Other Name(s):

Atomic number 28, Chlorure de Nickel, Ni, Nickel Chloride, Nickel Sulfate, Nickelous Sulfate, Níquel, Numéro Atomique 28, Oligo-Élément, Sulfate de Nickel, Sulfate Nickeleux, Trace Element.


Nickel is a mineral. It is found in several foods including nuts, dried beans and peas, soybeans, grains, and chocolate. The body needs nickel, but in very small amounts. Nickel is a common trace element in multiple vitamins.

Nickel is used for increasing iron absorption, preventing iron-poor blood (anemia), and treating weak bones (osteoporosis).

How does it work?

Nickel is an essential nutrient in some chemical processes in the body. Its precise functions in the body are not known.

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Preventing nickel levels in the body from getting too low (nickel deficiency). Nickel deficiency has not been reported in people, although it may exist, since nickel deficiency has been seen in animals. Taking trace amounts of nickel in a supplement is effective for preventing nickel deficiency.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Improving iron absorption.
  • Preventing anemia.
  • Improving osteoporosis and bone health.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of nickel for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Side Effects

Nickel is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts up to 1 mg/day. Taking more than 1 mg/day is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Taking amounts slightly above the 1 mg/day level increases the chances of unwanted side effects. High doses are poisonous.

Workers who have been exposed to nickel on the job over an extended period of time can develop allergies, lung disorders, and cancer.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Nickel is LIKELY SAFE in pregnant or breast-feeding adult women when taken by mouth in doses less than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 1 mg/day. The safety of higher doses is unknown.

Children: Nickel is LIKELY SAFE in children in daily doses less than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 0.2 mg/day in children 1 to 3 years, 0.3 mg/day in children 4 to 8 years, and 0.6 mg/day in children 9 to 13 years. Taking higher doses is POSSIBLY UNSAFE.

Kidney disease: People with kidney disease may not be able to tolerate nickel as well as other people. It's best to avoid nickel supplements if you have kidney problems.

Nickel allergy: People who are sensitive to nickel, including those with a history of skin rash after contact with nickel-containing jewelry, coins, stainless steel items, surgical implants, or dental appliances, can develop allergic reactions to nickel taken by mouth. These people should not take nickel supplements.


Disulfiram (Antabuse)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Disulfiram (Antabuse) might decrease how much nickel your body absorbs, making nickel supplements less effective.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For preventing nickel levels in the body from getting too low (nickel deficiency): Trace amounts of nickel in supplements.
The estimated average daily requirements or Adequate Intake (AI) levels of nickel has not been established.

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for nickel, the highest intake level at which no unwanted side effects would be expected, is 1 mg/day for adults. For children the UL is 0.2 mg/day in children 1 to 3 years; 0.3 mg/day in children 4 to 8 years; and 0.6 mg/day in children 9 to 13 years.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 6/14/2021

Abernethy, D. R., Destefano, A. J., Cecil, T. L., Zaidi, K., and Williams, R. L. Metal impurities in food and drugs. Pharm Res 2010;27(5):750-755. View abstract.

Abreu, I. A. and Cabelli, D. E. Superoxide dismutases-a review of the metal-associated mechanistic variations. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2010;1804(2):263-274. View abstract.

Adachi, S. and Takemoto, K. [Occupational lung cancer. A comparison between humans and experimental animals]. Sangyo Igaku 1987;29(5):345-357. View abstract.

Alam, N., Corbett, S. J., and Ptolemy, H. C. Environmental health risk assessment of nickel contamination of drinking water in a country town in NSW. N.S.W.Public Health Bull. 2008;19(9-10):170-173. View abstract.

Alberg, A. J., Brock, M. V., and Samet, J. M. Epidemiology of lung cancer: looking to the future. J.Clin.Oncol. 5-10-2005;23(14):3175-3185. View abstract.

Andersen, A., Barlow, L., Engeland, A., Kjaerheim, K., Lynge, E., and Pukkala, E. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1999;25 Suppl 2:1-116. View abstract.

Anke, M., Groppel, B., Kronemann, H., and Grun, M. Nickel--an essential element. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):339-365. View abstract.

Antonini, J. M., Taylor, M. D., Zimmer, A. T., and Roberts, J. R. Pulmonary responses to welding fumes: role of metal constituents. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2-13-2004;67(3):233-249. View abstract.

Apostoli, P. and Catalani, S. [Mechanisms of action for metallic elements and their species classified carcinogen R 45 and R 49 by EU]. G.Ital.Med.Lav.Ergon. 2008;30(4):382-391. View abstract.

Avtsyn, A. P. [An insufficiency of essential trace elements and its manifestations in pathology]. Arkh.Patol. 1990;52(3):3-8. View abstract.

Baadsgaard, O. In vivo ultraviolet irradiation of human skin results in profound perturbation of the immune system. Relevance to ultraviolet-induced skin cancer. Arch.Dermatol. 1991;127(1):99-109. View abstract.

Baccarelli, A. and Bollati, V. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Curr.Opin.Pediatr. 2009;21(2):243-251. View abstract.

Bal, W., Kozlowski, H., and Kasprzak, K. S. Molecular models in nickel carcinogenesis. J.Inorg.Biochem. 2000;79(1-4):213-218. View abstract.

Balogh, I. and Somogyi, E. [Subcellular localization of nickel ions (an overview)]. Morphol.Igazsagugyi Orv.Sz 1988;28(2):95-110. View abstract.

Balogh, L., Kerekes, A., Bodo, K., Korosi, L., and Janoki, G. A. [Evaluation of a complex trace element composition and bioutilization using isotope technics and total body measurement]. Orv.Hetil. 5-24-1998;139(21):1297-1302. View abstract.

Barchowsky, A. and O'Hara, K. A. Metal-induced cell signaling and gene activation in lung diseases. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 5-1-2003;34(9):1130-1135. View abstract.

