Doctor's Notes on Lice (Head Lice, Body Lice, Pubic Lice)
Lice are gray-white or reddish/brown organisms about 2 mm to 3 mm in length; there are three major types of lice infestations in people - head lice, body lice, and pubic lice. Head lice can cause signs and symptoms of intense itching or tickling feeling from the movement of hair; you may be able to see the lice and/or lice eggs (nits) attached to hairs by a sticky substance they secrete. Signs and symptoms of body lice include intense itching, rash compose the red bumps on the skin, thick and/or dark skin, usually near the waist or groin. Body lice do not live on the body or attach to skin or hair, they are often found in bed sheets or clothing and are larger than other lice. Signs and symptoms of pubic lice are intense itching in the genital area, lice crawling in the area or clinging to hair and lice eggs attached to hairs. Almost all lice are visible to the eye without magnification.Head lice feed on the blood from human scalp, body lice feed on the skin and then detach themselves and live in bedding or clothing and pubic lice live and feed in the groin area. They cause the signs and symptoms related to lice by their localized bites (blood meal) and debris (feces) on the skin. Rarely, body lice have caused epidemics of typhus and relapsing fever due to poor hygiene during wars, for example.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.