Pregnancy Loss

Reviewed on 12/19/2022
Pregnancy Loss
About half of all early pregnancy losses are due to genetic or chromosomal issues.

The term “pregnancy loss” refers to the loss of a fetus at any point in the pregnancy.

Because it is so early in the pregnancy, the mother frequently has no idea that she is pregnant.

What Are the Types of Miscarriages?

Your physician may diagnose you with the following types of miscarriage:

  • Missed miscarriage: You are not aware of the miscarriage. Although there are no signs of miscarriage, an ultrasound shows the fetus' heart is not beating.
  • Total miscarriage: The fetus did not survive, and the uterus is now empty. Vaginal bleeding may last several days. Cramping pain similar to labor or severe period pain is common and caused by the uterus contracting to empty itself. With the help of an ultrasound, your doctor can confirm a total miscarriage.
  • Threatened miscarriage: Your cervix is still closed, but you are bleeding and getting cramps in your pelvis. In most cases, the pregnancy progresses normally. Throughout the remaining phase of your pregnancy, your healthcare practitioner may keep a closer eye on you.
  • Recurrent miscarriage: Three consecutive miscarriages. It affects about one percent of couples.
  • Inevitable miscarriage: You are bleeding, cramping, and your cervix is dilating, indicating that a miscarriage is unavoidable. Your amniotic fluid may leak. A total miscarriage is probably going to happen.

What Are the Symptoms of Pregnancy Loss?

Bleeding and cramps are the most typical signs of a miscarriage. However, they do not always indicate a miscarriage. Early bleeding occurs in up to one-third of pregnancies. In about half of those, regular pregnancies occur. Call your doctor if you experience bleeding or cramping during the first trimester.

Other usual signs could point to a miscarriage, such as:

  • Varying degrees of back pain (worse than menstrual cramps)
  • Weight loss
  • Whitish pink mucus discharge from the vagina
  • Painful contractions occurring every 5 to 20 minutes
  • Abrupt reduction in pregnancy-related symptoms
  • Unusual discharge of tissue with clot-like material from the vagina

What Causes the Loss of Pregnancy?

About half of all early pregnancy losses are due to genetic or chromosomal issues. In most cases, the pregnant person has nothing to do with it.

Things that may play a major role include:

  • Abnormal embryo development
  • Hormonal problems in pregnant people, including thyroid problems and low progesterone levels
  • Diabetes or high blood pressure in the pregnant person
  • Uterine issues, which include fibroids, irregular uterine form, or internal scar tissue
  • During pregnancy, the uterus cannot remain open (incompetent cervix)
  • Infections due to microbes, such as cytomegalovirus, mycoplasma, chlamydia, ureaplasma, listeria, or toxoplasma
  • Autoimmune illnesses, including lupus and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
  • Exposure to harmful compounds and chemicals, such as those found in anticancer medications
  • Injury or trauma

Who Are at Risk of Pregnancy Loss?

Most miscarriages are one-time occurrences. A person who experienced an unidentified early pregnancy loss has a good probability of conceiving normally in the future.

A pregnancy loss may be more likely in some situations, such as:

  • Older age of the person
  • Having previously lost a pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Consuming more coffee
  • Use of cocaine
  • Folate deficiency
  • Being too thin or too fat

How to Treat Miscarriage

Bleeding and infection are the two primary things that need to be avoided during or after therapy for a miscarriage. The earlier in the pregnancy you are, the more likely it is that your body will eliminate all the fetal tissue and would not need any more medical intervention.

The most frequent surgery to control bleeding and avoid infection is a dilation and curettage (D&C), which is performed if the body does not expel all the tissue.

Following a D&C, medication could be provided to reduce bleeding. Once you get home, you should keep a close eye on your bleeding. If it worsens or you start to feel sick or feverish, it is advisable to call your doctor immediately.

How Do You Prevent Miscarriages?

Most miscarriages are caused by unmodifiable genetic defects.

You must do the following to provide a favorable environment for conception:

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat healthily
  • Manage stress
  • Maintain a healthy weight range
  • Take folic acid every day
  • Never smoke
  • Restricting or avoiding caffeine
  • Avoid environmental dangers, such as X-rays, infectious diseases, and radiation
  • Avoid contact sports and extremely strenuous activities
  • Consult your physician before taking any over-the-counter drugs

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Reviewed on 12/19/2022
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What is a Miscarriage?


Early Pregnancy Loss.

Signs of Miscarriage.