growth restriction therapy by a nitric oxide donor (L-arginine). J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15(6):363-366. View abstract.

Slawinski, M., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Bieron, K., Goszcz, A., and Gryglewski, R. J. L-arginine--substrate for no synthesis--its beneficial effects in therapy of patients with peripheral arterial disease: comparison with placebo-preliminary results. Acta Physiol Hung. 1996;84(4):457-458. View abstract.

Smith, S. D., Wheeler, M. A., Foster, H. E., Jr., and Weiss, R. M. Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores during treatment with oral L-arginine. J Urol. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):703-708. View abstract.

Smriga, M., Ando, T., Akutsu, M., Furukawa, Y., Miwa, K., and Morinaga, Y. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed.Res 2007;28(2):85-90. View abstract.

Smulders, R. A., Aarsen, M., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., Van Kamp, G. J., Donker, A. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Haemodynamic and biochemical responses to L-arginine and L-lysine infusions in normal subjects: L-arginine-induced vasodilatation cannot be explained by non-specific effects of cationic amino acids. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;92(4):367-374. View abstract.

Smulders, R. A., Stehouwer, C. D., Olthof, C. G., Van Kamp, G. J., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., and Donker, A. J. Plasma endothelin levels and vascular effects of intravenous L-arginine infusion in subjects with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin.Sci (Lond) 1994;87(1):37-43. View abstract.

Snyderman, C. H., Kachman, K., Molseed, L., Wagner, R., D'Amico, F., Bumpous, J., and Rueger, R. Reduced postoperative infections with an immune-enhancing nutritional supplement. Laryngoscope 1999;109(6):915-921. View abstract.

Song, J. X., Qing, S. H., Huang, X. C., and Qi, D. L. Effect of parenteral nutrition with L-arginine supplementation on postoperative immune function in patients with colorectal cancer. Di Yi.Jun.Yi.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;22(6):545-547. View abstract.

Sozykin, A. V., Noeva, E. A., Balakhonova, T. V., Pogorelova, O. A., and Men'shikov, M. I. [Effect of L-arginine on platelet aggregation, endothelial function adn exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris]. Ter.Arkh. 2000;72(8):24-27. View abstract.

Srivastava, S. and Agarwal, A. Effect of anion channel blockers on L-arginine action in spermatozoa from asthenospermic men. Andrologia 2010;42(2):76-82. View abstract.

Stanislavov, R., Nikolova, V., and Rohdewald, P. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Phytother.Res 2009;23(3):297-302. View abstract.

Stechmiller, J. K. Understanding the role of nutrition and wound healing. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25(1):61-68. View abstract.

Stechmiller, J. K., Langkamp-Henken, B., Childress, B., Herrlinger-Garcia, K. A., Hudgens, J., Tian, L., Percival, S. S., and Steele, R. Arginine supplementation does not enhance serum nitric oxide levels in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. Biol.Res Nurs. 2005;6(4):289-299. View abstract.

Stokes, G. S., Barin, E. S., Gilfillan, K. L., and Kaesemeyer, W. H. Interactions of L-arginine, isosorbide mononitrate, and angiotensin II inhibitors on arterial pulse wave. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(9 Pt 1):719-724. View abstract.

Sullivan, K. J., Kissoon, N., Sandler, E., Gauger, C., Froyen, M., Duckworth, L., Brown, M., and Murphy, S. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide concentration in sickle cell anemia and acute chest syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol.Oncol. 2010;32(7):e249-e258. View abstract.

Sun, T., Zhou, W. B., Luo, X. P., Tang, Y. L., and Shi, H. M. Oral L-arginine supplementation in acute myocardial infarction therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin.Cardiol 2009;32(11):649-652. View abstract.

Sunderland, K. L., Greer, F., and Morales, J. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2011;25(3):833-837. View abstract.

Suzuki, T., Hayase, M., Hibi, K., Hosokawa, H., Yokoya, K., Fitzgerald, P. J., Yock, P. G., Cooke, J. P., Suzuki, T., and Yeung, A. C. Effect of local delivery of L-arginine on in-stent restenosis in humans. Am J Cardiol 2-15-2002;89(4):363-367. View abstract.

Sydow, K., Schwedhelm, E., Arakawa, N., Bode-Boger, S. M., Tsikas, D., Hornig, B., Frolich, J. C., and Boger, R. H. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc.Res 2003;57(1):244-252. View abstract.

Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Miwa, I., Taketani, T., Shimamura, K., and Sugino, N. Endometrial growth and uterine blood flow: a pilot study for improving endometrial thickness in the patients with a thin endometrium. Fertil.Steril. 2010;93(6):1851-1858. View abstract.

Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Tang, W., Xu, H., Kong, X., Li, X., Yao, K., Gu, W., Smith, S. B., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. J Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22(5):441-445. View abstract.

Tangphao, O., Grossmann, M., Chalon, S., Hoffman, B. B., and Blaschke, T. F. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1999;47(3):261-266. View abstract.

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Tepaske, R., te, Velthuis H., Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M., Bossuyt, P. M., Schultz, M. J., Eijsman, L., and Vroom, M. Glycine does not add to the beneficial effects of perioperative oral immune-enhancing nutrition supplements in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2007;31(3):173-180. View abstract.

Theilmeier, G., Chan, J. R., Zalpour, C., Anderson, B., Wang, B. Y., Wolf, A., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P. Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 1997;17(12):3557-3564. View abstract.

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Tripathi, P. and Misra, M. K. Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46(6):498-502. View abstract.

