Menstrual cramps are either classified as primary or secondary dysmenorrhea. Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual cramps caused by another medical condition or disease, for example:
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Chronic PainChronic pain is pain that persists for a period of six months or longer, and is the result of a long-standing medical condition(s) or damage to the body. Common sources of chronic pain include headaches, back pain, and arthritis. There are several types of pain including general somatic pain, visceral pain, bone pain, muscle cramps, neuropathy, circulatory problems, and headache pain. Chronic pain may be managed with over-the-counter or prescription medications.
EndometriosisEndometriosis is a disease in which abnormal endometrial cells grow outside of the uterus and other organs commonly found in the pelvic area. Some women with endometriosis have no symptoms, but others with the disease may experience pelvic pain, pain during intercourse and during pelvic exams, cramping during sex, bowel movements, or while urinating. The four stages of endometriosis are minimal, mild, moderate, and severe. Medications and surgery are treatments for endometriosis. Endometriosis is a chronic condition and there is no cure.
Birth Control Hormonal MethodsHormonal types and of options for birth control, and include patches, rings, implants, injections, and the birth control pill. Common side effects of hormonal methods of birth control are headaches, anxiety, acne, weight gain, mood changes, decrease in sex drive, heart attack, and stroke. No birth control methods is 100% effective, nor does it protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) occurs during the first two weeks before a woman begins her menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS include: mood changes, behavioral changes, changes in physical functions; like headache, palpitations, bloating, breast tenderness, constipation, weight gain, fatigue, and diarrhea. Treatment for PMS include lifestyle changes and OTC or prescription medication.
Vaginal BleedingIn women, abnormal vaginal bleeding when is when they are not on their period (menstruation). Symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding outside of your period include red blood on the underwear or pajamas, pelvic or abdominal pain, and excessive pain from menstruating, or if you are pregnant. Causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding include unbalanced hormones, during pregnancy, after trauma, uterine fibroids, menopause, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Treatment for abnormal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding. Talk to your doctor or another healthcare professional if you have any abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Hormonal types and of options for birth control, and include patches, rings, implants, injections, and the birth control pill. Common side effects of hormonal methods of birth control are headaches, anxiety, acne, weight gain, mood changes, decrease in sex drive, heart attack, and stroke. No birth control methods is 100% effective, nor does it protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
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Menstrual Cramps Topic Guide - Visuals
Menstrual Cramps Topic Guide - Medications and Vitamins
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