- What other names is Niacin known by?
- What is Niacin?
- How does Niacin work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Niacin.
3-Pyridinecarboxylic Acid, Acide Nicotinique, Acide Pyridine-Carboxylique-3, Anti-Blacktongue Factor, Antipellagra Factor, B Complex Vitamin, Complexe de Vitamines B, Facteur Anti-Pellagre, Niacina, Niacine, Nicosedine, Nicotinic Acid, Pellagra Preventing Factor, Vitamin B3, Vitamin PP, Vitamina B3, Vitamine B3, Vitamine PP.
Niacin is a form of vitamin B3. It is found in foods such as yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains. Niacin is also produced in the body from tryptophan, which is found in protein-containing food. When taken as a supplement, niacin is often found in combination with other B vitamins.
Do not confuse niacin with niacinamide, inositol nicotinate, IP-6, or tryptophan. See the separate listings for these topics.
Niacin is taken by mouth for high cholesterol and other fats. It is also used for low levels of a specific type of cholesterol, HDL. It is also used along with other treatments for circulation problems, migraine headache, Meniere's syndrome and other causes of dizziness, and to reduce the diarrhea associated with cholera. Niacin is also taken by mouth to for preventing positive urine drug screens in people who take illegal drugs.
Niacin is taken by mouth for preventing vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra. It is also taken by mouth for schizophrenia, hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, muscle spasms, depression, motion sickness, alcohol dependence, blood vessel swelling linked with skin lesions, and fluid collection (edema).
Some people take niacin by mouth for acne, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), preventing premenstrual headache, improving digestion, protecting against toxins and pollutants, reducing the effects of aging, arthritis, lowering blood pressure, improving circulation, promoting relaxation, improving orgasms, and preventing cataracts. It is also used to improve exercise performance.
Likely Effective for...
- Abnormal levels of blood fats. Some niacin products are FDA-approved prescription products for treating abnormal levels of blood fats. These prescription niacin products typically come in high strengths of 500 mg or higher. Dietary supplement forms of niacin usually come in strengths of 250 mg or less. Since very high doses of niacin are required for improving cholesterol levels, dietary supplement niacin usually isn't appropriate. For most people who need to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, niacin is considered a second-line therapy. But it may be used as a first line of treatment in people with high levels of both cholesterol AND blood fats called triglycerides. Niacin may be combined with other cholesterol-lowering drugs when diet and single-drug therapy is not enough.
- Treatment and prevention of niacin deficiency, and certain conditions related to niacin deficiency such as pellagra. Niacin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. However, using niacinamide instead of niacin is sometimes preferred because niacinamide doesn't cause "flushing," (redness, itching and tingling), a side effect of niacin treatment.
Possibly Effective for...
- Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Taking niacin by mouth along with medicines called bile acid sequestrants seems to reduce hardening of the arteries in men with this condition. It seems to work best in people with high levels of blood fats called triglycerides prior to treatment. Taking niacin with cholesterol-lowering medications also seems to reduce the risk of adverse heart-related adverse events in people with a history of narrowing or hardening of the arteries.
- Diarrhea from an infection called cholera. Taking niacin by mouth seems to control the loss of fluid due to cholera.
- Abnormal levels of blood fats in people with HIV/AIDS. Taking niacin seems to improve levels of cholesterol and blood fats called triglycerides in HIV/AIDS patients with abnormal blood fat levels due to antiretroviral treatment.
- Metabolic syndrome. Taking niacin seems to increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol and reduce levels of blood fats called triglycerides in people with metabolic syndrome. Taking the niacin along with a prescription omega-3 fatty acid seems to work even better.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Alzheimer's disease. People who consume higher amounts of niacin from food and multivitamins seem to have a lower risk of getting Alzheimer's disease than people who consume less niacin. But there is no evidence that taking a stand-alone niacin supplement helps to prevent Alzheimer's disease.
- Cataracts. Taking niacin by mouth might reduce the risk of nuclear cataracts. Nuclear cataract is the most common type of cataract.
- Erectile dysfunction. Taking extended-release niacin seems to help men with erectile dysfunction maintain an erection during sexual intercourse.
- Exercise performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing niacin and other ingredients before exercise does not improve performance during exercise in men.
- High levels of phosphate in the blood (hyperphosphatemia). High blood levels of phosphate can result from kidney dysfunction. Some early research shows that taking niacin by mouth can reduce blood levels of phosphate in people with end-stage kidney disease and high levels of blood phosphate. But other research shows that taking niacin by mouth at a higher dose does not lower blood phosphate levels when taken along with medication used to lower blood phosphate levels.
- Alcohol dependence.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Drug-induced hallucinations.
- Migraine or premenstrual headache.
- Motion sickness.
- Other conditions.
Niacin is absorbed by the body when dissolved in water and taken by mouth. It is converted to niacinamide if taken in amounts greater than what is needed by the body.
Niacin is required for the proper function of fats and sugars in the body and to maintain healthy cells. At high doses, niacin might help people with heart disease because of its beneficial effects on clotting. It may also improve levels of a certain type of fat called triglycerides in the blood.
Niacin deficiency can cause a condition called pellagra, which causes skin irritation, diarrhea, and dementia. Pellagra was common in the early twentieth century, but is less common now, since some foods containing flour are now fortified with niacin. Pellagra has been virtually eliminated in western culture.
People with poor diet, alcoholism, and some types of slow-growing tumors called carcinoid tumors might be at risk for niacin deficiency.
Niacin is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth. A common minor side effect of niacin is a flushing reaction. This might cause burning, tingling, itching, and redness of the face, arms, and chest, as well as headaches. Starting with small doses of niacin and taking 325 mg of aspirin before each dose of niacin will help reduce the flushing reaction. Usually, this reaction goes away as the body gets used to the medication. Alcohol can make the flushing reaction worse. Avoid large amounts of alcohol while taking niacin.
Other minor side effects of niacin are stomach upset, intestinal gas, dizziness, pain in the mouth, and other problems.
When doses of over 3 grams per day of niacin are taken, more serious side effects can happen. These include liver problems, gout, ulcers of the digestive tract, loss of vision, high blood sugar, irregular heartbeat, and other serious problems.
Some concern has been raised about stroke risk in people taking niacin. In one large study, people who took high doses of niacin had a two-fold greater risk of stroke compared to those not taking niacin. However, it is unlikely that this outcome was due to niacin. Most experts believe that it is too soon to draw any conclusions about niacin and strokes.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Niacin is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women when taken in the recommended amounts. The recommended amount of niacin for pregnant or breast-feeding women is 30 mg per day for women under 18 years of age, and 35 mg for women over 18.
Crohn's disease: People with Crohn's disease might have low niacin levels and require supplementation during flare-ups.
Gallbladder disease: Niacin might make gallbladder disease worse.
Stomach or intestinal ulcers: Niacin might make ulcers worse. Don't use large amounts if you have ulcers.
Surgery: Niacin might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking niacin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Fatty deposits around tendons (tendon xanthomas): Niacin might increase the risk of infections in xanthomas.
Thyroid disorders: Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. Niacin might lower blood levels of thyroxine. This might worsen symptoms of certain thyroid disorders.
Alcohol (Ethanol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacin can cause flushing and itchiness. Consuming alcohol along with niacin might make the flushing and itching worse. There is also some concern that consuming alcohol with niacin might increase the chance of having liver damage.
Allopurinol (Zyloprim)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Allopurinol (Zyloprim) is used to treat gout. Taking large doses of niacin might worsen gout and decrease the effectiveness of allopurinol (Zyloprim).
Clonidine (Catapres)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Clonidine and niacin both lower blood pressure. Taking niacin with clonidine might cause your blood pressure to become too low.
Gemfibrozil (Lopid)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking niacin along with gemfibrozil might cause muscle damage in some people. Use with caution.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Use of high doses of niacin (about 3-4 grams daily) might increase blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, niacin might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), metformin (Glucophage), nateglinide (Starlix), repaglinide (Prandin), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Using niacin with drugs that lower blood pressure may increase the effects of these drugs and may lower blood pressure too much.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacin might harm the liver. Sustained-release niacin preparations seem to have the greatest risk. Taking niacin along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take niacin if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.
Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacin might slow blood clotting. Taking niacin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Bile acid sequestrants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications for lowering cholesterol called bile acid sequestrants can decrease how much niacin the body absorbs. This might reduce the effectiveness of niacin. Take niacin and the medications at least 4-6 hours apart.
Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacin can adversely affect the muscles. Some medications used for lowering cholesterol called statins can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with these medications might increase the risk of muscle problems.
Some of these medications used for high cholesterol include rosuvastatin (Crestor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), fluvastatin (Lescol), and simvastatin (Zocor).
ProbenecidInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Probenecid is used to treat gout. Taking large doses of niacin might worsen gout and decrease the effectiveness of probenecid.
Sulfinpyrazone (Anturane)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Sulfinpyrazone (Anturane) is used to treat gout. Taking large doses of niacin might worsen gout and decrease the effectiveness of sulfinpyrazone (Anturane).
Thyroid hormoneInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body naturally produces thyroid hormones. Niacin might decrease thyroid hormone levels. Taking niacin with thyroid hormone pills might decrease the effects and side effects of thyroid hormone.
AspirinInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Aspirin is often used with niacin to reduce the flushing caused by niacin. Taking high doses of aspirin might decrease how fast the body gets rid of niacin. This could cause there to be too much niacin in the body and possibly lead to side effects. However, the low doses of aspirin most commonly used for niacin-related flushing don't seem to be a problem.
Nicotine patch (Transdermal nicotine)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacin can sometimes cause flushing and dizziness. The nicotine patch can also cause flushing and dizziness. Taking niacin or niacinamide and using a nicotine patch can increase the possibility of becoming flushed and dizzy.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For high cholesterol: The effects of niacin are dose-dependent. Doses of niacin have been as low as 50 mg and as high as 12 grams each day have been used. However,But tThe most common doses are between 1-3 grams daily.biggest increases in HDL and decreases in triglycerides occur at 1200-1500 mg/day. Niacin's greatest effects on LDL occur at 2000-3000 mg/day. Niacin may be is often used with other medications for improving cholesterol levels.
- For preventing and treating vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra: 300-1000 mg daily in divided doses.
- For treating hardening of the arteries: Doses of niacin have been as high as 12 grams daily. However, dose of about 1000-4200 mg1-4 grams of niacin daily, alone or along with statins or bile acid sequestrantscholesterol-lowering medicine, has beenis most commonly used for up to 6.2 years.
- For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: 2 grams daily has been used.
- For abnormal blood fat levels due to treatment for HIV/AIDS: Up to 2 grams daily has been used.
- For metabolic syndrome: 2 grams of niacin has been taken daily for 16 weeks. In some cases it is taken Niacin 2 grams daily, alone or at this dosage along with 4 grams of prescription omega-3 ethyl esters (Lovaza, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals)
- For preventing and treating vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra: 60 mg of niacin has been used.
- For preventing and treating vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra: 60 mg of niacin has been used.
- For preventing and treating vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra: 100-300 mg per day of niacin, given in divided doses.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Mielke, M., Zuniga, J. M., Camic, C. L., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press and leg extension strength and time to exhaustion during cycle ergometry. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(3):859-865. View abstract.
Urberg, M., Benyi, J., and John, R. Hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation. J Fam.Pract. 1988;27(6):603-606. View abstract.
- Blankenhorn DH, Malinow MR, Mack WJ. Colestipol plus niacin therapy elevates plasma homocysteine levels. Coron Art Dis 1991;2(3):357-360.
Alhadeff L, Gualtieri CT, Lipton M. Toxic effects of water-soluble vitamins. Nutr Rev. 1984;42(2):33-40. View abstract.
Ali EH, McJunkin B, Jubelirer S, Hood W. Niacin induced coagulopathy as a manifestation of occult liver injury. W V Med J. 2013 Jan-Feb;109(1):12-4 View abstract.
American Dietetic Association Website. Available at: www.eatright.org/adap1097.html (Accessed 16 July 1999).
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP Therapeutic Position Statement on the safe use of niacin in the management of dyslipidemias. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997;54:2815-9. View abstract.
Andersson RG, Aberg G, Brattsand R, Ericsson E, Lundholm L. Studies on the mechanism of flush induced by nicotinic acid. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1977 Jul;41(1):1-10. View abstract.
Anon. Niacinamide Monograph. Alt Med Rev 2002;7:525-9. View abstract.
Aramwit P, Srisawadwong R, Supasyndh O. Effectiveness and safety of extended-release nicotinic acid for reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol. 2012 May-Jun;25(3):354-62. View abstract.
Aronov DM, Keenan JM, Akhmedzhanov NM, et al. Clinical trial of wax-matrix sustained-release niacin in a Russian population with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Fam Med. 1996;5(10):567-75. View abstract.
Balasubramanyam A, Coraza I, Smith EO, et al. Combination of niacin and fenofibrate with lifestyle changes improves dyslipidemia and hypoadiponectinemia in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: results of "heart positive," a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):2236-47. View abstract.
Ban TA. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 May;30(3):429-41.View abstract.
Bassan M. A case for immediate-release niacin. Heart Lung. 2012 Jan-Feb;41(1):95-8. View abstract.
Bays HE, Dujovne CA. Drug interactions of lipid-altering drugs. Drug Saf 1998;19:355-71. View abstract.
Bender DA, Earl CJ, Lees AJ. Niacin depletion in Parkinsonian patients treated with L-dopa, benserazide and carbidopa. Clinical Sci 1979;56:89-93. . View abstract.
Bender DA, Russell-Jones R. Isoniazid-induced pellagra despite vitamin B6 supplementation (letter). Lancet 1979;2:1125-6. View abstract.
Berge KG, Canner PL. Coronary drug project: experience with niacin. Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;40 Suppl 1:S49-51. View abstract.
Bingham LG, Verma SB. A photodistributed rash. (Self-Assessment examination of the American Academy of Dermatology). J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:929-32.
Blankenhorn DH, Nessim SA, Johnson RL, et al. Beneficial effects of combined colestipol-niacin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis and coronary venous bypass grafts. JAMA. 1987;257(23):3233-40. View abstract.
Blankenhorn DH, Selzer RH, Crawford DW, et al. Beneficial effects of colestipol-niacin therapy on the common carotid artery. Two- and four-year reduction of intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound. Circulation. 1993;88(1):20-8. View abstract.
Brazda FG and Coulson RA. Toxicity of nicotinic acid and some of its derivatives. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1946;62:19-20.
Brooks-Hill RW, Bishop ME, Vellend H. Pellagra-like encephalopathy complicating a multiple drug regimen for the treatment of pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (letter). Am Rev Resp Dis 1985;131:476. View abstract.
Brown BG, Bardsley J, Poulin D, et al. Moderate dose, three-drug therapy with niacin, lovastatin, and colestipol to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dl in patients with hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80(2):111-5. View abstract.
Brown BG, Zambon A, Poulin D, et al. Use of niacin, statins, and resins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81(4A):52B-59B. View abstract.
Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.
Brown G, Albers JJ, Fisher LD, et al. Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B. N Engl J Med. 1990;323(19):1289-98. View abstract.
Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Indications, effectiveness, and safety. Postgrad Med. 1995 Aug;98(2):185-9, 192-3. View abstract.
Bruckert E, Labreuche J, Amarenco P. Meta-analysis of the effect of nicotinic acid alone or in combination on cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2010;210(2):353-61. View abstract.
Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;8:1245-55. View abstract.
Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR, Morgan JM, et al. Efficacy and safety of an extended-release niacin (Niaspan): a long-term study. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:74-81;disc. 85U-6U. View abstract.
Carlson LA, Rosenhamer G. Reduction of mortality in the Stockholm Ischaemic Heart Disease Secondary Prevention Study by combined treatment with clofibrate and nicotinic acid. Acta Med Scand. 1988;223(5):405-18. View abstract.
Cases S, Smith SJ, Zheng YW, et al. Identification of a gene encoding an acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(22):13018-23. View abstract.
Cashin-Hemphill L, Spencer CA, Nicoloff JT, et al. Alterations in serum thyroid hormonal indices with colestipol-niacin therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107(3):324-9. View abstract.
Charland SL, Malone DC. Prediction of cardiovascular event risk reduction from lipid changes associated with high potency dyslipidemia therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26(2):365-75. View abstract.
Chen KK, Rose CL, Robbins EB. Toxicity of nicotinic acid. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1938;38:241-245.
Chesney CM, Elam MB, Herd JA, et al. Effect of niacin, warfarin, and antioxidant therapy on coagulation parameters in patients with peripheral arterial disease in the Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial (ADMIT). Am Heart J 2000;140:631-6.. View abstract.
Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1320-6. View abstract.
Colletti RB, Neufeld EJ, Roff NK, et al. Niacin treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children. Pediatrics. 1993 Jul;92(1):78-82. View abstract.
Crouse JR III. New developments in the use of niacin for treatment of hyperlipidemia: new considerations in the use of an old drug. Coron Artery Dis 1996;7:321-6. View abstract.
Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2000;10:450-6. View abstract.
Darvay A, Basarab T, McGregor JM, Russell-Jones R. Isoniazid induced pellagra despite pyridoxine supplementation. Clin Exp Dermatol 1999;24:167-9. View abstract.
Datta S, Das DK, Engelman RM, et al. Enhanced myocardial preservation by nicotinic acid, an antilipolytic compound: mechanism of action. Basic Res Cardiol. 1989;84(1):63-76. View abstract.
Davidson MH, Rooney M, Pollock E, Drucker J, Choy Y. Effect of colesevelam and niacin on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemic control in subjects with dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose. J Clin Lipidol. 2013 Sep-Oct;7(5):423-32. View abstract.
Davignon J, Roederer G, Montigny M, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of pravastatin, nicotinic acid and the two combined in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol. 1994;73(5):339-45. View abstract.
Dearing BD, Lavie CJ, Lohmann TP, Genton E. Niacin-induced clotting factor synthesis deficiency with coagulopathy. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(4):861-3. View abstract.
Ding RW, Kolbe K, Merz B, et al. Pharmacokinetics of nicotinic acid-salicylic acid interaction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989;46:642-7. View abstract.
Drinka PJ. Alterations in thyroid and hepatic function tests associated with preparations of sustained-release niacin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67(12):1206. View abstract.
Dubé MP, Wu JW, Aberg JA, et al. Safety and efficacy of extended-release niacin for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with HIV infection: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5148. Antivir Ther. 2006;11(8):1081-9. View abstract.
Duggal JK, Singh M, Attri N, et al. Effect of niacin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010;15(2):158-66. View abstract.
Dunn RT, Ford MA, Rindone JP, Kwiecinski FA. Low-Dose Aspirin and Ibuprofen Reduce the Cutaneous Reactions Following Niacin Administration. Am J Ther. 1995;2(7):478-480. View abstract.
Earthman TP, Odom L, Mullins CA. Lactic acidosis associated with high-dose niacin therapy. South Med J. 1991;84(4):496-7. View abstract.
Eklund B, Kaijser L, Nowak J, Wennmalm A. Prostaglandins contribute to the vasodilation induced by nicotinic acid. Prostaglandins. 1979;17(6):821-30. View abstract.
Elam MB, Hunninghake DB, Davis KB, et al. Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: A randomized trial. Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial. JAMA. 2000;284(10):1263-70. View abstract.
Etchason JA, Miller TD, Squires RW, et al. Niacin-induced hepatitis: a potential side effect with low-dose time-release niacin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1991;66(1):23-8. View abstract.
FDA statement on the AIM-HIGH trial. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm256841.htm. (Accessed 3 June 2011).
Figge HL, Figge J, Souney PF, et al. Comparison of excretion of nicotinuric acid after ingestion of two controlled release nicotinic acid preparations in man. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Dec;28(12):1136-40. View abstract.
Figge HL, Figge J, Souney PF, et al. Nicotinic acid: a review of its clinical use in the treatment of lipid disorders. Pharmacotherapy 1988;8:287-94. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/.
Fouts PJ, Helmer OM, Lepkovsky S, and et al. Treatment of human pellagra with nicotinic acid. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1937;37:405-407.
Fraunfelder FW, Fraunfelder FT, Illingworth DR. Adverse ocular effects associated with niacin therapy. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:54-56.
Gadegbeku CA, Dhandayuthapani A, Shrayyef MZ, Egan BM. Hemodynamic effects of nicotinic acid infusion in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(1):67-71. View abstract.
Ganji SH, Tavintharan S, Zhu D, Xing Y, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin noncompetitively inhibits DGAT2 but not DGAT1 activity in HepG2 cells. J Lipid Res. 2004;45(10):1835-45. View abstract.
Garg A, Grundy SM. Nicotinic acid as therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1990;264:723-6. View abstract.
Garg R, Malinow MR, Pettinger M, et al. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocysteine levels. Am Heart J 1999;138:1082-7. View abstract.
Garnett WR. Interactions with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995;52(15):1639-45. View abstract.
Gerber MT, Mondy KE, Yarasheski KE, et al. Niacin in HIV-infected individuals with hyperlipidemia receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(3):419-25. View abstract.
Gharavi AG, Diamond JA, Smith DA, Phillips RA. Niacin-induced myopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(8):841-2. View abstract.
Gibbons LW, Gonzalez V, Gordon N, Grundy S. The prevalence of side effects with regular and sustained-release nicotinic acid. Am J Med 1995;99:378-85. View abstract.
Gillman MA, Sandyk R. Nicotinic acid deficiency induced by sodium valproate (letter). S Afr Med J 1984;65:986. View abstract.
Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85(9):1100-5. View abstract.
Goldberg AC. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies on the effects of extended-release niacin in women. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94(1):121-4. View abstract.
Gray DR, Morgan T, Chretien SD, Kashyap ML. Efficacy and safety of controlled-release niacin in dyslipoproteinemic veterans. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:252-8. View abstract.
Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J, et al. Extended-release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan-Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1177-84. View abstract.
Guyton JR, Fazio S, Adewale AJ, Jensen E, Tomassini JE, Shah A, Tershakovec AM. Effect of extended-release niacin on new-onset diabetes among hyperlipidemic patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin in a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2012 Apr;35(4):857-60. View abstract.
Guyton JR, Goldberg AC, Kreisberg RA, et al. Effectiveness of once-nightly dosing of extended-release niacin alone and in combination for hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:737-43. View abstract.
Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
He YM, Feng L, Huo DM, Yang ZH, Liao YH. Benefits and harm of niacin and its analog for renal dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014 Feb;46(2):433-42. View abstract.
Hendricks WM. Pellagra and pellagralike dermatoses: etiology, differential diagnosis, dermatopathology, and treatment. Semin Dermatol 1991;10:282-92. View abstract.
Henkin Y, Johnson KC, Segrest JP. Rechallenge with crystalline niacin after drug-induced hepatitis from sustained-release niacin. JAMA. 1990;264(2):241-3. View abstract.
Henkin Y, Oberman A, Hurst DC, Segrest JP. Niacin revisited: clinical observations on an important but underutilized drug. Am J Med. 1991;91(3):239-46. View abstract.
Hexeberg S, Retterstøl K. [Hypertriglyceridemia--diagnostics, risk and treatment]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004;124(21):2746-9. View abstract.
Hoskin PJ, Stratford MR, Saunders MI, et al. Administration of nicotinamide during chart: pharmacokinetics, dose escalation, and clinical toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:1111-9. View abstract.
Illingworth DR, Stein EA, Mitchel YB, et al. Comparative effects of lovastatin and niacin in primary hypercholesterolemia. A prospective trial. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1586-95. View abstract.
Ioannides-Demos LL, Christophidis N, et al. Dosing implications of a clinical interaction between grapefruit juice and cyclosporine and metabolite concentrations in patients with autoimmune diseases. J Rheumatol 1997;24:49-54. View abstract.
Ishii N, Nishihara Y. Pellagra encephalopathy among tuberculous patients: its relation to isoniazid therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1985;48:628-34. View abstract.
Ito MK. Advances in the understanding and management of dyslipidemia: using niacin-based therapies. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2003;60(suppl 2):s15-21. View abstract.
Jarrett P, Duffill M, Oakley A, Smith A. Pellagra, azathioprine and inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997;22:44-5. View abstract.
Jin FY, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin decreases removal of high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I but not cholesterol ester by Hep G2 cells. Implication for reverse cholesterol transport. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17(10):2020-8. View abstract.
Johansson JO, Egberg N, Asplund-Carlson A, Carlson LA. Nicotinic acid treatment shifts the fibrinolytic balance favourably and decreases plasma fibrinogen in hypertriglyceridaemic men. J Cardiovasc Risk 1997;4:165-71. View abstract.
Jungnickel PW, Maloley PA, Vander Tuin EL, et al. Effect of two aspirin pretreatment regimens on niacin-induced cutaneous reactions. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12:591-6. View abstract.
Kahn SE, Beard JC, Schwartz MW, et al. Increased B-cell secretory capacity as mechanism for islet adaptation to nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes 1989;38:562-8. View abstract.
Kaijser L, Eklund B, Olsson AG, Carlson LA. Dissociation of the effects of nicotinic acid on vasodilatation and lipolysis by a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, in man. Med Biol. 1979;57(2):114-7. View abstract.
Karpe F, Frayn KN. The nicotinic acid receptor--a new mechanism for an old drug. Lancet. 2004;363(9424):1892-4. View abstract.
Karthikeyan K, Thappa DM. Pellagra and skin. Int J Dermatol 2002;41:476-81. View abstract.
Kaur S, Goraya JS, Thami GP, Kanwar AJ. Pellagrous dermatitis induced by phenytoin (letter). Pediatr Derm 2002;19:93. View abstract.
Keene D, Price C, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis DP. Effect on cardiovascular risk of high density lipoprotein targeted drug treatments niacin, fibrates, and CETP inhibitors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including 117,411 patients. BMJ. 2014 Jul 18;349:g4379. View abstract.
Kei A, Liberopoulos EN, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf M. Comparison of switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin vs. add-on nicotinic acid vs. add-on fenofibrate for mixed dyslipidaemia. Int J Clin Pract. 2013 May;67(5):412-9. View abstract.
Knodel LC, Talbert RL. Adverse effects of hypolipidaemic drugs. Med Toxicol 1987;2:10-32. View abstract.
Knopp RH, Alagona P, Davidson M, et al. Equivalent efficacy of a time-release form of niacin (Niaspan) given once-a-night versus plain niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Metabolism 1998;47:1097-104. View abstract.
Knopp RH. Clinical profiles of plain versus sustained-release niacin (Niaspan) and the physiologic rationale for nighttime dosing. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:24U-28U;discussion 39U-41U. View abstract.
Kuroki F, Iida M, Tominaga M, et al. Multiple vitamin status in Crohn's disease. Correlation with disease activity. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1614-8. View abstract.
Lakey WC, Greyshock N, Guyton JR. Adverse reactions of Achilles tendon xanthomas in three hypercholesterolemic patients after treatment intensification with niacin and bile acid sequestrants. J Clin Lipidol. 2013 Mar-Apr;7(2):178-81. View abstract.
Lal SM, Hewett JE, Petroski GF, et al. Effects of nicotinic acid and lovastatin in renal transplant patients: a prospective, randomized, open-labeled crossover trial. Am J Kidney Dis 1995;25:616-22. View abstract.
Lanska DJ. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;95:445-76. View abstract.
Lavigne PM, Karas RH. The current state of niacin in cardiovascular disease prevention: a systematic review and meta-regression. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jan 29;61(4):440-6. View abstract.
Leighton RF, Gordon NF, Small GS, et al. Dental and gingival pain as side effects of niacin therapy. Chest 1998;114:1472-4. View abstract.
Lisi DM. Niacin and hyperuricemia: how often does it occur and how often are patients started on hypouricemic agents. Int Pharm Abstracts 1999;36(21):2223.
Litin SC, Anderson CF. Nicotinic acid-associated myopathy: a report of three cases. Am J Med. 1989;86(4):481-3. View abstract.
Litin SC, Anderson CF. Nicotinic acid-associated myopathy: a report of three cases. Am J Med. 1989;86(4):481-3.View abstract.
Loebl T, Raskin S. A novel case report: acute manic psychotic episode after treatment with niacin. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013 Fall;25(4):E14. View abstract.
Ludwig GD, White DC. Pellagra induced by 6-mercaptopurine. Clin Res 1960;8:212.
Lyon VB, Fairley JA. Anticonvulsant-induced pellagra. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:597-9. View abstract.
Mack WJ, Selzer RH, Hodis HN, et al. One-year reduction and longitudinal analysis of carotid intima-media thickness associated with colestipol/niacin therapy. Stroke. 1993;24(12):1779-83. View abstract.
Malfait P, Moren A, Dillon JC, et al. An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol. 1993;22(3):504-11. View abstract.
McKenney J. New perspectives on the use of niacin in the treatment of lipid disorders. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:697-705. View abstract.
McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, Chinchili VM. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA 1994;271:672-7. View abstract.
Menon RM, Adams MH, González MA, Tolbert DS, Leu JH, Cefali EA. Plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of niacin and its metabolites from an extended-release niacin formulation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;45(8):448-54. View abstract.
Miralbell R, Mornex F, Greiner R, et al. Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide in glioblastoma multiforme: report of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 22933. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3143-9. View abstract.
Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Baksh RI, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein subclass distribution. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91(12):1432-6. View abstract.
Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR, et al. Treatment Effect of Niaspan, a Controlled-release Niacin, in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia: A Placebo-controlled Trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 1996;1(3):195-202. View abstract.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bianias JL, et al. Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:1093-99. View abstract.
Mrochek JE, Jolley RL, Young DS, Turner WJ. Metabolic response of humans to ingestion of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Clin Chem. 1976;22(11):1821-7. View abstract.
Nahata MC. Chloramphenicol. In: Evans WE, Schentag JJ, Jusko WJ (eds). Applied Pharmacokinetics: Principles of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 3rd ed., Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc., 1992.
National Cholesterol Education Program. Cholesterol Lowering in the Patient with Coronary Heart Disease. 1997. Available at: http://www.vidyya.com/pdfs/1225cholesterol.pdf. (Accessed 26 May 2016).
Neuvonen PJ, Roivas L, Laine K, Sundholm O. The bioavailability of sustained release nicotinic acid formulations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;32(4):473-6. View abstract.
Ng CF, Lee CP, Ho AL, Lee VW. Effect of niacin on erectile function in men suffering erectile dysfunction and dyslipidemia. J Sex Med. 2011;8(10):2883-93. View abstract.
NIH News. NIH stops clinical trial on combination cholesterol treatment. May 26, 2011. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/may2011/nhlbi-26.htm. (Accessed 3 June 2011).
No authors listed. Clofibrate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1975 Jan 27;231(4):360-81. View abstract.
O'Brien T, Silverberg JD, Nguyen TT. Nicotinic acid-induced toxicity associated with cytopenia and decreased levels of thyroxine-binding globulin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67(5):465-8. View abstract.
O'REILLY PO, CALLBECK MJ, HOFFER A. Sustained-release nicotinic acid (nicospan); effect on (1) cholesterol levels and (2) leukocytes. Can Med Assoc J. 1959;80(5):359-62. View abstract.
Papa CM. Niacinamide and acanthosis nigricans (letter). Arch Dermatol 1984;120:1281. View abstract.
Park YK, Sempos CT, Barton CN, et al. Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: the case of pellagra. Am J Public Health 2000;90:727-38. View abstract.
Philpott AC, Hubacek J, Sun YC, Hillard D, Anderson TJ. Niacin improves lipid profile but not endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease on high dose statin therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2013 Feb;226(2):453-8. View abstract.
PL Detail-Document, Niacin Plus Statin to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: AIM-HIGH Study. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. July 2011.
PL Detail-Document, Role of Non-Statins for Dyslipidemia. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. June 2016;32(6):320601.
Pozzilli P, Browne PD, Kolb H. Meta-analysis of nicotinamide treatment in patients with recent-onset IDDM. The Nicotinamide Trialists. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1357-63. View abstract.
Product information: Niaspan. Kos Pharmaceuticals. Cranbury, NJ. 2005. Available at www.niaspan.com/professional/content/pdfs/productinfo.pdf. (Accessed 3 March 2006).
Rabbani GH, Butler T, Bardhan PK, Islam A. Reduction of fluid-loss in cholera by nicotinic acid: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 1983;2:1439-42. View abstract.
Rader JI, Calvert RJ, Hathcock JN. Hepatic toxicity of unmodified and time-release preparations of niacin. Am J Med 1992;92:77-81. View abstract.
Raising HDL and Niacin Use. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2004;20(5):200504.
Reaven P, Witztum JL. Lovastatin, nicotinic acid and rhabdomyolysis (letter). Ann Int Med 1988;109:597-8. View abstract.
Reimund E. Sleep deprivation-induced dermatitis: further support of nicotinic acid depletion in sleep deprivation. Med Hypotheses 1991;36:371-3. View abstract.
Rockwell KA. Potential interaction between niacin and transdermal nicotine (letter). Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1283-4. View abstract.
Sampathkumar K, Selvam M, Sooraj YS, Gowthaman S, Ajeshkumar RN. Extended release nicotinic acid - a novel oral agent for phosphate control. Int Urol Nephrol. 2006;38(1):171-4. View abstract.
Sazonov V, Maccubbin D, Sisk CM, Canner PL. Effects of niacin on the incidence of new onset diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with normoglycaemia and impaired fasting glucose. Int J Clin Pract. 2013 Apr;67(4):297-302. View abstract.
Schwab RA, Bachhuber BH. Delirium and lactic acidosis caused by ethanol and niacin coingestion. Am J Emerg Med 1991;9:363-5. View abstract.
Schwartz ML. Severe reversible hyperglycemia as a consequence of niacin therapy. Arch Int Med 1993;153:2050-2. View abstract.
Shakir KM, Kroll S, Aprill BS, Drake AJ 3rd, Eisold JF. Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70(6):556-8. View abstract.
Shearer GC, Pottala JV, Hansen SN, Brandenburg V, Harris WS. Effects of prescription niacin and omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and vascular function in metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Lipid Res. 2012 Nov;53(11):2429-35. View abstract.
Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Smith DT, Ruffin JM, and Smith SG. Pellagra successfully treated with nicotinic acid: a case report. JAMA 1937;109:2054-2055.
Spies TD, Grant JM, Stone RE, et al. Recent observations on the treatment of six hundred pellagrins with special emphasis on the use of nicotinic acid in prophylaxis. South Med J 1938;31(12):1231.
Stevens H, Ostlere L, Begent R, et al. Pellagra secondary to 5-fluorouracil. Br J Dermatol 1993;128:578-80. View abstract.
Stratigos JD, Katsambas A. Pellagra: a still existing disease. Br J Dermatol 1977;96:99-106. View abstract.
Swash M, Roberts AH. Reversible pellagra-like encephalopathy with ethionamide and cycloserine. Tubercle 1972;53:132. View abstract.
Tornvall P, Hamsten A, Johansson J, Carlson LA. Normalisation of the composition of very low density lipoprotein in hypertriglyceridemia by nicotinic acid. Atherosclerosis. 1990;84(2-3):219-27. View abstract.
Turjman N, Cardamone A, Gotterer GS, Hendrix TR. Effect of nicotinic acid on cholera-induced fluid movement and unidirectional sodium fluxes in rabbit jejunum. Johns Hopkins Med J. 1980;147(6):209-11. View abstract.
Unna K. Studies on the toxicity and pharmacology of nicotinic acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1939;65:95-103.
Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9. View abstract.
Vacek JL, Dittmeier G, Chiarelli T, et al. Comparison of lovastatin (20 mg) and nicotinic acid (1.2 g) with either drug alone for type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:182-4. View abstract.
Vannucchi H, Moreno FS. Interaction of niacin and zinc metabolism in patients with alcoholic pellagra. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:364-9. View abstract.
Vega GL, Grundy SM. Lipoprotein responses to treatment with lovastatin, gemfibrozil, and nicotinic acid in normolipidemic patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:73-82. View abstract.
Vincent JE, Zijlstra FJ. Nicotinic acid inhibits thromboxane synthesis in platelets. Prostaglandins. 1978;15(4):629-36. View abstract.
Whelan AM, Price SO, Fowler SF, Hainer BL. The effect of aspirin on niacin-induced cutaneous reactions. J Fam Pract 1992;34:165-8. View abstract.
Windler E, Zyriax BC, Bamberger C, Rinninger F, Beil FU. Current strategies and recent advances in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia. Atheroscler Suppl. 2009;10(5):1-4. View abstract.
Wink J, Giacoppe G, King J. Effect of very-low-dose naicin on high-density lipoprotein in patients undergoing long-term statin therapy. Am Heart J 2002;143:514-8.. View abstract.
Wolfe ML, Vartanian SF, Ross JL, et al. Safety and effectiveness of Niaspan when added sequentially to a statin for treatment of dyslipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:476-9,A7.. View abstract.
Wood B, Rademaker M, Oakley A, Wallace J. Pellagra in a woman using alternative remedies. Australas J Dermatol 1998;39:42-4. View abstract.
Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
Zema MJ. Gemfibrozil, nicotinic acid and combination therapy in patients with isolated hypoalphalipoproteinemia: a randomized, open-label, crossover study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:640-6. View abstract.
Zhao XQ, Brown BG, Hillger L, et al. Effects of intensive lipid-lowering therapy on the coronary arteries of asymptomatic subjects with elevated apolipoprotein B. Circulation 1993;88:2744-53. View abstract.