Tripathi, P., Chandra, M., and Misra, M. K. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2(4):231-237. View abstract.

Tsuei, B. J., Bernard, A. C., Barksdale, A. R., Rockich, A. K., Meier, C. F., and Kearney, P. A. Supplemental enteral arginine is metabolized to ornithine in injured patients. J Surg.Res 2005;123(1):17-24. View abstract.

Tuchman, M., Lee, B., Lichter-Konecki, U., Summar, M. L., Yudkoff, M., Cederbaum, S. D., Kerr, D. S., Diaz, G. A., Seashore, M. R., Lee, H. S., McCarter, R. J., Krischer, J. P., and Batshaw, M. L. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(4):397-402. View abstract.

van Bokhorst-De Van Der Schueren, MA, Quak, J. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Kuik, D. J., Langendoen, S. I., Snow, G. B., Green, C. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Effect of perioperative nutrition, with and without arginine supplementation, on nutritional status, immune function, postoperative morbidity, and survival in severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2001;73(2):323-332. View abstract.

van den Meiracker, A. H., van der Linde, N. A., Broere, A., Derkx, F. H., and Boomsma, F. Effects of L-arginine and L-NAME on the renal function in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nephron 2002;91(3):444-451. View abstract.

Vigano, E., Badalamenti, S., Paone, G., Como, G., Finazzi, S., Tarantino, A., Galmarini, D., and Ponticelli, C. Renal effects of L-arginine infusion in cyclosporine-treated transplant recipients. Transplant.Proc. 1994;26(5):2622-2623. View abstract.

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Wallace, A. W., Ratcliffe, M. B., Galindez, D., and Kong, J. S. L-arginine infusion dilates coronary vasculature in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Anesthesiology 1999;90(6):1577-1586. View abstract.

Wascher, T. C., Graier, W. F., Dittrich, P., Hussain, M. A., Bahadori, B., Wallner, S., and Toplak, H. Effects of low-dose L-arginine on insulin-mediated vasodilatation and insulin sensitivity. Eur.J Clin.Invest 1997;27(8):690-695. View abstract.

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Wideman, L., Weltman, J. Y., Patrie, J. T., Bowers, C. Y., Shah, N., Story, S., Veldhuis, J. D., and Weltman, A. Synergy of L-arginine and GHRP-2 stimulation of growth hormone in men and women: modulation by exercise. Am J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2000;279(4):R1467-R1477. View abstract.

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Winer, N., Branger, B., Azria, E., Tsatsaris, V., Philippe, H. J., Roze, J. C., Descamps, P., Boog, G., Cynober, L., and Darmaun, D. L-Arginine treatment for severe vascular fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a randomized double-bind controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2009;28(3):243-248. View abstract.

Wolf, A., Zalpour, C., Theilmeier, G., Wang, B. Y., Ma, A., Anderson, B., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll.Cardiol 3-1-1997;29(3):479-485. View abstract.

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Wolzt, M., Ugurluoglu, A., Schmetterer, L., Dorner, G., Zanaschka, G., Mensik, C., and Eichler, H. G. Exogenous L-arginine does not affect angiotensin II-induced renal vasoconstriction in man. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1998;45(1):71-75. View abstract.

Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Davis, T. A., Kim, S. W., Li, P., Marc, Rhoads J., Carey, Satterfield M., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., and Yin, Y. Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino.Acids 2009;37(1):153-168. View abstract.

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Yan, H., Peng, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, F., and Wang, P. Effects of early enteral arginine supplementation on resuscitation of severe burn patients. Burns 2007;33(2):179-184. View abstract.

Yeo, T. W., Lampah, D. A., Gitawati, R., Tjitra, E., Kenangalem, E., Granger, D. L., Weinberg, J. B., Lopansri, B. K., Price, R. N., Celermajer, D. S., Duffull, S. B., and Anstey, N. M. Safety profile of L-arginine infusion in moderately severe falciparum malaria. PLoS.One. 2008;3(6):e2347. View abstract.

Yin, W. H., Chen, J. W., Tsai, C., Chiang, M. C., Young, M. S., and Lin, S. J. L-arginine improves endothelial function and reduces LDL oxidation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24(6):988-997. View abstract.

Zamora, S. A., Amin, H. J., McMillan, D. D., Kubes, P., Fick, G. H., Butzner, J. D., Parsons, H. G., and Scott, R. B. Plasma L-arginine concentrations in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 1997;131(2):226-232. View abstract.

Zhang, X. Z., Ardissino, G., Ghio, L., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Colombo, D., Pace, E., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. L-arginine supplementation in young renal allograft recipients with chronic transplant dysfunction. Clin.Nephrol. 2001;55(6):453-459. View abstract.

Zhang, X. Z., Ghio, L., Ardissino, G., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. Renal and metabolic effects of L-arginine infusion in kidney transplant recipients. Clin.Nephrol. 1999;52(1):37-43. View abstract.

Zheng, Y., Li, F., Qi, B., Luo, B., Sun, H., Liu, S., and Wu, X. Application of perioperative immunonutrition for gastrointestinal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:253-257. View abstract.

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Alvares TS, Conte CA, Paschoalin VM, et al. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37(1):115-26. View abstract.

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Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int 1999;83:269-73. View abstract.

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Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:133-9. View abstract.

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Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic and clinical outcome. Surgery 1992;112:56-67. View abstract.

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Debats IB, Booi DI, Wehrens KM, et al. Oral arginine supplementation and the effect on skin graft donor sites: a randomized clinical pilot study. J Burn Care Res. 2009 May-Jun;30(3):417-26. View abstract.

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