Barker, J. N. Role of keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1992;26(3):145-148. View abstract.

Baur, X. [New occupational inhaled pollutants]. Pneumologie 1990;44 Suppl 1:397-398. View abstract.

Bencko, V. Nickel: a review of its occupational and environmental toxicology. J.Hyg.Epidemiol.Microbiol.Immunol. 1983;27(2):237-247. View abstract.

Bencko, V. Nickel: a review of its occupational and environmental toxicology. Z.Gesamte Hyg. 1984;30(5):259-263. View abstract.

Beyersmann, D. and Hartwig, A. Carcinogenic metal compounds: recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms. Arch.Toxicol. 2008;82(8):493-512. View abstract.

Beyersmann, D. Interactions in metal carcinogenicity. Toxicol.Lett. 1994;72(1-3):333-338. View abstract.

Blanusa, M., Varnai, V. M., Piasek, M., and Kostial, K. Chelators as antidotes of metal toxicity: therapeutic and experimental aspects. Curr.Med.Chem. 2005;12(23):2771-2794. View abstract.

Boffetta, P. Carcinogenicity of trace elements with reference to evaluations made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1993;19 Suppl 1:67-70. View abstract.

Boffetta, P. Methodological aspects of the epidemiological association between cadmium and cancer in humans. IARC Sci.Publ. 1992;(118):425-434. View abstract.

Boffetta, P., Cardis, E., Vainio, H., Coleman, M. P., Kogevinas, M., Nordberg, G., Parkin, D. M., Partensky, C., Shuker, D., and Tomatis, L. Cancer risks related to electricity production. Eur.J.Cancer 1991;27(11):1504-1519. View abstract.

Borisenkova, R. V., Gvozdeva, L. L., and Lutsenko, L. A. [Carcinogenic danger of nickel and its compounds (review of literature)]. Med.Tr.Prom Ekol. 2001;(1):27-31. View abstract.

Bostrom, C. E., Almen, J., Steen, B., and Westerholm, R. Human exposure to urban air pollution. Environ.Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 4:39-47. View abstract.

Bradberry, S. M. and Vale, J. A. Therapeutic review: do diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram have a role in acute nickel carbonyl poisoning? J.Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 1999;37(2):259-264. View abstract.

Bruske-Hohlfeld, I. Environmental and occupational risk factors for lung cancer. Methods Mol.Biol. 2009;472:3-23. View abstract.

Bunn, H. F., Gu, J., Huang, L. E., Park, J. W., and Zhu, H. Erythropoietin: a model system for studying oxygen-dependent gene regulation. J.Exp.Biol. 1998;201(Pt 8):1197-1201. View abstract.

Burne, R. A. and Chen, Y. Y. Bacterial ureases in infectious diseases. Microbes.Infect. 2000;2(5):533-542. View abstract.

Buzard, G. S. and Kasprzak, K. S. Possible roles of nitric oxide and redox cell signaling in metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis: a review. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2000;19(3):179-199. View abstract.

Cangul, H., Broday, L., Salnikow, K., Sutherland, J., Peng, W., Zhang, Q., Poltaratsky, V., Yee, H., Zoroddu, M. A., and Costa, M. Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. Toxicol.Lett. 2-28-2002;127(1-3):69-75. View abstract.

Carrington, P. E., Al-Mjeni, F., Zoroddu, M. A., Costa, M., and Maroney, M. J. Use of XAS for the elucidation of metal structure and function: applications to nickel biochemistry, molecular toxicology, and carcinogenesis. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 5:705-708. View abstract.

Cavani, A. Breaking tolerance to nickel. Toxicology 4-15-2005;209(2):119-121. View abstract.

Cavani, A., Ottaviani, C., Nasorri, F., Sebastiani, S., and Girolomoni, G. Immunoregulation of hapten and drug induced immune reactions. Curr.Opin.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 2003;3(4):243-247. View abstract.

Chen, F. and Shi, X. Intracellular signal transduction of cells in response to carcinogenic metals. Crit Rev.Oncol.Hematol. 2002;42(1):105-121. View abstract.

Chen, F., Ding, M., Castranova, V., and Shi, X. Carcinogenic metals and NF-kappaB activation. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2001;222(1-2):159-171. View abstract.

Chiu, A., Katz, A. J., Beaubier, J., Chiu, N., and Shi, X. Genetic and cellular mechanisms in chromium and nickel carcinogenesis considering epidemiologic findings. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2004;255(1-2):181-194. View abstract.

Cho, E. and Li, W. J. Human stem cells, chromatin, and tissue engineering: boosting relevancy in developmental toxicity testing. Birth Defects Res.C.Embryo.Today 2007;81(1):20-40. View abstract.

Christensen, O. B. and Moller, H. Release of nickel from cooking utensils. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4(6):343-346. View abstract.

Comba, P. and Belli, S. [Etiological epidemiology of tumors of the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses]. Ann.Ist.Super.Sanita 1992;28(1):121-132. View abstract.

Coogan, T. P., Latta, D. M., Snow, E. T., and Costa, M. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel compounds. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 1989;19(4):341-384. View abstract.

Costa, M. and Heck, J. D. Perspectives on the mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis. Adv.Inorg.Biochem. 1984;6:285-309. View abstract.

Costa, M. Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 1991;31:321-337. View abstract.

Costa, M. Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. Biol.Chem. 2002;383(6):961-967. View abstract.

Costa, M., Davidson, T. L., Chen, H., Ke, Q., Zhang, P., Yan, Y., Huang, C., and Kluz, T. Nickel carcinogenesis: epigenetics and hypoxia signaling. Mutat.Res. 12-30-2005;592(1-2):79-88. View abstract.

Costa, M., Salnikow, K., Sutherland, J. E., Broday, L., Peng, W., Zhang, Q., and Kluz, T. The role of oxidative stress in nickel and chromate genotoxicity. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2002;234-235(1-2):265-275. View abstract.

Costa, M., Sutherland, J. E., Peng, W., Salnikow, K., Broday, L., and Kluz, T. Molecular biology of nickel carcinogenesis. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2001;222(1-2):205-211. View abstract.

Costa, M., Yan, Y., Zhao, D., and Salnikow, K. Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis: gene silencing by nickel delivery to the nucleus and gene activation/inactivation by nickel-induced cell signaling. J.Environ.Monit. 2003;5(2):222-223. View abstract.

Coultas, D. B. and Samet, J. M. Occupational lung cancer. Clin.Chest Med. 1992;13(2):341-354. View abstract.

Czarnobilska, E., Obtulowicz, K., and Wsolek, K. [Type IV of hypersensitivity and its subtypes]. Przegl.Lek. 2007;64(7-8):506-508. View abstract.

Czarnobilska, E., Obtulowicz, K., Wsolek, K., Pietowska, J., and Spiewak, R. [Mechanisms of nickel allergy]. Przegl.Lek. 2007;64(7-8):502-505. View abstract.

Das, K. K. and Buchner, V. Effect of nickel exposure on peripheral tissues: role of oxidative stress in toxicity and possible protection by ascorbic acid. Rev.Environ.Health 2007;22(2):157-173. View abstract.

Das, K. K., Das, S. N., and Dhundasi, S. A. Nickel, its adverse health effects & oxidative stress. Indian J.Med.Res. 2008;128(4):412-425. View abstract.

Desoize, B. Metals and metal compounds in carcinogenesis. In Vivo 2003;17(6):529-539. View abstract.

Ding, M., Shi, X., Castranova, V., and Vallyathan, V. Predisposing factors in occupational lung cancer: inorganic minerals and chromium. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2000;19(1-2):129-138. View abstract.

Domingo, J. L. Metal-induced developmental toxicity in mammals: a review. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health 1994;42(2):123-141. View abstract.

Durham, T. R. and Snow, E. T. Metal ions and carcinogenesis. EXS 2006;(96):97-130. View abstract.

Egedahl, R., Carpenter, M., and Lundell, D. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95). Occup.Environ.Med. 2001;58(11):711-715. View abstract.

Ernst, P. and Theriault, G. Known occupational carcinogens and their significance. Can.Med.Assoc.J. 4-1-1984;130(7):863-867. View abstract.

Faroon, O. M., Williams, M., and O'Connor, R. A review of the carcinogenicity of chemicals most frequently found at National Priorities List sites. Toxicol.Ind.Health 1994;10(3):203-230. View abstract.

Feron, V. J., Arts, J. H., Kuper, C. F., Slootweg, P. J., and Woutersen, R. A. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 2001;31(3):313-347. View abstract.

Fischer, A. B. and Skreb, Y. In vitro toxicology of heavy metals using mammalian cells: an overview of collaborative research data. Arh.Hig.Rada Toksikol. 2001;52(3):333-354. View abstract.

Fischer, L. A., Menne, T., and Johansen, J. D. Experimental nickel elicitation thresholds--a review focusing on occluded nickel exposure. Contact Dermatitis 2005;52(2):57-64. View abstract.

Fishbein, L. Environmental metallic carcinogens: an overview of exposure levels. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health 1976;2(1):77-109. View abstract.

Fishbein, L. Sources, transport and alterations of metal compounds: an overview. I. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. Environ.Health Perspect. 1981;40:43-64. View abstract.

Flessel, C. P. Metals as mutagens. Adv Exp Med Biol 1977;91:117-128. View abstract.

Flyvholm, M. A., Nielsen, G. D., and Andersen, A. Nickel content of food and estimation of dietary intake. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1984;179(6):427-431. View abstract.

Fontenot, A. P. and Amicosante, M. Metal-induced diffuse lung disease. Semin.Respir.Crit Care Med. 2008;29(6):662-669. View abstract.

Garcia-Patos, V., Alomar, A., Lleonart, R., Cistero, A., and Matias-Guiu, X. [Subcutaneous nodules and sensitivity to aluminum in patients undergoing hyposensitivity immunotherapy]. Med.Cutan.Ibero.Lat.Am. 1990;18(2):83-88. View abstract.

Garner, L. A. Contact dermatitis to metals. Dermatol.Ther. 2004;17(4):321-327. View abstract.

Glinski, W. [Allergic contact dermatitis]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2003;14(84):605-608. View abstract.

Goodman, J. E., Prueitt, R. L., Dodge, D. G., and Thakali, S. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 2009;39(5):365-417. View abstract.

Gottschall, E. B. Occupational and environmental thoracic malignancies. J.Thorac.Imaging 2002;17(3):189-197. View abstract.

Grandjean, P. Human exposure to nickel. IARC Sci Publ. 1984;(53):469-485. View abstract.

Grandjean, P., Andersen, O., and Nielsen, G. D. Carcinogenicity of occupational nickel exposures: an evaluation of the epidemiological evidence. Am.J.Ind.Med. 1988;13(2):193-209. View abstract.

Grimsrud, T. K. and Peto, J. Persisting risk of nickel related lung cancer and nasal cancer among Clydach refiners. Occup.Environ.Med. 2006;63(5):365-366. View abstract.

Grimsrud, T. K., Berge, S. R., Haldorsen, T., and Andersen, A. Exposure to different forms of nickel and risk of lung cancer. Am.J.Epidemiol. 12-15-2002;156(12):1123-1132. View abstract.

Grimsrud, T. K., Berge, S. R., Resmann, F., Norseth, T., and Andersen, A. Assessment of historical exposures in a nickel refinery in Norway. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 2000;26(4):338-345. View abstract.

Haber, L. T., Erdreicht, L., Diamond, G. L., Maier, A. M., Ratney, R., Zhao, Q., and Dourson, M. L. Hazard identification and dose response of inhaled nickel-soluble salts. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2000;31(2 Pt 1):210-230. View abstract.

Harris, G. K. and Shi, X. Signaling by carcinogenic metals and metal-induced reactive oxygen species. Mutat.Res. 12-10-2003;533(1-2):183-200. View abstract.

Hartwig, A. and Schwerdtle, T. Interactions by carcinogenic metal compounds with DNA repair processes: toxicological implications. Toxicol.Lett. 2-28-2002;127(1-3):47-54. View abstract.

Hartwig, A. Carcinogenicity of metal compounds: possible role of DNA repair inhibition. Toxicol.Lett. 12-28-1998;102-103:235-239. View abstract.

Hartwig, A. Zinc finger proteins as potential targets for toxic metal ions: differential effects on structure and function. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2001;3(4):625-634. View abstract.

Hartwig, A., Asmuss, M., Ehleben, I., Herzer, U., Kostelac, D., Pelzer, A., Schwerdtle, T., and Burkle, A. Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 5:797-799. View abstract.

Hartwig, A., Kruger, I., and Beyersmann, D. Mechanisms in nickel genotoxicity: the significance of interactions with DNA repair. Toxicol.Lett. 1994;72(1-3):353-358. View abstract.

Hayes, R. B. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 1997;8(3):371-385. View abstract.

Herfs, H., Schirren, C. G., Przybilla, B., and Plewig, G. ["Baboon syndrome". A particular manifestation of hematogenous contact reaction]. Hautarzt 1993;44(7):466-469. View abstract.

Hostynek, J. J. Sensitization to nickel: etiology, epidemiology, immune reactions, prevention, and therapy. Rev.Environ.Health 2006;21(4):253-280. View abstract.

Hostynek, J. J., Dreher, F., Nakada, T., Schwindt, D., Anigbogu, A., and Maibach, H. I. Human stratum corneum adsorption of nickel salts. Investigation of depth profiles by tape stripping in vivo. Acta Derm.Venereol.Suppl (Stockh) 2001;(212):11-18. View abstract.

Hostynek, J. J., Dreher, F., Pelosi, A., Anigbogu, A., and Maibach, H. I. Human stratum corneum penetration by nickel. In vivo study of depth distribution after occlusive application of the metal as powder. Acta Derm.Venereol.Suppl (Stockh) 2001;(212):5-10. View abstract.

Hrycek, A. and Misiewicz, A. [The effect of heavy metals on neutrophils]. Wiad.Lek. 1996;49(7-12):107-111. View abstract.

Huang, L. E., Ho, V., Arany, Z., Krainc, D., Galson, D., Tendler, D., Livingston, D. M., and Bunn, H. F. Erythropoietin gene regulation depends on heme-dependent oxygen sensing and assembly of interacting transcription factors. Kidney Int. 1997;51(2):548-552. View abstract.

Hughson, G. W., Galea, K. S., and Heim, K. E. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries. Ann.Occup.Hyg. 2010;54(1):8-22. View abstract.

Hybenova, M., Hrda, P., Prochazkova, J., Stejskal, V., and Sterzl, I. The role of environmental factors in autoimmune thyroiditis. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2010;31(3):283-289. View abstract.

Ives, J. C., Buffler, P. A., and Greenberg, S. D. Environmental associations and histopathologic patterns of carcinoma of the lung: the challenge and dilemma in epidemiologic studies. Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 1983;128(1):195-209. View abstract.

Jaremin, B. Immunoregulatory properties of some heavy metals in physiology and pathology conditions. Part II. Bull.Inst.Marit.Trop.Med.Gdynia 1985;36(1-4):89-101. View abstract.

Jennette, K. W. The role of metals in carcinogenesis: biochemistry and metabolism. Environ.Health Perspect. 1981;40:233-252. View abstract.

Johnson, W., Jr. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate. Int.J.Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 4:13-26. View abstract.

Kane, A. B. Animal models of malignant mesothelioma. Inhal.Toxicol. 2006;18(12):1001-1004. View abstract.

Kasprzak, K. S. Possible role of oxidative damage in metal-induced carcinogenesis. Cancer Invest 1995;13(4):411-430. View abstract.

Kasprzak, K. S., Bal, W., and Karaczyn, A. A. The role of chromatin damage in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. A review of recent developments. J.Environ.Monit. 2003;5(2):183-187. View abstract.

Kasprzak, K. S., Sunderman, F. W., Jr., and Salnikow, K. Nickel carcinogenesis. Mutat.Res. 12-10-2003;533(1-2):67-97. View abstract.

Kawanishi, S., Hiraku, Y., Murata, M., and Oikawa, S. The role of metals in site-specific DNA damage with reference to carcinogenesis. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 5-1-2002;32(9):822-832. View abstract.

Kelleher, P., Pacheco, K., and Newman, L. S. Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders. Environ.Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 4:685-696. View abstract.

Kielhorn, J., Melber, C., Keller, D., and Mangelsdorf, I. Palladium--a review of exposure and effects to human health. Int.J.Hyg.Environ.Health 2002;205(6):417-432. View abstract.

Kilburn, K. H. Function testing for chemical brain damage: a review. Arch.Environ.Health 2001;56(2):132-137. View abstract.

Klein, C. B. and Costa, M. DNA methylation, heterochromatin and epigenetic carcinogens. Mutat.Res. 1997;386(2):163-180. View abstract.

Kohout, J., Ouda, Z., and Hora, M. [Risk factors in carcinoma of the prostate]. Cas.Lek.Cesk. 11-1-1995;134(21):679-680. View abstract.

Kraus, T. and Muller-Lux, A. [Occupation related thoracic tumors]. Radiologe 2004;44(5):427-434. View abstract.

Kuper, C. F., Woutersen, R. A., Slootweg, P. J., and Feron, V. J. Carcinogenic response of the nasal cavity to inhaled chemical mixtures. Mutat.Res. 10-31-1997;380(1-2):19-26. View abstract.

Kusaka, Y. [Occupational diseases caused by exposure to sensitizing metals]. Sangyo Igaku 1993;35(2):75-87. View abstract.

Laffargue, P., Hildebrand, H. F., Lecomte-Houcke, M., Biehl, V., Breme, J., and Decoulx, J. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone 20 years after femoral fracture treated by plate-screw fixation: analysis of corrosion products and their role in malignancy]. Rev.Chir Orthop.Reparatrice Appar.Mot. 2-1-2001;87(1):84-90. View abstract.

Landolph, J. R. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of transformation of C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 and diploid human fibroblasts by unique carcinogenic, nonmutagenic metal compounds. A review. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1989;21:459-467. View abstract.

Landolph, J. R. Molecular mechanisms of transformation of C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 mouse embryo cells and diploid human fibroblasts by carcinogenic metal compounds. Environ.Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 3:119-125. View abstract.

Langard, S. and Stern, R. M. Nickel in welding fumes--a cancer hazard to welders? A review of epidemiological studies on cancer in welders. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):95-103. View abstract.

Langard, S. Nickel-related cancer in welders. Sci.Total Environ. 6-6-1994;148(2-3):303-309. View abstract.

Langard, S. Prevention of lung cancer through the use of knowledge on asbestos and other work-related causes--Norwegian experiences. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1994;20 Spec No:100-107. View abstract.

Le, Gales C. and Oudiz, A. [Prevention of occupational carcinogens: perspectives opened by the evaluation of risks and preventive actions]. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 1986;34(6):387-399. View abstract.

Leikauf, G. D. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 4:505-526. View abstract.

Leonard, A. and Jacquet, P. Embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of nickel. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):277-291. View abstract.

Leonard, A., Gerber, G. B., and Jacquet, P. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity of nickel. Mutat.Res. 1981;87(1):1-15. View abstract.

Lewis, C. G. and Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Metal carcinogenesis in total joint arthroplasty. Animal models. Clin.Orthop.Relat Res. 1996;(329 Suppl):S264-S268. View abstract.

Longstaff, E., Walker, A. I., and Jackh, R. Nickel oxide: potential carcinogenicity--a review and further evidence. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):235-243. View abstract.

Lund, V. J. Malignancy of the nose and sinuses. Epidemiological and aetiological considerations. Rhinology 1991;29(1):57-68. View abstract.

Ma, X. and Zheng, R. [The free radicals and nickel carcinogenesis]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 1997;26(3):168-171. View abstract.

Magos, L. Epidemiological and experimental aspects of metal carcinogenesis: physicochemical properties, kinetics, and the active species. Environ.Health Perspect. 1991;95:157-189. View abstract.

Mancinella, A. [Nickel, an essential trace element. Metabolic, clinical and therapeutic considerations]. Clin.Ter. 8-15-1991;138(3-4):159-165. View abstract.

Marigo, M., Nouer, D. F., Genelhu, M. C., Malaquias, L. C., Pizziolo, V. R., Costa, A. S., Martins-Filho, O. A., and Alves-Oliveira, L. F. Evaluation of immunologic profile in patients with nickel sensitivity due to use of fixed orthodontic appliances. Am.J.Orthod.Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124(1):46-52. View abstract.

Maxwell, P. and Salnikow, K. HIF-1: an oxygen and metal responsive transcription factor. Cancer Biol.Ther. 2004;3(1):29-35. View abstract.

Menne, T. and Nieboer, E. Metal contact dermatitis: a common and potentially debilitating disease. Endeavour 1989;13(3):117-122. View abstract.

Menne, T. Quantitative aspects of nickel dermatitis. Sensitization and eliciting threshold concentrations. Sci.Total Environ. 6-6-1994;148(2-3):275-281. View abstract.

Meo, S. A. and Al-Khlaiwi, T. Health hazards of welding fumes. Saudi.Med.J. 2003;24(11):1176-1182. View abstract.

Merritt, K. and Brown, S. A. Distribution of cobalt chromium wear and corrosion products and biologic reactions. Clin.Orthop.Relat Res. 1996;(329 Suppl):S233-S243. View abstract.

Messer, R. L., Bishop, S., and Lucas, L. C. Effects of metallic ion toxicity on human gingival fibroblasts morphology. Biomaterials 1999;20(18):1647-1657. View abstract.

Mobley, H. L. and Hausinger, R. P. Microbial ureases: significance, regulation, and molecular characterization. Microbiol.Rev. 1989;53(1):85-108. View abstract.

Moed, H., Boorsma, D. M., Stoof, T. J., von Blomberg, B. M., Bruynzeel, D. P., Scheper, R. J., Gibbs, S., and Rustemeyer, T. Nickel-responding T cells are CD4+ CLA+ CD45RO+ and express chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR10. Br.J.Dermatol. 2004;151(1):32-41. View abstract.

Moulin, J. J. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1997;23(2):104-113. View abstract.

Navarro Silvera, S. A. and Rohan, T. E. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control 2007;18(1):7-27. View abstract.

Nemery, B. Metal toxicity and the respiratory tract. Eur Respir.J 1990;3(2):202-219. View abstract.

Nieboer, E., Rossetto, F. E., and Turnbull, J. D. Molecular biology approaches to biological monitoring of genotoxic substances. Toxicol.Lett. 1992;64-65 Spec No:25-32. View abstract.

Nijhawan, R. I., Molenda, M., Zirwas, M. J., and Jacob, S. E. Systemic contact dermatitis. Dermatol.Clin. 2009;27(3):355-64, vii. View abstract.

Nikula, K. J. and Green, F. H. Animal models of chronic bronchitis and their relevance to studies of particle-induced disease. Inhal.Toxicol. 2000;12 Suppl 4:123-153. View abstract.

Nordberg, G. F. and Andersen, O. Metal interactions in carcinogenesis: enhancement, inhibition. Environ.Health Perspect. 1981;40:65-81. View abstract.

Nordberg, G. F. Current concepts in the assessment of effects of metals in chronic low-level exposures--considerations of experimental and epidemiological evidence. Sci.Total Environ. 6-1-1988;71(3):243-252. View abstract.

Nordlind, K. Biological effects of mercuric chloride, nickel sulphate and nickel chloride. Prog.Med.Chem. 1990;27:189-233. View abstract.

Norseth, T. Epidemiological approach to nickel carcinogenicity--uses and limitation. J.UOEH. 3-20-1983;5 Suppl:67-74. View abstract.

Nowak, D., Ochmann, U., Huber, R. M., and Diederich, S. [Lung cancer screening -- state of the art]. Pneumologie 2005;59(3):178-191. View abstract.

Oller, A. R. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 5:841-844. View abstract.

Oller, A. R., Costa, M., and Oberdorster, G. Carcinogenicity assessment of selected nickel compounds. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 1997;143(1):152-166. View abstract.

Pandey, M. Environmental pollutants in gallbladder carcinogenesis. J.Surg.Oncol. 6-15-2006;93(8):640-643. View abstract.

Pulido, M. D. and Parrish, A. R. Metal-induced apoptosis: mechanisms. Mutat.Res. 12-10-2003;533(1-2):227-241. View abstract.

Raithel, H. J. and Schaller, K. H. [Toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel and its compounds. A review of the current status (author's transl)]. Zentralbl.Bakteriol.Mikrobiol.Hyg.B 1981;173(1-2):63-91. View abstract.

Rana, S. V. Metals and apoptosis: recent developments. J.Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2008;22(4):262-284. View abstract.

Reger, R. B. and Morgan, W. K. Respiratory cancers in mining. Occup.Med. 1993;8(1):185-204. View abstract.

Reith, A. and Brogger, A. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of nickel and nickel compounds. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):175-192. View abstract.

Report of the International Committee on Nickel Carcinogenesis in Man. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1990;16(1 Spec No):1-82. View abstract.

Ring, J., Brockow, K., and Behrendt, H. Adverse reactions to foods. J.Chromatogr.B Biomed.Sci.Appl. 5-25-2001;756(1-2):3-10. View abstract.

Rokita, S. E. and Burrows, C. J. Nickel- and cobalt-dependent oxidation and crosslinking of proteins. Met.Ions.Biol.Syst. 2001;38:289-311. View abstract.

Roush, G. C. Epidemiology of cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses: current concepts. Head Neck Surg. 1979;2(1):3-11. View abstract.

Ruegger, M. [Lung disorders due to metals]. Schweiz.Med.Wochenschr. 3-11-1995;125(10):467-474. View abstract.

Sahmoun, A. E., Case, L. D., Jackson, S. A., and Schwartz, G. G. Cadmium and prostate cancer: a critical epidemiologic analysis. Cancer Invest 2005;23(3):256-263. View abstract.

Salnikow, K. and Costa, M. Epigenetic mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2000;19(3):307-318. View abstract.

Salnikow, K. and Zhitkovich, A. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Chem.Res.Toxicol. 2008;21(1):28-44. View abstract.

Sanchez-Morillas, L., Reano, Martos M., Rodriguez, Mosquera M., Iglesias, Cadarso C., Gonzalez, Sanchez L., and Dominguez Lazaro, A. R. [Baboon syndrome]. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 2004;32(1):43-45. View abstract.

Santamaria Babi, L. F., Perez Soler, M. T., Hauser, C., and Blaser, K. Skin-homing T cells in human cutaneous allergic inflammation. Immunol.Res. 1995;14(4):317-324. View abstract.

Sarkar, B. Nickel metabolism. IARC Sci.Publ. 1984;(53):367-384. View abstract.

Savolainen, H. Biochemical and clinical aspects of nickel toxicity. Rev.Environ.Health 1996;11(4):167-173. View abstract.

Schmahl, D. [Etiology of bronchial cancer: smoking, passive smoking, environment and occupation]. Pneumologie 1991;45(4):134-136. View abstract.

Seet, R. C., Johan, A., Teo, C. E., Gan, S. L., and Lee, K. H. Inhalational nickel carbonyl poisoning in waste processing workers. Chest 2005;128(1):424-429. View abstract.

Seilkop, S. K. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Occup.Environ.Med. 2001;58(1):63-64. View abstract.

Sharma, A. D. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet. Indian J.Dermatol.Venereol.Leprol. 2007;73(5):307-312. View abstract.

Shen, H. M. and Zhang, Q. F. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ.Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 1:275-282. View abstract.

Shi, Z. Nickel carbonyl: toxicity and human health. Sci.Total Environ. 6-6-1994;148(2-3):293-298. View abstract.

Sinigaglia, F. The molecular basis of metal recognition by T cells. J.Invest Dermatol. 1994;102(4):398-401. View abstract.

Sjogren, B., Hansen, K. S., Kjuus, H., and Persson, P. G. Exposure to stainless steel welding fumes and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Occup.Environ.Med. 1994;51(5):335-336. View abstract.

Skerfving, S., Bencko, V., Vahter, M., Schutz, A., and Gerhardsson, L. Environmental health in the Baltic region--toxic metals. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1999;25 Suppl 3:40-64. View abstract.

Sky-Peck, H. H. Trace metals and neoplasia. Clin.Physiol Biochem. 1986;4(1):99-111. View abstract.

Slotkin, T. A. and Seidler, F. J. Oxidative and excitatory mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity: transcriptional profiles for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dieldrin, and divalent nickel in PC12 cells. Environ.Health Perspect. 2009;117(4):587-596. View abstract.

Smith, C. J., Livingston, S. D., and Doolittle, D. J. An international literature survey of "IARC Group I carcinogens" reported in mainstream cigarette smoke. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1997;35(10-11):1107-1130. View abstract.

Snow, E. T. Metal carcinogenesis: mechanistic implications. Pharmacol.Ther. 1992;53(1):31-65. View abstract.

Sorahan, T. and Esmen, N. A. Lung cancer mortality in UK nickel-cadmium battery workers, 1947-2000. Occup.Environ.Med. 2004;61(2):108-116. View abstract.

Sorahan, T. and Williams, S. P. Mortality of workers at a nickel carbonyl refinery, 1958-2000. Occup.Environ.Med. 2005;62(2):80-85. View abstract.

Sosroseno, W. The immunology of nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis. Asian Pac.J.Allergy Immunol. 1995;13(2):173-181. View abstract.

Stern, R. M. Assessment of risk of lung cancer for welders. Arch.Environ.Health 1983;38(3):148-155. View abstract.

Stohs, S. J. and Bagchi, D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1995;18(2):321-336. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. A review of the metabolism and toxicology of nickel. Ann.Clin.Lab Sci. 1977;7(5):377-398. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Carcinogenicity of metal alloys in orthopedic prostheses: clinical and experimental studies. Fundam.Appl.Toxicol. 1989;13(2):205-216. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1989;15(1):1-12. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Mechanistic aspects of nickel carcinogenicity. Arch.Toxicol.Suppl 1989;13:40-47. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals. Ann.Clin.Lab Sci 2001;31(1):3-24. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Nickel carcinogenesis. Dis.Chest 1968;54(6):527-534. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Potential toxicity from nickel contamination of intravenous fluids. Ann.Clin.Lab Sci. 1983;13(1):1-4. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Jr. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis. Ann.Ist.Super.Sanita 1986;22(2):669-679. View abstract.

Sunderman, F. W., Sr. Therapeutic properties of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate: its role as an inhibitor in the progression of AIDS. Ann.Clin.Lab Sci. 1991;21(1):70-81. View abstract.

Sunderman, J. W., Jr. A review of the carcinogenicities of nickel, chromium and arsenic compounds in man and animals. Prev.Med. 1976;5(2):279-294. View abstract.

Sutherland, J. E. and Costa, M. Epigenetics and the environment. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2003;983:151-160. View abstract.

Tagger, Green N., Machtei, E. E., Horwitz, J., and Peled, M. Fracture of dental implants: literature review and report of a case. Implant.Dent. 2002;11(2):137-143. View abstract.

Tanojo, H., Hostynek, J. J., Mountford, H. S., and Maibach, H. I. In vitro permeation of nickel salts through human stratum corneum. Acta Derm.Venereol.Suppl (Stockh) 2001;(212):19-23. View abstract.

Templeton, D. M., Sunderman, F. W., Jr., and Herber, R. F. Tentative reference values for nickel concentrations in human serum, plasma, blood, and urine: evaluation according to the TRACY protocol. Sci.Total Environ. 6-6-1994;148(2-3):243-251. View abstract.

Thierse, H. J., Gamerdinger, K., Junkes, C., Guerreiro, N., and Weltzien, H. U. T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with haptens: metal ions as non-classical haptens. Toxicology 4-15-2005;209(2):101-107. View abstract.

Thyssen, J. P., Carlsen, B. C., and Menne, T. Nickel sensitization, hand eczema, and loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene. Dermatitis 2008;19(6):303-307. View abstract.

Thyssen, J. P., Linneberg, A., Menne, T., and Johansen, J. D. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings. Contact Dermatitis 2007;57(5):287-299. View abstract.

Tossavainen, A. Estimated risk of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposures in iron and steel foundries. IARC Sci.Publ. 1990;(104):363-367. View abstract.

Tripathi, L., Kumar, P., and Singhai, A. K. Role of chelates in treatment of cancer. Indian J.Cancer 2007;44(2):62-71. View abstract.

Trumbo, P., Yates, A. A., Schlicker, S., and Poos, M. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2001;101(3):294-301. View abstract.

Valko, M., Morris, H., and Cronin, M. T. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr.Med.Chem. 2005;12(10):1161-1208. View abstract.

Valko, M., Rhodes, C. J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M., and Mazur, M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem.Biol.Interact. 3-10-2006;160(1):1-40. View abstract.

van der Voet, G. B., Sarafanov, A., Todorov, T. I., Centeno, J. A., Jonas, W. B., Ives, J. A., and Mullick, F. G. Clinical and analytical toxicology of dietary supplements: a case study and a review of the literature. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2008;125(1):1-12. View abstract.

van der Voet, G. B., Todorov, T. I., Centeno, J. A., Jonas, W., Ives, J., and Mullick, F. G. Metals and health: a clinical toxicological perspective on tungsten and review of the literature. Mil.Med. 2007;172(9):1002-1005. View abstract.

van Klaveren, R. J. and Nemery, B. Role of reactive oxygen species in occupational and environmental obstructive pulmonary diseases. Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med. 1999;5(2):118-123. View abstract.

van, Joost T. and Roesyanto-Mahadi, I. D. Combined sensitization to palladium and nickel. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22(4):227-228. View abstract.

Verougstraete, V., Lison, D., and Hotz, P. Cadmium, lung and prostate cancer: a systematic review of recent epidemiological data. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health B Crit Rev. 2003;6(3):227-255. View abstract.

Viala, A. [Indoor air pollution and health: study of various problems]. Bull.Acad.Natl.Med. 1994;178(1):57-66. View abstract.

Villanueva, S. F. and Botello, A. V. Metal pollution in coastal areas of Mexico. Rev.Environ.Contam Toxicol. 1998;157:53-94. View abstract.

Waalkes, M. P., Coogan, T. P., and Barter, R. A. Toxicological principles of metal carcinogenesis with special emphasis on cadmium. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 1992;22(3-4):175-201. View abstract.

Ward, J. J., Thornbury, D. D., Lemons, J. E., and Dunham, W. K. Metal-induced sarcoma. A case report and literature review. Clin.Orthop.Relat Res. 1990;(252):299-306. View abstract.

Wataha, J. C. and Hanks, C. T. Biological effects of palladium and risk of using palladium in dental casting alloys. J.Oral Rehabil. 1996;23(5):309-320. View abstract.

Wataha, J. C. and Shor, K. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices. Expert.Rev.Med.Devices 2010;7(4):489-501. View abstract.

Whitesell, P. L. and Drage, C. W. Occupational lung cancer. Mayo Clin.Proc. 1993;68(2):183-188. View abstract.

Wild, P., Bourgkard, E., and Paris, C. Lung cancer and exposure to metals: the epidemiological evidence. Methods Mol.Biol. 2009;472:139-167. View abstract.

Williams, M. D. and Sandler, A. B. The epidemiology of lung cancer. Cancer Treat.Res. 2001;105:31-52. View abstract.

Wingren, G. and Axelson, O. Epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer as related to complex mixtures of trace elements in the art glass industry. Scand.J.Work Environ.Health 1993;19 Suppl 1:95-100. View abstract.

Witkiewicz-Kucharczyk, A. and Bal, W. Damage of zinc fingers in DNA repair proteins, a novel molecular mechanism in carcinogenesis. Toxicol.Lett. 3-15-2006;162(1):29-42. View abstract.

Zhang, Z., Chau, P. Y., Lai, H. K., and Wong, C. M. A review of effects of particulate matter-associated nickel and vanadium species on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Int.J.Environ.Health Res. 2009;19(3):175-185. View abstract.

Zhao J, Wei Z, Zhu Y, Wang X, Yin C, Li H, Dang Z, Meng L, and Yang Z. Clinical effect of Fuzheng Jiedu granule on serum NO, NOS and microelements in patients with coronary heart disease in long-term contact with nickel. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 12-1-2004;10(4):254-258.

Zhao, Y. T. and Zhao, J. Y. [Present condition and prospect for research on toxicity of nickel carbonyl]. Zhonghua Lao.Dong.Wei Sheng Zhi.Ye.Bing.Za Zhi. 2006;24(5):314-317. View abstract.

Zhavoronkov, A. A., Kakturskii, L. V., Anke, M. A., and Avtsyn, A. P. [Comparative characteristics of deficiency and excess of the same trace element (as exemplified by nickel)]. Arkh.Patol. 1995;57(2):7-11. View abstract.

Zoroddu, M. A., Schinocca, L., Kowalik-Jankowska, T., Kozlowski, H., Salnikow, K., and Costa, M. Molecular mechanisms in nickel carcinogenesis: modeling Ni(II) binding site in histone H4. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 5:719-723. View abstract.

Barceloux DG. Nickel. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:239-58. View abstract.

Basketter DA, Angelini G, Ingber A, et al. Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium. Contact Dermatitis 2003;49:1-7. View abstract.

Denkhaus E, Salnikow K. Nickel essentiality, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2002;42:35-56. View abstract.

Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Statement: Nickel. August 2005. Available at:

Draeger H, Wu X, Roelofs-Haarhuis K, Gleichmann E. Nickel allergy versus nickel tolerance: can oral uptake of nickel protect from sensitization? J Environ Monit 2004;6:146N-150N. View abstract.

Fischer LA, Menne T, Johansen JD. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy. Contact Dermatitis 2007;56:255-61. View abstract.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at:

Hindsen M, Spiren A, Bruze M. Cross-reactivity between nickel and palladium demonstrated by systemic administration of nickel. Contact Dermatitis 2005;53:2-8. View abstract.

Jensen CS, Menne T, Johansen JD. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel: a review with a modified meta-analysis. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54:79-86. View abstract.

Lu H, Shi X, Costa M, Huang C. Carcinogenic effect of nickel compounds. Mol Cell Biochem 2005;279:45-67. View abstract.

Meding B. Epidemiology of nickel allergy. J Environ Monit 2003;5:188-9. View abstract.

Mertz W. The newer essential trace elements, chromium, tin, nickel, vanadium and silicon. Proc Nutr Soc 1974;33:307-13. View abstract.

Nielsen FH, Sandstead HH. Are nickel, vanadium, silicon, fluorine, and tin essential for man? A review. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:515-20. View abstract.

Nielsen FH. Nutritional requirements for boron, silicon, vanadium, nickel, and arsenic: current knowledge and speculation. FASEB J 1991;5:2661-7. View abstract.

Patriarca M, Lyon TD, Fell GS. Nickel metabolism in humans investigated with an oral stable isotope. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:616-21. View abstract.

Risk Assessment: Nickel. In: Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, Food Standards Agency of the UK Government. Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals. May 2003; pages 225-31. Available at:

Salnikow K, Kasprzak KS. Ascorbate depletion: a critical step in nickel carcinogenesis? Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:577-84. View abstract.

Seilkop SK, Oller AR. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2003;37:173-90. View abstract.

Setcos JC, Babaei-Mahani A, Silvio LD, et al. The safety of nickel containing dental alloys. Dent Mater 2006;22:1163-8. View abstract.

Sharma AD. Disulfiram and low nickel diet in the management of hand eczema: a clinical study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2006;72:113-8. View abstract.

Sivulka DJ. Assessment of respiratory carcinogenicity associated with exposure to metallic nickel: a review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;43:117-33. View abstract.

Uthus EO, Seaborn CD. Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for dietary recommendations of the other trace elements. J Nutr 1996;126:2452s-2459s. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors