©2018 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. eMedicineHealth does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See Additional Information.

Pancreatin

What other names is Pancreatin known by?

Enzyme Therapy, Fungal Pancreatin, Pancreatina, Pancréatine, Pancréatine Fongique, Pancreatinum, Pancreatis Pulvis, Thérapie Enzymatique.

What is Pancreatin?

Pancreatin is usually obtained from the pancreas of pigs or cows. The pancreas is an organ in animals and people that makes chemicals — amylase, lipase, and protease — that are needed for proper digestion. Pancreatin is used as medicine.

Pancreatin is used to treat digestion problems that result when the pancreas has been removed or is not working well. Cystic fibrosis or ongoing swelling (chronic pancreatitis) are two of the conditions that can cause the pancreas to function poorly.

Pancreatin is also used for intestinal gas (flatulence) or as a digestive aid.

Effective for...

  • Inability to properly digest food (pancreatic insufficiency). Taking pancreatin by mouth seems to improve the absorption of fat, protein, and energy in people with who are unable to digest food properly due to cystic fibrosis, pancreas removal, or an pancreas swelling (pancreatitis). Most studies have evaluated pancrelipase products, which contain more lipase enzyme than normal pancreatin. Lipase enzyme helps the body break down fat.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Diabetes. Some research suggests that taking pancreatin or a specific pancrelipase product (Creon) does not improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes who are unable to digest food properly. Also, taking pancrelipase might increase the risk for blood sugar going too low (hypoglycemia), as well as a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, in people with diabetes and pancreas swelling (pancreatitis). It is not clear if these effects also occur in people with diabetes who are able to properly digest food.

Likely Ineffective for...

  • Digestive problems. Research shows that taking pancreatin by mouth is not effective for treating digestive problems, including intestinal gas, in people without pancreas problems.
  • Pancreas swelling (pancreatitis). Research shows that taking pancreatin does not improve stomach pain in people with pancreatitis.

QUESTION

Pancreatitis is inflammation of an organ in the abdomen called the pancreas. See Answer

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Hernia (hiatal hernia). Early research suggests that taking a specific blend of pancreatin and the chemical dimethylpolysiloxane (Pankreoflat) for one month might improve stomach swelling, intestinal gas, and flatulence in people with hiatal hernia.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pancreatin for these uses.

How does Pancreatin work?

Pancreatin contains amylase, lipase, and protease – chemicals that help to digest food. These chemicals are normally produced by the pancreas.

Are there safety concerns?

Pancreatin is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth by people with pancreas problems who cannot digest food properly. However, some pancreatin products contaminated by Salmonella bacteria have caused illness. Be sure to get pancreatin from a trusted source.

Pancreatin can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth and skin irritation, and allergic reactions. High doses can cause problems such as high blood levels of a substance called uric acid, as well as colon damage.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough information about the safety of using pancreatin during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It's best to avoid use unless you have been diagnosed with pancreas problems that make use of pancreatin essential.

Are there any interactions with medications?


Acarbose (Precose, Prandase)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Acarbose (Precose, Prandase) is used to help treat type 2 diabetes. Acarbose (Precose, Prandase) works by decreasing how quickly foods are broken down. Pancreatin seems to help the body break down some foods. By helping the body break down foods pancreatin might decrease the effectiveness of Acarbose (Precose, Prandase).

Dosing considerations for Pancreatin.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For helping digestion when the pancreas has been removed or isn't functioning properly (pancreatic insufficiency): the starting dose of pancreatin is usually 8,000 to 24,000 USP units of lipase activity taken before or with each meal or snack. Lipase is one of the chemicals contained in pancreatin that helps with digestion. To control fatty stools that are sometimes associated with pancreatic insufficiency, the dose can be increased as needed or until nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurs. These side effects of treatment indicate that the highest tolerable dose has been reached. Pancreatin is available as tablets that are treated to resist breakdown by stomach acids (enteric-coated), powder, or capsules containing the powder or enteric-coated granules.
Note that each mg of pancreatin contains at least 25 USP units of amylase activity, 2 USP units of lipase activity, and 25 USP units of protease activity. Pancreatin that is stronger is labeled as a multiple of these three minimum activities, e.g., pancreatin 4X.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 9/17/2019
References

Ablin, D. S. and Ziegler, M. Ulcerative type of colitis associated with the use of high strength pancreatic enzyme supplements in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Radiol. 1995;25(2):113-115. View abstract.

