- What is Mesothelioma in Children?
- What Are the Risk Factors for Mesothelioma in Children?
- What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Mesothelioma in Children?
- What Tests Diagnose Mesothelioma in Children?
- What Is the Prognosis and Treatment for Mesothelioma in Children?
- Mesothelioma in Children Topic Guide
- Doctor's Notes on Mesothelioma in Children Symptoms
What is Mesothelioma in Children?
Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the pleura (the thin layer of tissue that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs) or the peritoneum (the thin layer of tissue that lines the abdomen and covers most of the organs in the abdomen).
The tumors often spread over the surface of organs without spreading into the organ. They may spread to lymph nodes nearby or in other parts of the body.
Malignant mesothelioma may also form in the heart or testicles, but this is rare.
What Are the Risk Factors for Mesothelioma in Children?
Mesothelioma is sometimes a late effect of treatment for an earlier cancer, especially after treatment with radiation therapy. In adults, mesothelioma has been linked to being exposed to asbestos, which was once used as building insulation.
There is no information about the risk of mesothelioma in children exposed to asbestos.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Mesothelioma in Children?
Mesothelioma may cause any of the following signs and symptoms. Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:
- Trouble breathing.
- Pain under the rib cage.
- Weight loss for no known reason.
Other conditions that are not mesothelioma may cause these same signs and symptoms.
What Tests Diagnose Mesothelioma in Children?
Tests to diagnose and stage mesothelioma may include the following:
- Physical exam and history.
- X-ray of the chest.
- CT scan.
- PET scan.
- Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
Other tests used to diagnose mesothelioma include the following:
Bronchoscopy: A procedure to look inside the trachea and large airways in the lung for abnormal areas. A bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth into the trachea and lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
Thoracoscopy: A surgical procedure to look at the organs inside the chest to check for abnormal areas. An incision (cut) is made between two ribs and a thoracoscope is inserted into the chest. A thoracoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. In some cases, this procedure is used to remove part of the esophagus or lung.
Thoracotomy: An incision (cut) is made between two ribs to check inside the chest for signs of disease.
Cytologic exam: An exam of cells under a microscope (by a pathologist) to check for anything abnormal. For mesothelioma, fluid is taken from around the lungs or from the abdomen. A pathologist checks the cells in the fluid.
What Is the Prognosis and Treatment for Mesothelioma in Children?
The prognosis (chance of recovery) is better when the tumor has not spread.
Treatment of mesothelioma in children may include the following:
- Surgery to remove the part of the chest lining with cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.
- Radiation therapy, as palliative therapy, to relieve pain and improve quality of life.
Treatment of recurrent mesothelioma in children may include the following:
- A clinical trial that checks a sample of the patient's tumor for certain gene changes. The type of targeted therapy that will be given to the patient depends on the type of gene change.
For more information, read our full medical article on mesothelioma signs, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis