- What other names is Palm Oil known by?
- What is Palm Oil?
- How does Palm Oil work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Palm Oil.
Aceite de Palma, African Palm Oil, Crude Palm Oil, Elaeis guineensis, Elaeis melanococca, Fractionated Palm Kernel Oil, Huile de Palme, Huile de Palme Brute, Huile de Palme Rouge, Huile de Palmiste, Main Ja, Oil Palm Tree, Palm, Palm Fruit Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, Palm Oil Carotene, Palmier à Huile, Red Palm Oil.
Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree.
Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, brain disease, aging; and treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the body's metabolism.
As food, palm oil is used for frying.
Industrially, palm oil is used for manufacturing cosmetics, soaps, toothpaste, waxes, lubricants, and ink.
Possibly Effective for...
- Preventing a lack of vitamin A (vitamin A deficiency). There is some evidence that adding palm oil to the diet of pregnant women and children in developing countries might reduce the risk of developing vitamin A deficiency.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- High cholesterol. Consuming palm oil as part of a specific diet plan does not seem to reduce cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. In fact, some research suggests that palm oil might actually increase cholesterol levels compared to other oils, such as soybean, canola, or sunflower oil.
- Malaria. Some research suggests that dietary consumption of palm oil by children under 5 years of age in developing countries does not seem to decrease symptoms of malaria.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- High blood pressure.
- Cyanide poisoning.
- Weight loss agent.
- Brain disease.
- Other conditions.
Palm oil is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts found in foods. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken as medicine by children or adults for up to 6 months.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Palm oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken as a medicine during pregnancy for up to 6 months.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Palm oil might increase blood clotting. Taking palm oil along with medications that slow clotting might reduce the effectiveness of these medications.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox) heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For preventing vitamin A deficiency: about 3 tablespoons (9 grams) per day of palm oil for adults and children over age 5. About 4 tablespoons (12 grams) per day for pregnant women. For children less than 5 years old, 2 tablespoons (6 grams) per day.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abulude, F. O., Ogunkoya, M. O., and Kluyode, O. S. Effect of Storage on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil. Pakistan journal of scientific and industrial research 2005;48(2):110-112.
Adam, S. K., Das, S., and Jaarin, K. A detailed microscopic study of the changes in the aorta of experimental model of postmenopausal rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Int J Exp.Pathol. 2009;90(3):321-327. View abstract.
Alfatni, M. S. M., Shariff, A. R. M., Shafri, H. Z. M., Ben Saaed, O. M., and Eshanta, O. M. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number. Journal of Applied Sciences 2008;8(8):1444-1452.
Ammawath, W., Che Man, Y., Abdul Rahman, R., and Baharin, B. A fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for determining butylated hydroxytoluene in palm olein and palm oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2006;83(3):187-191.
Anderson, J. T., Grande, F., and Keys, A. Independence of the effects of cholesterol and degree of saturation of the fat in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29(11):1184-1189. View abstract.
Berry, S. E., Woodward, R., Yeoh, C., Miller, G. J., and Sanders, T. A. Effect of interesterification of palmitic acid-rich triacylglycerol on postprandial lipid and factor VII response. Lipids 2007;42(4):315-323. View abstract.
Binns, C. W., Pust, R. E., and Weinhold, D. W. Palm oil: a pilot study of its use in a nutrition intervention programme. J Trop.Pediatr. 1984;30(5):272-274. View abstract.
Bosch, V., Aular, A., Medina, J., Ortiz, N., and Apitz, R. [Changes in of plasma lipoproteins after the use of palm oil in the diet of a group healthy adults]. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 2002;52(2):145-150. View abstract.
Canfield, L. M., Kaminsky, R. G., Taren, D. L., Shaw, E., and Sander, J. K. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. Eur J Nutr 2001;40(1):30-38. View abstract.
Cantwell, M. M., Flynn, M. A., and Gibney, M. J. Acute postprandial effect of hydrogenated fish oil, palm oil and lard on plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acid metabolism in normocholesterolaemic males. Br J Nutr 2006;95(4):787-794. View abstract.
Cater, N. B. and Denke, M. A. Behenic acid is a cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(1):41-44. View abstract.
Cater, N. B., Heller, H. J., and Denke, M. A. Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(1):41-45. View abstract.
Chalmers, L. Palm oil and antioxidants. Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics (England) 1972;45:60.
Chen, M. L., Vali, S., Lin, J. Y., and Ju, Y. H. Synthesis of the Structured Lipid 1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol from Palm Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2004;81(6):525-532.
Chong, Y. H. and Ng, T. K. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk. Med J Malaysia 1991;46(1):41-50. View abstract.
Choudhury, N., Tan, L., and Truswell, A. S. Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1043-1051. View abstract.
Clore, J. N., Stillman, J. S., Li, J., O'Keefe, S. J., and Levy, J. R. Differential effect of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287(2):E358-E365. View abstract.
Cottrell, R. C. Introduction: nutritional aspects of palm oil. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53(4 Suppl):989S-1009S. View abstract.
D'Agostini, D. and Ferraz, R. C. Consistency of binary and ternary blends of palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2000;36:147-155.
D'Agostini, D. and Gioielli, L. A. Stereospecific distribution of structured lipids obtained from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2002;38:345-354.
de Bosch, N. B., Bosch, V., and Apitz, R. Dietary fatty acids in athero-thrombogenesis: influence of palm oil ingestion. Haemostasis 1996;26 Suppl 4:46-54. View abstract.
Decker, E. A. The role of stereospecific saturated fatty acid positions on lipid nutrition. Nutr Rev. 1996;54(4 Pt 1):108-110. View abstract.
Demirbas, A. Fuel Conversional Aspects of Palm Oil and Sunflower Oil. Energy Sources 2003;25:457-466.
Dian, N. M., Sundram, K., and Idris, N. DSC study on the melting properties of palm oil, sunflower oil, and palm kernel olein blends before and after chemical interesterification. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2006;83(8):739-745.
Dougherty, R. M., Allman, M. A., and Iacono, J. M. Effects of diets containing high or low amounts of stearic acid on plasma lipoprotein fractions and fecal fatty acid excretion of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1120-1128. View abstract.
Ebong, P. E., Owu, D. U., and Isong, E. U. Influence of palm oil (Elaesis guineensis) on health. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;53(3):209-222. View abstract.
Edem, D. O., Eka, O. U., and Umoh, I. B. Feeding of red palm oil-supplemented diets to rats may impact positively on vitamin A status. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2002;53(4):285-291. View abstract.
Elson, C. E. Tropical oils: nutritional and scientific issues. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr 1992;31(1-2):79-102. View abstract.
Enas, E. A. Cooking oils, cholesterol and CAD: facts and myths. Indian Heart J 1996;48(4):423-427. View abstract.
Engelberts, I., Sundram, K., Van Houwelingen, A. C., Hornstra, G., Kester, A. D., Ceska, M., Francot, G. J., van der Linden, C. J., and Buurman, W. A. The effect of replacement of dietary fat by palm oil on in vitro cytokine release. Br.J Nutr. 1993;69(1):159-167. View abstract.
Filteau, S. M., Lietz, G., Mulokozi, G., Bilotta, S., Henry, C. J., and Tomkins, A. M. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation. Immunology 1999;97(4):595-600. View abstract.
Foon, C. S., Liang, Y. C., Dian, N. L. H. M., and May, C. Y. Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2006;3(5):1859-1863.
Gioielli, L. A. and Baruffaldi, R. Chemical interesterification of babassu fat and palm oil. Revista de Farmacia e Bioquimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) 1988;24:29-38.
Gioielli, L. A. and De Camargo Moreno, P. Effect of free palmitic acid on palm oil stability. Revista de Farmacia e Bioquimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) 1993;29:35-39.
Gouado, I., Mbiapo, T. F., Moundipa, F. P., and Teugwa, M. C. Vitamin A and E status of some rural populations in the north of Cameroon. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1998;68(1):21-25. View abstract.
Grange, A. O., Santosham, M., Ayodele, A. K., Lesi, F. E., Stallings, R. Y., and Brown, K. H. Evaluation of a maize-cowpea-palm oil diet for the dietary management of Nigerian children with acute, watery diarrhea. Acta Paediatr. 1994;83(8):825-832. View abstract.
Hallebeek, J. M. and Beynen, A. C. The plasma level of triacylglycerols in horses fed high-fat diets containing either soybean oil or palm oil. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2002;86(3-4):111-116. View abstract.
Han, N. M., May, C. Y., Ngan, M. A., Hock, C. C., and Hashim, M. A. Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2006;3(7):1929-1932.
Heber, D., Ashley, J. M., Solares, M. E., and Wang, J. H. The effects of a palm-oil enriched diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men. Nutrition Research 1992;12(Suppl 1):S53-S59.
