Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly)
The causes of splenomegaly vary widely and range from malignancy (cancers), infections, congestion (increased blood flow), infiltration of the spleen from other diseases, inflammatory conditions, and blood cell diseases.
Some of the most common causes of an enlarged spleen include the following:
- liver disease (cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, fatty liver, long standing alcohol abuse);
- blood cancers (lymphoma, leukemia, myelofibrosis);
- infections (mononucleosis, bacterial endocarditis, malaria, AIDS, mycobacterium, leishmania);
- abnormal blood flow and congestion (splenic vein thrombosis, portal vein obstruction, congestive heart failure);
- Gaucher disease (a lipid storage disease);
- blood cell disorders (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, spherocytosis);
- inflammatory disease (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis);
- idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP); and
- polycythemia vera.