Andersen, H. O., Hjelt, K., Waever, E., and Overgaard, K. The age-related incidence of meconium ileus equivalent in a cystic fibrosis population: the impact of high-energy intake. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1990;11(3):356-360. View abstract.

Ansaldi-Balocco, N., Santini, B., and Sarchi, C. Efficacy of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis: comparison of two preparations by random crossover study and a retrospective study of the same patients at two different ages. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1988;7 Suppl 1:S40-S45. View abstract.

Aparisi, L., Rodrigo, J. M., Serra, M. A., Del Olmo, J., Bisquert, M., and Raga, F. [Efficacy of a new microencapsulated pancreatin versus a conventional preparation, in the treatment of steatorrhea of pancreatic origin]. Rev.Esp.Enferm.Apar.Dig. 1989;76(1):25-30. View abstract.

Beverley, D. W., Kelleher, J., Macdonald, A., Littlewood, J. M., Robinson, T., and Walters, M. P. Comparison of four pancreatic extracts in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis.Child 1987;62(6):564-568. View abstract.

Bouquet, J., Sinaasappel, M., and Neijens, H. J. Malabsorption in cystic fibrosis: mechanisms and treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1988;7 Suppl 1:S30-S35. View abstract.

Bowler, I. M., Wolfe, S. P., Owens, H. M., Sheldon, T. A., Littlewood, J. M., and Walters, M. P. A double blind lipase for lipase comparison of a high lipase and standard pancreatic enzyme preparation in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis.Child 1993;68(2):227-230. View abstract.

Braden, B., Picard, H., Caspary, W. F., Posselt, H. G., and Lembcke, B. Monitoring pancreatin supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients with the 13C-Hiolein breath test: evidence for normalized fat assimilation with high dose pancreatin therapy. Z.Gastroenterol. 1997;35(2):123-129. View abstract.

Bragelmann, R., Armbrecht, U., Rosemeyer, D., Schneider, B., Zilly, W., and Stockbrugger, R. W. The effect of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in patients with steatorrhoea after total gastrectomy. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1999;11(3):231-237. View abstract.

Braggion, C. and Mastella, G. [Clinical trial of several preparation types of the pancreatic extract Pancrex V in the treatment of cystic fibrosis]. Minerva Pediatr 11-30-1985;37(21-22):891-896. View abstract.

Brown, A., Hughes, M., Tenner, S., and Banks, P. A. Does pancreatic enzyme supplementation reduce pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(11):2032-2035. View abstract.

Bruno, M. J., Borm, J. J., Hoek, F. J., Delzenne, B., Hofmann, A. F., de Goeij, J. J., van Royen, E. A., van Gulik, T. M., de Wit, L. T., Gouma, D. J., van Leeuwen, D. J., and Tytgat, G. N. Comparative effects of enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere therapy after conventional and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Br.J.Surg. 1997;84(7):952-956. View abstract.

Bruno, M. J., Haverkort, E. B., Tijssen, G. P., Tytgat, G. N., and van Leeuwen, D. J. Placebo controlled trial of enteric coated pancreatin microsphere treatment in patients with unresectable cancer of the pancreatic head region. Gut 1998;42(1):92-96. View abstract.

Buckle, R. M. Maintenance therapy of pancreatic steatorrhoea with concentrated pancreatic extract. Br.J Clin.Pract. 1965;19(12):683-686. View abstract.

Carroccio, A., Pardo, F., Montalto, G., Japichino, L., Iacono, G., Collura, M., and Notarbartolo, A. Effectiveness of enteric-coated preparations on nutritional parameters in cystic fibrosis. A long-term study. Digestion 1988;41(4):201-206. View abstract.

