Metabolic Syndrome

Reviewed on 9/22/2022

What Is Metabolic Syndrome?

Contributing factors for metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance leading to obesity
Most people with metabolic syndrome are overweight or obese.
  • The term metabolic syndrome is well recognized in the medical literature and in the lay press as well. Metabolic syndrome (also referred to as syndrome X or dysmetabolic syndrome) refers to an association between certain metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. While the criteria for the diagnosis vary, the concept of clustering of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular disease is well accepted.
  • The main characteristics of metabolic syndrome include:
  • Most people with metabolic syndrome are overweight or obese.
  • Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition in which the cells of the body become resistant to the effects of insulin. Because of the central role that insulin resistance plays in metabolic syndrome, a separate article is devoted to insulin resistance.
  • The most widely accepted definition of metabolic syndrome is based on the guidelines from the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III).
  • Any three of the following traits in the same individual meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome:
  1. Abdominal obesity: a waist circumference over 102 cm (40 in) in men and over 88 cm (35 inches) in women.
  2. Serum triglycerides: 150 mg/dl or above.
  3. HDL cholesterol: 40 mg/dl or lower in men and 50mg/dl or lower in women.
  4. Blood pressure of 130/85 or more.
  5. Fasting blood glucose of 110 mg/dl or above. (Some groups say 100mg/dl)

What Causes Metabolic Syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is unfortunately common.

Weight is a significant influence on the development of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is present in a small percentage of people with normal body weight, while it is present in a significant percentage of individuals who are overweight, and a majority of individuals are considered obese. Adults who continue to gain five or more pounds per year raise their risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

As is true with many medical conditions, genetics and the environment both play important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors influence each individual component of the syndrome, and the syndrome itself. A family history that includes type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and early heart disease greatly increases the chance that an individual will develop metabolic syndrome. Environmental issues such as low activity levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and progressive weight gain also contribute significantly to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Obesity is likely the greatest risk factor for metabolic syndrome; however other risk factors of concern include:

  • women who are post-menopausal
  • smoking
  • eating an excessively high carbohydrate diet
  • lack of activity (even without weight change)

What Are the Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome?

Symptoms depend on which components of the syndrome are present.

When Should I Seek Medical Care for Metabolic Syndrome?

If you have any of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, or if you are at risk for any of the components of metabolic syndrome, you should discuss this with your health care practitioner. Similarly, if you have a strong family history of heart disease, stroke, early cardiac death, obesity, and/or diabetes, you should seek medical advice.

What Are the Exams and Tests for Metabolic Syndrome?

A detailed history and physical examination should be performed. Each individual component of the syndrome should be evaluated distinctly. All of the following exams or tests may be warranted:

Cardiac risk factors can be assessed to estimate cardiovascular risk. These may include lipid levels, electrocardiograms, stress testing, angiograms, and more detailed assessments if necessary.

What Is the Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome?

Treatment for metabolic syndrome ranges from changes in diet and lifestyle to administering cholesterol-lowering and diabetes medications. The goals are to lower blood pressure and control body weight.

Self-Care at Home for Metabolic Syndrome

Lifestyle modification is the preferred treatment for metabolic syndrome. Weight reduction usually requires a tailored multifaceted program for the patient, including diet and exercise. Medications may be helpful in some instances. As noted above, most people who have metabolic syndrome are overweight and lead a sedentary lifestyle.


A detailed discussion of therapeutic diets and the pros and cons of each diet is beyond the scope of this article. However, one diet that is palatable and easily sustained and has shown benefit is the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet is rich in olive oil (a "good fat") and contains a reasonable and sustainable amount of protein and carbohydrates. Some studies have suggested that when compared to a low-fat diet, people on the Mediterranean diet have had a greater decrease in body weight, greater improvements in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and improvement in other markers of heart disease; all of which are important in evaluating and treating metabolic syndrome.


A regular and consistent exercise program is also an important lifestyle modification that can be accomplished at home or a gym. Thirty minutes of exercise five days a week is a good start, provided there are no medical contraindications to exercise. (It is prudent to consult your physician prior to starting any exercise program.) Lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels, along with increasing insulin sensitivity, are beneficial effects of a regular consistent exercise program, regardless of whether weight loss is achieved. Thus, exercise is still a helpful tool in treating metabolic syndrome.

What Is the Medical Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome?

Medical management should be aimed at targeting the components of metabolic syndrome that are present.

If a patient with metabolic syndrome has already had a heart attack, their LDL ("bad") cholesterol should be reduced to a level below 70mg/dl. Lifestyle modifications and medications may both be necessary to achieve this desired reduction.

A person with diabetes has a heart attack risk equivalent to that of someone who has already a heart attack, and should be treated the same as a patient who has had a heart attack. What remains controversial is whether metabolic syndrome should be considered sufficient to raise the risk to this degree. If a patient has metabolic syndrome, a detailed discussion about therapy to reduce blood lipid levels is necessary between the patient and the doctor, as each individual case is unique.

Goals for lowering blood pressure are generally set lower than 130/80. In addition to lowering blood pressure, some blood pressure medications have other effects on the body. For example, ACE inhibitors (a class of blood pressure drugs) has been found to reduce the levels of insulin resistance and thus may slow the development of type 2 diabetes. This is an important consideration when discussing the choice of blood pressure drugs for a patient with metabolic syndrome.

While a healthy body weight should also be a goal of treatment, it is important to remember that a reduction in weight can have a dramatic benefit on lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels and increasing insulin sensitivity.

What Medications Are Used to Treat Metabolic Syndrome?

Medications should be tailored to target the specific components of the metabolic syndrome that are present in the patient.

Cholesterol-lowering drug classes include statins and fibrates. Blood pressure medications of various classes can be used, with consideration of coexisting diseases or conditions. Aspirin may be considered to reduce cardiac risk, along with supplements such as fish oils.

Metformin (Glucophage), usually used to treat type 2 diabetes, also has been found to help prevent the onset of diabetes in people with metabolic syndrome. Many patients who have insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome opt for metformin therapy. However, there are currently no established guidelines on treating metabolic syndrome patients with metformin if they do not have overt diabetes.

What Is the Follow-Up for Metabolic Syndrome?

Routine follow-up is recommended for patients with metabolic syndrome, both to address the treatment of the components present, as well as to monitor for the development of heart disease or associated problems.

How to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome

Prevention of metabolic syndrome in its entirety may not be possible in all cases, given the genetic contribution. However, there are ways to prevent the worsening of the individual components.

Prevention methods include:

  • A consistent exercise routine: walking, bicycling, swimming, yoga, etc. Find an exercise buddy if you can't seem to be consistent with the routine.
  • Take a walk during your work break, even if it is just around the building.
  • Choose healthier foods and pass on the junk food.
  • Evaluate what you feed your children. Are they eating healthy as well? Childhood obesity is rising dramatically in the United States.
  • Urge children to go outside and play to get some exercise.

It all adds up. Preventing metabolic syndrome really means having a healthy sustainable lifestyle.

What Is the Outlook for Metabolic Syndrome?

While these treatment options can be addressed at a doctor's office, implementation really has to occur in the real world. In addition to medications, an active attempt to choose healthier foods and exercise regularly is necessary. With sincere effort, we can alter the course of the syndrome in a positive way.

QUIZ: Test your knowlege about metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors that come together in a single individual. Specifically, metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the following: high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol levels, and belly fat - all of which increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes.

Obviously, having any one of these risk factors isn't good. But when they're combined, they set the stage for grave problems. These risk factors double your risk of blood vessel disease and heart disease, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. These risk factors increase your risk of diabetes by 5 times.

Reviewed on 9/22/2022
Medically reviewed by Robert J. Bryg, MD; Board Certified Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Cardiovascular Disease


"The metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X)"