- What other names is Ornithine Ketoglutarate known by?
- What is Ornithine Ketoglutarate?
- How does Ornithine Ketoglutarate work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Dosing considerations for Ornithine Ketoglutarate.
ACO, Alpha-Cétoglutarate de L-Ornithine, Alpha-Cétoglutarate de L(+)-ornithine, Alpha-Cétoglutarate d'Ornithine, Cétoglutarate d'Ornithine, L-Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate, L(+)-ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, OKG, Ornicetil, Ornithine Alpha Ketoglutarate, Ornitina Cetoglutarato.
Ornithine ketoglutarate is an amino acid. The body uses amino acids to build proteins. Ornithine ketoglutarate can be made by the body or in a laboratory. People use it as a medicine.
Ornithine ketoglutarate is sometimes included in nutritional formulas that healthcare providers give as an injection into the veins (intravenously, by IV). Ornithine ketoglutarate is added to the formulas to prevent abnormally slow growth in children who are receiving long-term intravenous feeding.
Don't confuse ornithine ketoglutarate with ornithine.
Possibly Effective for...
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Athletic performance. Taking ornithine ketoglutarate does not seem to improve athletic performance.
Likely Ineffective for...
- Worsening of mental function caused by liver disease. Giving ornithine ketoglutarate intravenously (by IV) does not help treat mental changes caused by liver disease. In fact, it may make this condition worse.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Early research suggests that giving ornithine ketoglutarate intravenously (by IV) before and during chemotherapy can reduce the severity of nausea and vomiting similarly to the drug metoclopramide.
- Abnormally slow growth. Some early research suggests that ornithine ketoglutarate helps prevent abnormally slow growth when added to long-term nutrition that is given intravenously (by IV) to children. However, other research suggests that taking ornithine ketoglutarate for one year does not improve growth in short-statured children.
- HIV/AIDS. Early research suggests that taking ornithine ketoglutarate by mouth for 12 weeks does not improve immune function, strength, or body weight in people with HIV.
- Pressure ulcers. Taking ornithine ketoglutarate by mouth for 6 weeks seems to improve healing in older people with heel pressure ulcers that are no larger than 8 cm2 at the start of treatment. However, it does not seem to improve healing in people with larger heel pressure ulcers.
- Stroke. Early research suggests that giving ornithine ketoglutarate intravenously (by IV) for 5 days to people who have had a stroke might improve their ability to respond to stimuli. However, this improvement does not appear to continue once treatment with ornithine ketoglutarate is stopped.
- Muscle regrowth after surgery. Early research suggests that ornithine ketoglutarate might improve the regrowth of certain muscles after surgery.
- Complications of surgery or long-term feeding by vein and other conditions.
- Other conditions.
Ornithine ketoglutarate might change the way amino acids, the building blocks of protein, are used in the body. It also increases insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
Ornithine ketoglutarate is POSSIBLY SAFE when given intravenously or when taken by mouth with appropriate medical supervision.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of ornithine ketoglutarate during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Worsening of mental function caused by liver disease: Taking ornithine ketoglutarate might make this condition worse.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For the healing of burn wounds: 30 grams of ornithine ketoglutarate daily.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Bean N, Redden J Goode H Grimble G Allison SP. Double-blind pilot trial, in elderly women with fractured femur, of ornithine a-ketoglutarate v. a defined formula peptide oral supplement. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1994;53:203A.
Bouchon, Y., Michon, J., Chanson, L., Merle, M., and Debry, G. [Effect of ornithine oxoglutarate on the duration and quality of wound healing in extensive reparative and plastic surgical methods]. Ann.Chir Plast.Esthet. 1989;34(5):447-449. View abstract.
Brocker, P., Vellas, B., Albarede, J. L., and Poynard, T. A two-centre, randomized, double-blind trial of ornithine oxoglutarate in 194 elderly, ambulatory, convalescent subjects. Age Ageing 1994;23(4):303-306. View abstract.
Cano N, Coudray-Lucas C Cynober L Lacombe P Labastie-Coeyrehourcq J Durbec JP di Costanzo-Dufetel J Fernandez JP. Ornithine alpha-ceto glutarate (OKG) in hemodialysed (HD) patients: metabolism and nutritional effects. Clin-Nutr. 1988;7:93.
Coudray-Lucas, C., Le, Bever H., Cynober, L., De Bandt, J. P., and Carsin, H. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate improves wound healing in severe burn patients: a prospective randomized double-blind trial versus isonitrogenous controls. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(6):1772-1776. View abstract.
Cynober, L. [Role of new nitrogen substrates during peri-operative artificial nutrition in adults]. Ann.Fr.Anesth.Reanim. 1995;14 Suppl 2:102-106. View abstract.
Cynober, L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate as a potent precursor of arginine and nitric oxide: a new job for an old friend. J.Nutr. 2004;134(10 Suppl):2858S-2862S. View abstract.
Cynober, L., Saizy, R., Nguyen, Dinh F., Lioret, N., and Giboudeau, J. Effect of enterally administered ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma and urinary amino acid levels after burn injury. J.Trauma 1984;24(7):590-596. View abstract.
Cynober, L., Vaubourdolle, M., Dore, A., and Giboudeau, J. Kinetics and metabolic effects of orally administered ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in healthy subjects fed with a standardized regimen. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1984;39(4):514-519. View abstract.
Debout, J., Salvetti, B., and Krivosic-Horber, R. [A controlled trial of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in neuro-traumatology]. Cah.Anesthesiol. 1986;34(6):501-504. View abstract.
Demarcq, J. M., Delbar, M., Trochu, G., and Crignon, J. J. [Effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on the nutritional state of intensive-care patients]. Cah.Anesthesiol. 1984;32(3):229-232. View abstract.
Donati L, Signorini M. Nutritional effects of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate in burn patients. EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled TrialsClinical Nutrition. 1992;11:25-26.
Donati, L., Signorini, M., and Grappolini, S. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate administration in burn injury. Clin.Nutr. 1993;12(1):70-71. View abstract.
Donati, L., Ziegler, F., Pongelli, G., and Signorini, M. S. Nutritional and clinical efficacy of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in severe burn patients. Clin.Nutr. 1999;18(5):307-311. View abstract.
Dorf, G. Anorexia of aging. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1998;68(3):758. View abstract.
Griffith DNW, Dorf G James IM Woollard ML. The effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in stroke. Progress in Stroke Research. 1979;207-211.
Herlong, H. F., Maddrey, W. C., and Walser, M. The use of ornithine salts of branched-chain ketoacids in portal-systemic encephalopathy. Ann.Intern.Med. 1980;93(4):545-550. View abstract.
Herranz, Jordan B., Moreno, Romero F., Cardesa Garcia, J. J., Santos, Hurtado, I, Aparicio, Palomino A., and Requena, Guerrero F. [Controlled clinical assay in Clonidine, arginine aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate of Ornithine and Ciproheptadine as growth stimulants in children with short stature]. An.Esp.Pediatr. 1993;38(6):509-515. View abstract.
Jeevanandam, M. and Petersen, S. R. Substrate fuel kinetics in enterally fed trauma patients supplemented with ornithine alpha ketoglutarate. Clin.Nutr. 1999;18(4):209-217. View abstract.
Jeevanandam, M. Ornithine oxoglutarate improved nutrition in elderly patients. ACP J.Club. 1995;123(2):56. View abstract.
Jeevanandam, M., Holaday, N. J., and Petersen, S. R. Ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) supplementation is more effective than its component salts in traumatized rats. J.Nutr. 1996;126(9):2141-2150. View abstract.
Karsegard, V. L., Raguso, C. A., Genton, L., Hirschel, B., and Pichard, C. L-ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in HIV infection: effects on muscle, gastrointestinal, and immune functions. Nutrition 2004;20(6):515-520. View abstract.
Le, Bricon T., Coudray-Lucas, C., Lioret, N., Lim, S. K., Plassart, F., Schlegel, L., De Bandt, J. P., Saizy, R., Giboudeau, J., and Cynober, L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism after enteral administration in burn patients: bolus compared with continuous infusion. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(2):512-518. View abstract.
Meaume, S., Kerihuel, J. C., Constans, T., Teot, L., Lerebours, E., Kern, J., and Bourdel, Marchasson, I. Efficacy and safety of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in heel pressure ulcers in elderly patients: results of a randomized controlled trial. J.Nutr.Health Aging 2009;13(7):623-630. View abstract.
Michel, H., Oge, P., and Bertrand, L. [Action of ornighine alpha-ketoglutarate on hyperammoniemia in the cirrhotic patient]. Presse Med. 4-17-1971;79(19):867-868. View abstract.
Morley, J. E. Anorexia of aging: physiologic and pathologic. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;66(4):760-773. View abstract.
Pradoura JP, Carcasonne Y and Spitalier JM. Double blind randomized trial of l-dextro ornithine alpha ketoglutarate enteral supplementation in operated patients with oropharynx cancer. Clin Nutr. 1986;5:132.
Rutten, E. P., Engelen, M. P., Schols, A. M., and Deutz, N. E. Skeletal muscle glutamate metabolism in health and disease: state of the art. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2005;8(1):41-51. View abstract.
Schneid, C., De Bandt, J. P., Cynober, L., Torres, E., Reach, G., and Darquy, S. In vivo induction of insulin secretion by ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: involvement of nitric oxide and glutamine. Metabolism 2003;52(3):344-350. View abstract.
Sevin D, Spielmann M Le CT Rouesse J. Comparison of the anti-emetic effects of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate and metoclopramide in patients treated with cisplatin or adriamycin (randomized double blind study). SEM HOP. 1988;64(2):141-143.
Szam, I., Szentner, J., Hegedus-Wein, I., Vass, A., and Szilard, T. [Therapy of experimental and clinical hyperammonaemia with ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate]. Wien.Med.Wochenschr. 5-18-1974;124(20):319-325. View abstract.
Vaubourdolle, M., Salvucci, M., Coudray-Lucas, C., Agneray, J., Cynober, L., and Ekindjian, O. G. Action of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate on DNA synthesis by human fibroblasts. In Vitro Cell Dev.Biol. 1990;26(2):187-192. View abstract.
Walrand, S. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: could it be a new therapeutic option for sarcopenia? J.Nutr.Health Aging 2010;14(7):570-577. View abstract.
Zur Nieden HC, Pullen R Fusgen I. Treatment of decubital ulcers in geriatric patients with ornithine- oxoglutarate - A randomized, double-blind pilot study. European Journal of Geriatrics. 1999;1:144-147.
Blomqvist BI, Hammarqvist F, von der Decken A, Wernerman J. Glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate prevent the decrease in muscle free glutamine concentration and influence protein synthesis after total hip replacement. Metabolism 1995;44:1215-22. View abstract.
Chainuvati T, Plengvanit U, Viranuvatti V. Ornicetil on encephalopathy. Effect of ornicetil (ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate) on encephalopathy in patients with acute and chronic liver disease. Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg) 1977;24:434-9. View abstract.
De Bandt JP, Coudray-Lucas C, Lioret N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the influence of the mode of enteral ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate administration in burn patients. J Nutr 1998;128:563-9. View abstract.
Gay G, Villaume C, Beaufrand MJ, et al. Effects of ornithine alphaketoglutarate on blood insulin, glucagon and aminoacids in alcoholic cirrhosis. Biomedicine 1979;30:173-7. View abstract.
Marconi C, Sassi G, Cerretelli P. The effect of an alpha-ketoglutarate-pyridoxine complex on human maximal aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1982;49:307-17. View abstract.
Meakins TS, Persaud C, Jackson AA. Dietary supplementation with L-methionine impairs the utilization of urea-nitrogen and increases 5-L-oxoprolinuria in normal women consuming a low protein diet. J Nutr 1998;128:720-7. View abstract.
Moukarzel AA, Goulet O, Salas JS, et al. Growth retardation in children receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition: effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:408-13. View abstract.
Wernerman J, Hammarkvist F, Ali MR, Vinnars E. Glutamine and ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate but not branched-chain amino acids reduce the loss of muscle glutamine after surgical trauma. Metabolism 1989;38:63-6. View abstract.
Wernerman J, Hammarqvist F, von der Decken A, Vinnars E. Ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate improves skeletal muscle protein synthesis as assessed by ribosome analysis and nitrogen use after surgery. Ann Surg 1987;206:674-8. View abstract.
Woollard ML, Pearson RM, Dorf G, et al. Controlled trial of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate (OAKG) in patients with stroke. Stroke 1978;9:218-22. View abstract.