Chazalette, J. P. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Pancreatic Enzyme Formulation (Panzytrat 25 000) in the Treatment of Impaired Lipid Digestion in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Drug Investigation 1993;5(5):274.

Delchier, J. C., Vidon, N., Saint-Marc Girardin, M. F., Soule, J. C., Moulin, C., Huchet, B., and Zylberberg, P. Fate of orally ingested enzymes in pancreatic insufficiency: comparison of two pancreatic enzyme preparations. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1991;5(4):365-378. View abstract.

DiMagno, E. P., Malagelada, J. R., Go, V. L., and Moertel, C. G. Fate of orally ingested enzymes in pancreatic insufficiency. Comparison of two dosage schedules. N.Engl.J Med 6-9-1977;296(23):1318-1322. View abstract.

Dressman, J. B., Shtohryn, L. V., and Diokno, D. Effects of product formulation on in vitro activity of pancreatic enzymes. Am J Hosp.Pharm. 1985;42(11):2502-2506. View abstract.

Duhamel, J. F., Vidailhet, M., Le Luyer, B., Douchain, F., Jehanne, M., Clavel, R., and Guillot, M. [Multicenter comparative study of a new formulation of pancreatin in gastro-resistant microgranules for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in children with mucoviscidosis]. Ann.Pediatr.(Paris) 1988;35(1):69-74. View abstract.

Elliott, R. B., Escobar, L. C., Lees, H. R., Akroyd, R. M., and Reilly, H. C. A comparison of two pancreatin microsphere preparations in cystic fibrosis. N.Z.Med.J. 3-25-1992;105(930):107-108. View abstract.

Ewald, N., Bretzel, R. G., Fantus, I. G., Hollenhorst, M., Kloer, H. U., and Hardt, P. D. Pancreatin therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency according to low fecal elastase 1 concentrations. Results of a prospective multi-centre trial. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;23(5):386-391. View abstract.

Farkas, G., Leindler, L., and Mihalovits, G. [Dose-dependent effect of pancreatin replacement upon the pancreatic function in the period after pancreatic surgery]. Magy.Seb. 2001;54(6):347-350. View abstract.

Farkas, G., Takacs, T., Baradnay, G., and Szasz, Z. [Effect of pancreatin replacement on pancreatic function in the postoperative period after pancreatic surgery]. Orv.Hetil. 12-5-1999;140(49):2751-2754. View abstract.

FitzSimmons, S. C., Burkhart, G. A., Borowitz, D., Grand, R. J., Hammerstrom, T., Durie, P. R., Lloyd-Still, J. D., and Lowenfels, A. B. High-dose pancreatic-enzyme supplements and fibrosing colonopathy in children with cystic fibrosis. N.Engl.J Med 5-1-1997;336(18):1283-1289. View abstract.

Fric, P. [Conservative therapy of chronic pancreatitis]. Vnitr.Lek. 2002;48(9):882-886. View abstract.

Friess, H., Kleeff, J., Malfertheiner, P., Muller, M. W., Homuth, K., and Buchler, M. W. Influence of high-dose pancreatic enzyme treatment on pancreatic function in healthy volunteers. Int J Pancreatol. 1998;23(2):115-123. View abstract.

Gan, K. H., Heijerman, H. G., Geus, W. P., Bakker, W., and Lamers, C. B. Comparison of a high lipase pancreatic enzyme extract with a regular pancreatin preparation in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 1994;8(6):603-607. View abstract.

Glasbrenner, B., Malfertheiner, P., Kerner, W., Scherbaum, W. A., and Ditschuneit, H. [Effect of pancreatin on diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis]. Z.Gastroenterol. 1990;28(6):275-279. View abstract.

Guarner, L., Rodriguez, R., Guarner, F., and Malagelada, J. R. Fate of oral enzymes in pancreatic insufficiency. Gut 1993;34(5):708-712. View abstract.

Halgreen, H., Pedersen, N. T., and Worning, H. Symptomatic effect of pancreatic enzyme therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986;21(1):104-108. View abstract.

Halm, U., Loser, C., Lohr, M., Katschinski, M., and Mossner, J. A double-blind, randomized, multicentre, crossover study to prove equivalence of pancreatin minimicrospheres versus microspheres in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 1999;13(7):951-957. View abstract.

Heijerman, H. G. New modalities in the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis. Neth.J Med 1992;41(3-4):105-109. View abstract.

Herrerias, J. M., Gomez, Parra M., Garcia Montes, J. M., Petit, M. A., and Valladolid Leon, J. M. [A comparative cross-over study of pellet pancreatin and tablet pancreatin in chronic pancreatitis]. Rev.Esp.Enferm.Apar.Dig. 1989;76(6 Pt 2):651-653. View abstract.

Isaksson, G. and Ihse, I. Pain reduction by an oral pancreatic enzyme preparation in chronic pancreatitis. Dig.Dis.Sci 1983;28(2):97-102. View abstract.

Jones, R., Franklin, K., Spicer, R., and Berry, J. Colonic strictures in children with cystic fibrosis on low-strength pancreatic enzymes. Lancet 8-19-1995;346(8973):499. View abstract.

Jorgensen, B. B., Pedersen, N. T., and Worning, H. Monitoring the effect of substitution therapy in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991;26(3):321-326. View abstract.

Lancellotti, L., Cabrini, G., Zanolla, L., and Mastella, G. High- versus low-lipase acid-resistant enzyme preparations in cystic fibrosis: a crossover randomized clinical trial. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1996;22(1):73-78. View abstract.

Lankisch, P. G. and Creutzfeldt, W. Therapy of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Clin Gastroenterol. 1984;13(3):985-999. View abstract.

Lankisch, P. G., Lembcke, B., Goke, B., and Creutzfeldt, W. Therapy of pancreatogenic steatorrhoea: does acid protection of pancreatic enzymes offer any advantage? Z.Gastroenterol. 1986;24(12):753-757. View abstract.

Larvin, M., McMahon, M. J., and Thomas, W. E. G. Creon (enteric coated pancreatin microspheres) for the treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis: A double blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover study (abstract). Gastroenterology 1991;1000:A283.

Laugier, R., Grandval, P., and Ville, E. [Maldigestion during chronic pancreatitis]. Rev.Prat. 5-15-2001;51(9):973-976. View abstract.

Lauque, S., Nourhashemi, F., Baudouin, M., Ghisolfi-Marque, A., Beziat, F., Moreau, J., Dyard, F., Vellas, B., and Albarede, J. L. Assessment of the effectiveness of drug therapies on nutritional status in the elderly: "concerning a randomised, double-blind clinical study of the activity of pancreatic extracts and a placebo during the renutrition of elderly subjects suffering from protein caloric undernutrition". J Nutr.Health Aging 1998;2(1):18-20. View abstract.

Layer, P. [Intestinal regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion: stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms]. Z.Gastroenterol. 1992;30(7):495-497. View abstract.

Layer, P. and Groger, G. Fate of pancreatic enzymes in the human intestinal lumen in health and pancreatic insufficiency. Digestion 1993;54 Suppl 2:10-14. View abstract.

Layer, P. and Keller, J. Lipase supplementation therapy: standards, alternatives, and perspectives. Pancreas 2003;26(1):1-7. View abstract.

Layer, P. and Keller, J. Pancreatic enzymes: secretion and luminal nutrient digestion in health and disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1999;28(1):3-10. View abstract.

Layer, P., Keller, J., and Lankisch, P. G. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2001;3(2):101-108. View abstract.

Layer, P., von der Ohe, M. R., Holst, J. J., Jansen, J. B., Grandt, D., Holtmann, G., and Goebell, H. Altered postprandial motility in chronic pancreatitis: role of malabsorption. Gastroenterology 1997;112(5):1624-1634. View abstract.

Littlewood, J. M., Kelleher, J., Walters, M. P., and Johnson, A. W. In vivo and in vitro studies of microsphere pancreatic supplements. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1988;7 Suppl 1:S22-S29. View abstract.

Loser, C. and Folsch, U. R. [Clinical and pharmacological aspects of pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy]. Leber Magen Darm 1991;21(2):56, 59-62, 65. View abstract.

Lyon, C. C., Yell, J., and Beck, M. H. Irritant contact dermatitis from pancreatin exacerbating vulvodynia. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38(6):362. View abstract.

Mac Sweeney, E. J., Oades, P. J., Buchdahl, R., Rosenthal, M., and Bush, A. Relation of thickening of colon wall to pancreatic-enzyme treatment in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 3-25-1995;345(8952):752-756. View abstract.

Malesci, A., Gaia, E., Fioretta, A., Bocchia, P., Ciravegna, G., Cantor, P., and Vantini, I. No effect of long-term treatment with pancreatic extract on recurrent abdominal pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 1995;30(4):392-398. View abstract.

McHugh, K., Thomson, A., and Tam, P. Case report: colonic stricture and fibrosis associated with high-strength pancreatic enzymes in a child with cystic fibrosis. Br.J Radiol. 1994;67(801):900-901. View abstract.

Meyer, J. H. and Lake, R. Mismatch of duodenal deliveries of dietary fat and pancreatin from enterically coated microspheres. Pancreas 1997;15(3):226-235. View abstract.

Milla, C. E., Wielinski, C. L., and Warwick, W. J. High-strength pancreatic enzymes. Lancet 3-5-1994;343(8897):599. View abstract.

Mischler, E. H., Parrell, S., Farrell, P. M., and Odell, G. B. Comparison of effectiveness of pancreatic enzyme preparations in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis.Child 1982;136(12):1060-1063. View abstract.

Miyoshi, H. and Kanzaki, T. Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) due to a digestive enzyme drug. J Dermatol. 1998;25(1):28-31. View abstract.

Moreau, J., Bouisson, M., Saint-Marc-Girardin, M. F., Pignal, F., Bommelaer, G., and Ribet, A. [Comparison of fungal lipase and pancreatic lipase in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in man. Study of their in vitro properties and intraduodenal bioavailability]. Gastroenterol.Clin.Biol. 1988;12(11):787-792. View abstract.

Mossner, J. Is there a place for pancreatic enzymes in the treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis? Digestion 1993;54 Suppl 2:35-39. View abstract.

Mossner, J., Secknus, R., Meyer, J., Niederau, C., and Adler, G. Treatment of pain with pancreatic extracts in chronic pancreatitis: results of a prospective placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Digestion 1992;53(1-2):54-66. View abstract.

Nakamura, T., Takebe, K., Kudoh, K., Ishii, M., Imamura, K., Kikuchi, H., Kasai, F., Tandoh, Y., Yamada, N., Arai, Y., and . Effects of pancreatic digestive enzymes, sodium bicarbonate, and a proton pump inhibitor on steatorrhoea caused by pancreatic diseases. J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):37-47. View abstract.

Nakamura, T., Takeuchi, T., and Tando, Y. Pancreatic dysfunction and treatment options. Pancreas 1998;16(3):329-336. View abstract.

Neoptolemos, J. P., Ghaneh, P., Andren-Sandberg, A., Bramhall, S., Patankar, R., Kleibeuker, J. H., and Johnson, C. D. Treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreatic resection. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of high vs standard dose pancreatin. Int.J.Pancreatol. 1999;25(3):171-180. View abstract.

Norregaard, P., Lysgaard, Madsen J., Larsen, S., and Worning, H. Gastric emptying of pancreatin granules and dietary lipids in pancreatic insufficiency. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 1996;10(3):427-432. View abstract.

Nouisa-Arvanitakis, S., Stapleton, F. B., Linshaw, M. A., and Kennedy, J. Therapeutic approach to pancreatic extract-induced hyperuricosuria in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1977;90(2):302-305. View abstract.

O'Hare, M. M., McMaster, C., and Dodge, J. A. Stated versus actual lipase activity in pancreatic enzyme supplements: implications for clinical use. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1995;21(1):59-63. View abstract.

O'Keefe, S. J. and Adam, J. Assessment of adequacy of pancreatic enzyme replacement with the multiple-phase carbon-14-triolein test. S.Afr.Med J 11-17-1984;66(20):763-765. View abstract.

O'Keefe, S. J., Cariem, A. K., and Levy, M. The exacerbation of pancreatic endocrine dysfunction by potent pancreatic exocrine supplements in patients with chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;32(4):319-323. View abstract.

Oades, P. J., Bush, A., Ong, P. S., and Brereton, R. J. High-strength pancreatic enzyme supplements and large-bowel stricture in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 1-8-1994;343(8889):109. View abstract.

Ong, P. S., Oades, P. J., Bush, A., and Brereton, R. J. Colonic stricture in a boy with cystic fibrosis. Postgrad.Med J 1995;71(835):309-312. View abstract.

Opekun, A. R., Jr., Sutton, F. M., Jr., and Graham, D. Y. Lack of dose-response with Pancrease MT for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adults. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1997;11(5):981-986. View abstract.

Otte, M. [Chronic pancreatis and pancreatic carcinoma in the elderly]. Praxis.(Bern.1994.) 6-1-2005;94(22):943-948. View abstract.

Pap, A. and Marosi, E. [New trends in the treatment of exocrine pancreas deficiency]. Orv.Hetil. 11-8-1992;133(45):2885-2890. View abstract.

Pap, A. and Varro, V. Proteolytic inactivation of lipase as a possible cause of the uneven results obtained with enzyme substitution in pancreatic insufficiency. Hepatogastroenterology 1984;31(1):47-50. View abstract.

Patchell, C. J., Desai, M., Weller, P. H., Macdonald, A., Smyth, R. L., Bush, A., Gilbody, J. S., and Duff, S. A. Creon 10,000 Minimicrospheres vs. Creon 8,000 microspheres--an open randomised crossover preference study. J Cyst.Fibros. 2002;1(4):287-291. View abstract.

Petersen, W., Heilmann, C., and Garne, S. Pancreatic enzyme supplementation as acid-resistant microspheres versus enteric-coated granules in cystic fibrosis. A double placebo-controlled cross-over study. Acta Paediatr.Scand 1987;76(1):66-69. View abstract.

Ramo, O. J., Puolakkainen, P. A., Seppala, K., and Schroder, T. M. Self-administration of enzyme substitution in the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 1989;24(6):688-692. View abstract.

Robinson, P. J., Olinsky, A., Smith, A. L., and Chitravanshi, S. B. High compared with standard dose lipase pancreatic supplement. Arch Dis.Child 1989;64(1):143-145. View abstract.

Sack, J., Blau, H., Goldfarb, D., Ben-Zaray, S., and Katznelson, D. Hyperuricosuria in cystic fibrosis patients treated with pancreatic enzyme supplements. A study of 16 patients in Israel. Isr.J Med Sci. 1980;16(6):417-419. View abstract.

Salen, G. and Prakash, A. Evaluation of enteric-coated microspheres for enzyme replacement therapy in adults with pancreatic insufficiency. Curr Ther Res 1979;25:650-656.

Santini, B. and Ivaldi, A. P. [Pancreatic extract therapy in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency]. Minerva Gastroenterol.Dietol. 1993;39(3):133-137. View abstract.

Sarner, M. Treatment of pancreatic exocrine deficiency. World J Surg. 2003;27(11):1192-1195. View abstract.

Shin, S. Y., Hur, G. Y., Ye, Y. M., and Park, H. S. A case of occupational rhinitis caused by porcine pancreatic extract developing into occupational asthma. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23(2):347-349. View abstract.

Silber, W. Pankreoflat in benign diseases of the oesophagus: a blind therapeutic trial. S.Afr.Med J 7-7-1973;47(26):1137-1138. View abstract.

Slaff, J., Jacobson, D., Tillman, C. R., Curington, C., and Toskes, P. Protease-specific suppression of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Gastroenterology 1984;87(1):44-52. View abstract.

Stapleton, F. B., Kennedy, J., Nousia-Arvanitakis, S., and Linshaw, M. A. Hyperuricosuria due to high-dose pancreatic extract therapy in cystic fibrosis. N.Engl.J Med 7-29-1976;295(5):246-248. View abstract.

Stead, R. J., Skypala, I., and Hodson, M. E. Treatment of steatorrhoea in cystic fibrosis: a comparison of enteric-coated microspheres of pancreatin versus non-enteric-coated pancreatin and adjuvant cimetidine. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 1988;2(6):471-482. View abstract.

Stead, R. J., Skypala, I., Hodson, M. E., and Batten, J. C. Enteric coated microspheres of pancreatin in the treatment of cystic fibrosis: comparison with a standard enteric coated preparation. Thorax 1987;42(7):533-537. View abstract.

Stern, M., Plettner, C., and Gruttner, R. [Pancreatic enzyme replacement in mucoviscidosis (CF): clinical evaluation of a gastric acid-resistant pancreatin preparation in encapsulated microtablet form]. Klin.Padiatr. 1988;200(1):36-39. View abstract.

Taylor, C. J. and Steiner, G. M. Fibrosing colonopathy in a child on low-dose pancreatin. Lancet 10-21-1995;346(8982):1106-1107. View abstract.

Taylor, C. J., Hillel, P. G., Ghosal, S., Frier, M., Senior, S., Tindale, W. B., and Read, N. Gastric emptying and intestinal transit of pancreatic enzyme supplements in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis.Child 1999;80(2):149-152. View abstract.

Van Hoozen, C. M., Peeke, P. G., Taubeneck, M., Frey, C. F., and Halsted, C. H. Efficacy of enzyme supplementation after surgery for chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas 1997;14(2):174-180. View abstract.

Walters, M. P. and Littlewood, J. M. Pancreatin preparations used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis--lipase content and in vitro release. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10(3):433-440. View abstract.

Wiessmann, K. J. and Ruf, G. [Pneumothorax in lung disease following pancreatin dust exposure]. Zentralbl.Arbeitsmed.Arbeitsschutz.Prophyl.Ergonomie. 1982;32(11):402-404. View abstract.

Williams, J., Macdonald, A., Weller, P. H., Fields, J., and Pandov, H. Two enteric coated microspheres in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis.Child 1990;65(6):594-597. View abstract.

Zentler-Munro, P. L., Assoufi, B. A., Balasubramanian, K., Cornell, S., Benoliel, D., Northfield, T. C., and Hodson, M. E. Therapeutic potential and clinical efficacy of acid-resistant fungal lipase in the treatment of pancreatic steatorrhoea due to cystic fibrosis. Pancreas 1992;7(3):311-319. View abstract.

Zentler-Munro, P. L., Fine, D. R., Batten, J. C., and Northfield, T. C. Effect of cimetidine on enzyme inactivation, bile acid precipitation, and lipid solubilisation in pancreatic steatorrhoea due to cystic fibrosis. Gut 1985;26(9):892-901. View abstract.

Bergner A, Bergner RK. Pulmonary hypersensitivity associated with pancreatin powder exposure. Pediatrics 1975;55:814-7. View abstract.

Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.

Nassif, E. G., Younoszai, M. K., Weinberger, M. M., and Nassif, C. M. Comparative effects of antacids, enteric coating, and bile salts on the efficacy of oral pancreatic enzyme therapy in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1981;98(2):320-323. View abstract.

Russell RM, Dutta SK, Oaks EV, et al. Impairment of folic acid absorption by oral pancreatic extracts. Dig Dis Sci 1980;25:369-73. View abstract.

Smyth RL, van Velzen D, Smyth AR, et al. Strictures of ascending colon in cystic fibrosis and high-strength pancreatic enzymes. Lancet 1994;343:85-6. View abstract.

Wiessmann KJ, Baur X. Occupational lung disease following long-term inhalation of pancreatic extracts. Eur J Respir Dis 1985;66:13-20. View abstract.

Zavadova E, Desser L, Mohr T. Stimulation of reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity in human neutrophils in vitro and after oral administration of a polyenzyme preparation. Cancer Biother 1995;10:147-52. View abstract.

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors