Menstrual cramps are either classified as primary or secondary dysmenorrhea. Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual cramps caused by another medical condition or disease, for example:
Endometriosis is a disease in which abnormal endometrial cells grow outside of the uterus and other organs commonly found in the pelvic area. Some women with endometriosis have no symptoms, but others with the disease may experience pelvic pain, pain during intercourse and during pelvic exams, cramping during sex, bowel movements, or while urinating.
The four stages of endometriosis are minimal, mild, moderate, and severe. Medications and surgery are treatments for endometriosis. Endometriosis is a chronic condition and there is no cure.
Expert Views and News
Menstrual Cramps Topic Guide - Visuals
Menstrual Cramps Topic Guide - Medications and Vitamins
Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Celecoxib works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body...learn more »
There are many brands and forms of acetaminophen available. Not all brands are listed on this leaflet...learn more »
Fenoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Fenoprofen works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body...learn more »