There are two types of sleep apnea:
- obstructive sleep apnea (the most common type) and
- central sleep apnea.
Sleep apnea can be caused by many factors such as strokes, heart failure, medications, or physical structures in the throat and mouth. Treatment range from medical devices to surgery.
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Heart Rhythm DisordersArrhythmias or heart rhythm disorders are conditions that causes changes in the normal heartbeat. There are numerous types of arrhythmias, for example, supraventricular tachycardia, sinus sick syndrome, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular fibrillation. Signs and symptoms of an arrhythmia may include: Chest pain or discomfort Shortness of breath Palpitations Racing heart sensation Treatment for arrhythmias depend upon the cause.
Atrial FibrillationAtrial fibrillation (AFib) describes a rapid, irregular heart rhythm. The irregular rhythm, or arrhythmia, results from abnormal electrical impulses in the heart. Atrial fibrillation may be treated with medications or surgery. There are many causes of atrial fibrillation, for example, pneumonia, heart disease, alcohol use, and thyroid problems. Symptoms of atrial fibrillation include chest pain and/or angina, nausea, dizziness, and heart palpitations. Atrial fibrillation is managed and treated with medication, medical procedures, and surgery.
High Blood PressureHigh blood pressure (hypertension) may be present in an individual, without any symptoms. Thus, it is called the "silent killer." Causes of high blood pressure include heart disease, kidney disease, tumors, birth control, alcohol, thyroid dysfunction, and birth control pills.Treatment of high blood pressure is generally through diet, exercise, and medication if necessary.
Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count)Polycythemia (high red blood cell count) is a condition in which there is an increased number of red blood cells in the blood. There are two types of polycythemia; 1) primary polycythemia and 2) secondary polycythemia. The two main conditions of primary polycythemia are polycythemia vera (PV) and primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP). Causes of secondary polycythemia include conditions as a result of chronic hypoxia such as COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, and certain cancers. Examples of symptoms of polycythemia include easy bruising or bleeding, blood clot formation, headache, itching, and fatigue. Treatment for polycythemia depends on the cause. Untreated polycythemia generally has a poor outcome for the patient.
InsomniaInsomnia affects most people at some point in their lifetime. Insomnia is actually a symptom of a condition, disease, or situation. Non-medical treatment of insomnia includes: sleep hygiene, relaxation therapy, stimulus control, and sleep restriction. There are many medications that can be prescribed to a person with insomnia.
ObesityMore than two-thirds of Americans are overweight, including at least one in five children. Nearly one-third are obese. Obesity is on the rise in our society because food is abundant and physical activity is optional. The safest way to lose weight is to eat less and exercise more. Treatment may also include medications, surgery, and behavior modification.
Pulmonary HypertensionPulmonary hypertension is an abnormally high pressure in the pulmonary arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. Primary pulmonary hypertension has no underlying condition that has caused this condition. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is caused by other underlying conditions. Treatment depends on the cause of the underlying condition, or the condition of primary pulmonary hypertension.
Sleep: Understanding the BasicsSleep is defined as a state of unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused. In this state, the brain is relatively more responsive to internal stimuli than external stimuli. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious effects on the body. Sleep apnea and sleep paralysis are two common kinds of sleep disorders. Several activities can help one to fall asleep fast.
Sleep Disorders and AgingSleep problems are common among people as they age. People tend to sleep less in later years, but other sleep issues can be caused by a variety of medical symptoms and drug side effects. Daytime sleepiness and fatigue and reduce the quality of life for senior citizens. Medications and sleep hygeine, or a combination of the two, can help.
Sleep Disorders in WomenSleep disorders affect both men and women, but suffer these problems at double the rate of men. Psychosocial stress, hormonal changes, illness, and lifestyle factors can all affect sleep in women. Medications may be used to help women get to sleep, but losing weight, avoiding caffeine, getting plenty of exercise and overall good sleep hygiene can help in many cases.
Sleeplessness and Circadian Rhythm DisorderA person's circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock that regulates a variety of biological processes according to an approximate 24-hour period. A disorder of the circadian rhythm may cause sleeplessness on at transient or chronic basis. The disorder can be caused by air travel across time zones, shift work, irregular sleep-wake cycle, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and advanced sleep-phase syndrome.
SnoringSnoring is the sound that occurs during sleep when soft tissues where the throat meets the back of the nasal passage partially block the airway and subsequently vibrates and causes noise. Snoring in itself isn't a big medical problem, but can be an indicator of a more serious problem like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
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