Rice Flour (Gluten-Free)
It'll work in pies, cakes, and cookies, but you may need to use a little less of it if the recipe calls for wheat flour. You can get white or brown rice flour. Brown has a slightly nuttier taste and grittier texture. Try some rice flour chocolate cake if you're trying to cut back on traditional wheat flour.
Tapioca Flour (Gluten-Free)
This flour, made from a dried root called cassava or manioc, is great for thickening soups and stews. And you may be able to use it in equal amounts in recipes that call for wheat flour. It makes a nice, crispy alternative to wheat flour for breading pan-fried fish or chicken.
Potato Flour (Gluten-Free)
Ground from dried potatoes, a single cup has 1,600 milligrams of potassium, around half of what you need in a day. Use it to thicken creamy sauces or frozen desserts. It isn't a good replacement for wheat flour in baked goods, but you can mix it with other non-wheat flours. Try adding a small amount to your favorite bread recipe to help keep it moist and fresh.
Buckwheat Flour (Gluten-Free)
Despite its name, buckwheat has no relation to wheat. It's actually closer to rhubarb, which isn't a grain. It's also loaded with B-vitamins, fiber, magnesium, and antioxidants. Try some buttermilk-buckwheat pancakes for your next Sunday morning feast.
Amaranth Flour (Gluten-Free)
Ground amaranth seeds make up this flour that's rich in fiber and protein. You can replace up to 25% of wheat flour in standard recipes or combine it with other non-wheat flours to make a workable gluten-free version. It has a sweet, peppery flavor that works well in darker baked goods like brownies.
Corn Flour (Gluten-Free)
It isn't a good replacement for wheat flour in recipes, but you can use it in all kinds of other ways. For example, you can make cornbread, muffins, pancakes, hush puppies, and polenta (a smoother version of grits). Or try combining it with shortening to make your own homemade corn tortillas.
Chickpea Flour (Gluten-Free)
Dried, ground garbanzo beans make up this high-protein flour that Indian cooks call chana flour. Use it in savory Indian spiced pancakes, or combine it with other flours to make full-flavored baked goods.
Oat Flour (Gluten-Free)
Look for packages marked "gluten free" to be sure of what you're getting. Some oats pick up gluten during harvest or processing. The flour is dense, with a nutty flavor that works well in desserts and muffins. It uses the whole oat grain and so adds a good deal of fiber and nutrients. And oats lower cholesterol, among other health benefits. Try oat flour in something that doesn't need to rise, like the topping on your next fruit crisp.
Coconut Flour (Gluten-Free)
There's no mistaking this flour. It tastes distinctly of the dried coconut meat that is its only ingredient. You might like it if you follow the paleo diet. It's low in carbs, high in fiber, and has 4 grams of protein per quarter-cup. It also has 4 grams of saturated fat. In general, it's best to use a little in any one recipe and combine it with other flours. Try some coconut flour mini-muffins.
Almond Flour (Gluten-Free)
Italian cooks, among others, often use this flour in traditional cookies, cakes, and other pastries. You can make it at home if you blanch and grind almonds. A quarter-cup has 6 grams of protein, 14 grams of mostly unsaturated fat, and 3.5 grams of fiber. You can use it in savory dishes too; to encrust a fillet of flounder, for example.
A half-cup of whole-grain dark rye flour known as pumpernickel has 8 grams of fiber and less gluten than wheat flour, though it isn't gluten-free. You can lighten it by blending it with other higher-protein flours. In Denmark, rye is used to make a dark, dense sourdough bread called rugbrod that's part of the healthy Nordic diet.
If you're looking for a gluten-free option, skip spelt. This ancient grain is related to wheat, only with a bit more protein. And here, more protein means more gluten. A quarter-cup of spelt flour has 4 grams of fiber and 1.5 grams of iron. It works well as a replacement for wheat flour in cooking and baking, so try it for a change of pace to make homemade waffles.