Hedren, E., Mulokozi, G., and Svanberg, U. In vitro accessibility of carotenes from green leafy vegetables cooked with sunflower oil or red palm oil. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002;53(6):445-453. View abstract.
Hinds, E. A. Government policy and the Nigerian palm oil export industry, 1939-49. Journal of African History 1997;38(3):459-478.
Huang, Z. R., Lin, Y. K., and Fang, J. Y. Biological and pharmacological activities of squalene and related compounds: potential uses in cosmetic dermatology. Molecules. 2009;14(1):540-554. View abstract.
Ikeda, S., Toyoshima, K., and Yamashita, K. Dietary sesame seeds elevate alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in skin and adipose tissue of rats fed the tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil. J Nutr. 2001;131(11):2892-2897. View abstract.
Jackson, K. G., Robertson, M. D., Fielding, B. A., Frayn, K. N., and Williams, C. M. Measurement of apolipoprotein B-48 in the Svedberg flotation rate (S(f))>400, S(f) 60-400 and S(f) 20-60 lipoprotein fractions reveals novel findings with respect to the effects of dietary fatty acids on triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;103(3):227-237. View abstract.
Jackson, K. G., Robertson, M. D., Fielding, B. A., Frayn, K. N., and Williams, C. M. Olive oil increases the number of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron particles compared with other oils: an effect retained when a second standard meal is fed. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(5):942-949. View abstract.
Jensen, J., Bysted, A., Dawids, S., Hermansen, K., and Holmer, G. The effect of palm oil, lard, and puff-pastry margarine on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women. Br.J Nutr. 1999;82(6):469-479. View abstract.
Joy, N. A. B, Richard, K., and Pierre, N. J. Adsorption of Palm Oil Carotene and Free Fatty Acids onto Acid Activated Cameroonian Clays. Journal of Applied Sciences 2007;7(17):2462-2467.
Kennedy, M., Burstyn, P. G., and Husbands, D. R. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. 2. The effect of feeding diets containing high concentrations of safflower oil and palm oil [proceedings]. Proc Nutr Soc 1978;37(3):98A. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Comparison between the effects of dietary saturated (16:0), monounsaturated (18:1), and polyunsaturated (18:2) fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein metabolism in cebus and rhesus monkeys fed cholesterol-free diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(1):51-62. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Dietary fat saturation in rhesus monkeys affects LDL concentrations by modulating the independent production of LDL apolipoprotein B. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 4-24-1991;1083(1):46-56. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Pa
Kooyenga, D. K., Geller, M., Watkins, T. R., Gapor, A., Diakoumakis, E., and Bierenbaum, M. L. Palm oil antioxidant effects in patients with hyperlipidaemia and carotid stenosis-2 year experience. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;6(1):72-75.
Kritchevsky, D., Tepper, S. A., Chen, S. C., Meijer, G. W., and Krauss, R. M. Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis. 23. Effects of specific synthetic triglycerides. Lipids 2000;35(6):621-625. View abstract.
Ladeia, A. M., Costa-Matos, E., Barata-Passos, R., and Costa, Guimaraes A. A palm oil-rich diet may reduce serum lipids in healthy young individuals. Nutrition 2008;24(1):11-15. View abstract.
Lai, H. C. and Ney, D. M. Corn oil, palm oil and butterfat fractions affect postprandial lipemia and lipoprotein lipase in meal-fed rats. J Nutr 1995;125(6):1536-1545. View abstract.
Larsen, L. F., Bladbjerg, E. M., Jespersen, J., and Marckmann, P. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 1997;17(11):2904-2909. View abstract.
Lietz, G., Mulokozi, G., Henry, J. C., and Tomkins, A. M. Xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoid patterns differ in plasma and breast milk of women supplemented with red palm oil during pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr 2006;136(7):1821-1827. View abstract.
Lynn, M. Bristol, West Africa, and the Nineteenth-Century Palm Oil Trade. Historical Research 1991;64(155):359-374.
Lynn, M. Change and continuity in the British palm oil trade with West Africa, 1830-55. Journal of African History 1981;22(3):331-348.
Lynn, M. The profitability of the early Nineteenth Century palm oil trade. African Economic History 1992;20:77-97.
Manorama, R., Brahmam, G. N., and Rukmini, C. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene for combating vitamin A deficiency. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1996;49(1):75-82. View abstract.
Melo, M. D. and Mancini, J. Natural antioxidants from palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq). Revista de Farmacia e Bioquimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) 1989;258:147-157.
Mensink, R. P. and Hornstra, G. The proportion of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in serum triacylglycerols or platelet phospholipids as an objective indicator of their short-term intake in healthy men. Br J Nutr 1995;73(4):605-612. View abstract.
Montoya, M. T., Porres, A., Serrano, S., Fruchart, J. C., Mata, P., Gerique, J. A., and Castro, G. R. Fatty acid saturation of the diet and plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle concentrations, and cholesterol efflux capacity. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75(3):484-491. View abstract.
Mudambi, S. R. and Rajagopal, M. V. Effect of heat on the beta-carotene content of Nigerian palm oil. Journal of Food Science 1977;42(5):1414.
Muller, H., Jordal, O., Kierulf, P., Kirkhus, B., and Pedersen, J. I. Replacement of partially hydrogenated soybean oil by palm oil in margarine without unfavorable effects on serum lipoproteins. Lipids 1998;33(9):879-887. View abstract.
Muller, H., Seljeflot, I., Solvoll, K., and Pedersen, J. I. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil reduces postprandial t-PA activity compared with palm oil. Atherosclerosis 2001;155(2):467-476. View abstract.
Mutalib, M. S. A., Wahle, K. W. J., Duthie, G. G., Whiting, P., Peace, H., and Jenkinson, A. Human Studies-The Effect of Dietary Palm Oil, Hydrogenated Rape and Soya Oil on indices of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Healthy Scottish Volunteers. Nutrition Research 1999;19(3):335.
Narasinga Rao, B. S. Potential use of red palm oil in combating vitamin A deficiency in India. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2000;21(2):202-211.
Narvaez, P. C., Rincon, S. M., and Sanchez, F. J. Kinetics of Palm Oil Methanolysis. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2007;84:971-977.
Nelson, S. E., Rogers, R. R., Frantz, J. A., and Ziegler, E. E. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64(3):291-296. View abstract.
Nestel, P. and Trumbo, P. The role of provitamin A carotenoids in the prevention and control of vitamin A deficiency. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 1999;49(3 Suppl 1):26S-33S. View abstract.
Nestel, P. J., Noakes, M., Belling, G. B., McArthur, R., and Clifton, P. M. Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(5):950-955. View abstract.
Ng, T. K., Hassan, K., Lim, J. B., Lye, M. S., and Ishak, R. Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(4 Suppl):1015S-1020S. View abstract.
Ng, T. K., Hayes, K. C., DeWitt, G. F., Jegathesan, M., Satgunasingam, N., Ong, A. S., and Tan, D. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women. J Am Coll.Nutr 1992;11(4):383-390. View abstract.
Nielsen, N. S., Marckmann, P., and Hoy, C. Effect of meal fat quality on oxidation resistance of postprandial VLDL and LDL particles and plasma triacylglycerol level. Br J Nutr 2000;84(6):855-863. View abstract.
Oluba, O. M., Onyeneke, C. E., Ojien, G. C., Eidangbe, G. O., and Orole, R. T. Effects of palm oil supplementation on lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity in cholesterol-fed rats. The Internet Journal of Cardiovascular Research 2009;6(1)
Patrick, M., Blindt, R., and Janssen, J. The effect of ultrasonic intensity on the crystal structure of palm oil. Ultrason.Sonochem. 2004;11(3-4):251-255. View abstract.
Pedersen, A., Marckmann, P., and Sandstrom, B. Postprandial lipoprotein, glucose and insulin responses after two consecutive meals containing rapeseed oil, sunflower oil or palm oil with or without glucose at the first meal. Br J Nutr 1999;82(2):97-104. View abstract.
Pedersen, J. I., Muller, H., Seljeflot, I., and Kirkhus, B. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2005;14(4):348-357. View abstract.
Pletcher, J. Public interventions in agricultural markets in Malaysia: rice and palm oil. Modern Asian Studies 1990;24(2):323-340.
Pronczuk, A., Khosla, P., and Hayes, K. C. Dietary myristic, palmitic, and linoleic acids modulate cholesterolemia in gerbils. FASEB J 1994;8(14):1191-1200. View abstract.
Raman, I. A., Suhaimi, H., and Tiddy, G. J. Microemulsions with Palm Oil Derivatives Stabilized by a Nonionic Surfactant: Effects of Temperature and Cosurfactant. Journal of Dispersion Sciences and Technology 2005;26(3):355-364.
Ramli, M. R., Siew, W. L., and Cheah, K. Y. Properties of high-oleic palm oils derived by fractional crystallization. J Food Sci 2008;73(3):C140-C145. View abstract.
Renaud, S. C., Ruf, J. C., and Petithory, D. The positional distribution of fatty acids in palm oil and lard influences their biologic effects in rats. J Nutr 1995;125(2):229-237. View abstract.
Sanders, J. Palm oil production on the gold coast in the aftermath of the slave trade: a case study of the Fante. International Journal of African Historical Studies 1982;15(1):49-63.
Schlierf, G., Jessel, S., Ohm, J., Heuck, C. C., Klose, G., Oster, P., Schellenberg, B., and Weizel, A. Acute dietary effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lipolytic enzymes in healthy normal males. Eur J Clin Invest 1979;9(5):319-325. View abstract.
Schwab, U. S., Niskanen, L. K., Maliranta, H. M., Savolainen, M. J., Kesaniemi, Y. A., and Uusitupa, M. I. Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. J Nutr 1995;125(3):466-473. View abstract.
Setiowaty, G. and Che Man, Y. B. Multivariate Determination of Cloud Point in Palm Oil Using Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression Based on FTIR Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2004;81(1):7-11.
Sivan, Y. S., Alwin, Jayakumar Y., Arumughan, C., Sundaresan, A., Jayalekshmy, A., Suja, K. P., Soban Kumar, D. R., Deepa, S. S., Damodaran, M., Soman, C. R., Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. J.Trop.Pediatr. 2002;48(1):24-28. View abstract.
Sivan, Y. S., Jayakumar, Y. A., Arumughan, C., Sundaresan, A., Balachandran, C., Job, J., Deepa, S. S., Shihina, S. L., Damodaran, M., Soman, C. R., Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of beta-carotene supplementation through red palm. J Trop.Pediatr 2001;47(2):67-72. View abstract.
Skagerlind, P. and Holmberg, K. Effect of the surfactant on enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil in microemulsion. Journal of Dispersion Sciences and Technology 1994;15:317-332.
Solomons, N. W. Plant sources of vitamin A and human nutrition: red palm oil does the job. Nutr.Rev 1998;56(10):309-311. View abstract.
Stack, K. M., Churchwell, M. A., and Skinner, R. B., Jr. Xanthoderma: case report and differential diagnosis. Cutis 1988;41(2):100-102. View abstract.
Sun, W., Yan, Y., and Dong, F. [Progression of tocotrienols]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2004;33(2):243-245. View abstract.
Sundram, K., Hayes, K. C., and Siru, O. H. Both dietary 18:2 and 16:0 may be required to improve the serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio in normocholesterolemic men. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 1995;6(4):179-187.
Sundram, K., Hayes, K. C., and Siru, O. H. Dietary palmitic acid results in lower serum cholesterol than does a lauric-myristic acid combination in normolipemic humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59(4):841-846. View abstract.
Sundram, K., Hornstra, G., von Houwelingen, A. C., and Kester, A. D. Replacement of dietary fat with palm oil: effect on human serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Br.J Nutr. 1992;68(3):677-692. View abstract.
Sundram, K., Sambanthamurthi, R., and Tan, Y. A. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2003;12(3):355-362. View abstract.
Tanaka, L., Miura, S., and Yoshioka, T. Formation of Granular Crystals in Margarine with Excess Amount of Palm Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2007;84(5):421-426.
Tholstrup, T., Marckmann, P., Jespersen, J., Vessby, B., Jart, A., and Sandstrom, B. Effect on blood lipids, coagulation, and fibrinolysis of a fat high in myristic acid and a fat high in palmitic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60(6):919-925. View abstract.
Utarwuthipong, T., Komindr, S., Pakpeankitvatana, V., Songchitsomboon, S., and Thongmuang, N. Small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration and oxidative susceptibility changes after consumption of soybean oil, rice bran oil, palm oil and mixed rice bran/palm oil in hypercholesterolaemic women. J Int Med Res 2009;37(1):96-104. View abstract.
van Jaarsveld, P. J., Smuts, C. M., Tichelaar, H. Y., Kruger, M., and Benade, A. J. Effect of palm oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations and plasma low-density lipoprotein composition in non-human primates. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51 Suppl:S21-S30. View abstract.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E. and Benade, A. J. S. South African experience with the use of red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of primary school children. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2000;21(2):212-221.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E., Dhansay, M. A., Lombard, C. J., Faber, M., and Benade, A. J. The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children: a comparison with beta-carotene from a synthetic source in a randomised controlled trial. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(8):657-662. View abstract.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E., Faber, M., Dhansay, M. A., Lombard, C. J., Vorster, N., and Benade, A. J. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene in a school biscuit used to address vitamin A deficiency in primary school children. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2000;51 Suppl:S43-S50. View abstract.
van, Rooyen J., Esterhuyse, A. J., Engelbrecht, A. M., and du Toit, E. F. Health benefits of a natural carotenoid rich oil: a proposed mechanism of protection against ischaemia/ reperfusion injury. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2008;17 Suppl 1:316-319. View abstract.
Vega-Lopez, S., Ausman, L. M., Jalbert, S. M., Erkkila, A. T., and Lichtenstein, A. H. Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils adversely alter lipoprotein profiles compared with soybean and canola oils in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):54-62. View abstract.
Wardlaw, G. M., Snook, J. T., Park, S., Patel, P. K., Pendley, F. C., Lee, M. S., and Jandacek, R. J. Relative effects on serum lipids and apolipoproteins of a caprenin-rich diet compared with diets rich in palm oil/palm-kernel oil or butter. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1995;61(3):535-542. View abstract.
Yli-Jokipii, K. M., Schwab, U. S., Tahvonen, R. L., Kurvinen, J. P., Mykkanen, H. M., and Kallio, H. P. Triacylglycerol molecular weight and to a lesser extent, fatty acid positional distribution, affect chylomicron triacylglycerol composition in women. J Nutr 2002;132(5):924-929. View abstract.
Zeba, A. N., Martin, Prevel Y., Some, I. T., and Delisle, H. F. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso. Nutr J 2006;5:17. View abstract.
Zhang, J., Ping, W., Chunrong, W., Shou, C. X., and Keyou, G. Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm oil diet in Chinese adults. J Nutr. 1997;127(3):509S-513S. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., de Vries, J. H., and Katan, M. B. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1994;14(4):567-575. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., de Vries, J. H., de Fouw, N. J., and Katan, M. B. Positional distribution of fatty acids in dietary triglycerides: effects on fasting blood lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(1):48-55. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., Gerritsen, J., and Katan, M. B. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans. Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26(2):141-150. View abstract.
Agarwal MK, Agarwal ML, Athar M, Gupta S. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil activates p53, modulates Bax/Bcl2 ratio and induces apoptosis independent of cell cycle association. Cell Cycle 2004;3;205-11. View abstract.
Aguila MB, Pinheiro AR, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Spontaneously hypertensive rats left ventricular cardiomyocyte loss attenuation through different edible oils long-term intake. Int J Cardiol 2005;100:461-6. View abstract.
Aguila MB, Sa Silva SP, Pinheiro AR, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Effects of long-term intake of edible oils on hypertension and myocardial and aortic remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 2004;22:921-9. View abstract.
Atinmo T, Bakre AT. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:350-4. View abstract.
Bautista LE, Herran OF, Serrano C. Effects of palm oil and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins: results from a dietary crossover trial in free-living subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:748-54. View abstract.
Benade AJ. A place for palm fruit oil to eliminate vitamin A deficiency. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:369-72. View abstract.
Bester DJ, van Rooyen J, du Toit EF, et al. Red palm oil protects against the consequences of oxidative stress when supplemented with dislipidemic diets. Med Tech SA 2006;20:3-10.
Clandinin MT, Larsen B, Van Aerde J. Reduced bone mineralization in infants fed palm olein-containing formula: a randomized, double-blinded, prospective trial. Pediatrics 2004;114:899-900. View abstract.
Cooper KA, Adelekan DA, Esimai AO, et al. Lack of influence of red palm oil on severity of malaria infection in pre-school Nigerian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2002;96;216-23. View abstract.
Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8. View abstract.
Edem DO. Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2002;57:319-41. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Esterhuyse AJ, du Toit EF, Benade AJ, van Rooyen J. Dietary red palm oil improves reperfusion cardiac function in the isolated perfused rat heart of animals fed a high cholesterol diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72:153-61. View abstract.
Esterhuyse AJ, du Toit EF, Benade AJS, et al. Dietary red palm oil improves reperfusion cardiac function in the isolated perfused rat heart of animals fed a high cholesterol diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72:153-61. View abstract.
Esterhuyse JS, van Rooyen J, Strijdom H, et al. Proposed mechanisms for red palm oil-induced cardioprotection in a model of hyperlipidemia in the rat. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006;75:375-84. View abstract.
Ganafa AA, Socci RR, Eatman D, et al. Effect of palm oil on oxidative stress-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:725-31. View abstract.
Ghosh S, An D, Pulinilkunnil T, et al. Role of dietary fatty acids and acute hyperglycemia in modulating cardiac cell death. Nutrition 2004;20:916-23. View abstract.
Jaarin K, Gapor MT, Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM. Effect of various doses of palm vitamin E and tocopherol on aspirin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Int J Exp Pathol 2002;83:295-302. View abstract.
Jackson KG, Wolstencroft EJ, Bateman PA, et al. Greater enrichment of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins with apolipoproteins E and C-III after meals rich in saturated fatty acids than after meals rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:25-34. View abstract.
Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Czarnecki SK, Sundram K. Red palm oil in experimental atherosclerosis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:S433-7. View abstract.
Lietz G, Henry CJ, Mulokozi G, et al. Comparison of the effects of supplemental red palm oil and sunflower oil on maternal vitamin A status. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:501-9. View abstract.
Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM, Kamsiah J, Gapor MT. Comparative effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction and tocopherol in aspirin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:309-13. View abstract.
Narang D, Sood S, Thomas MK, et al. Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. BMC Pharmacol 2004;4:29. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in athymic mice. Lipids 2004;39:459-67. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:143-57. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan A, Selvaduray KR, et al. Effect of palm oil carotene on breast cancer tumorigenicity in nude mice. Lipids 2002;37:557-60. View abstract.
Ng MH, Choo YM, Ma AN, et al. Separation of vitamin E (tocopherol, tocotrienol, tocomonoenol) in palm oil. Lipids 2004;39:1031-5. View abstract.
Oguntibeju OO, Esterhuyse AJ, Truter EJ. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic role in improving human wellbeing and quality of life. Br J Biomed Sci 2009;66:216-22. View abstract.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S, et al. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;102:447-56. View abstract.
Ong AS, Goh SH. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component. Food Nutr Bull 2002;23;11-22. View abstract.
Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1021S-6S. View abstract.
Radhika MS, Bhaskaram P, Balakrishna N, Ramalakshmi BA. Red palm oil supplementation: a feasible diet-based approach to improve vitamin A status of pregnant women and their infants. Food Nutr Bull 2003;24:208-17. View abstract.
Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Oubina P, Rodenas S, et al. Platelet aggregation, thromboxane production and thrombogenic ratio in postmenopausal women consuming high oleic acid-sunflower oil or palmolein. Eur J Nutr 2003:42:299-306. View abstract.
Scholtz SC, Pieters M, Oosthuizen W, et al. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects. Thromb Res 2004;113:13-25. View abstract.
Soelaiman IN, Ahmad NS, Khalid BA. Palm oil tocotrienol mixture is better than alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bones against free-radical induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2004;13:S111. View abstract.
Solomons NW, Orozco M. Alleviation of vitamin A deficiency with palm fruit and its products. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:373-84. View abstract.
Sundram K, Sambanthamurthi R, Tan YA. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:369-72. View abstract.
Tholstrup T, Marckmann P, Jespersen J, Sandstrom B. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:371-7. View abstract.
Tiahou G, Maire B, Dupuy A, et al. Lack of oxidative stress in a selenium deficient area in Ivory Coast--potential nutritional antioxidant role of crude palm oil. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:367-74. View abstract.
Tomeo AC, Geller M, Watkins TR, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 1995;30:1179-83. View abstract.
Wattanapenpaiboon N, Wahlqvist MW. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:363-8. View abstract.
Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Kotyla T, et al. Different oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Biochem 2005;16:633-40. View abstract.
Zagre NM, Delpeuch F, Traissac P, Delisle H. Red palm oil as a source of vitamin A for mothers and children: impact of a pilot project in Burkina Faso. Public Health Nutr 2003;6:733-42. View abstract.
Zhang J, Wang CR, Xue AN, Ge KY. Effects of red palm oil on serum lipids and plasma carotenoids level in Chinese male adults. Biomed Environ Sci 2003;16:348-54. View abstract.