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Depression: Managing Postpartum Depression

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If you have the "baby blues" after childbirth, you're not alone—about half of women have a few days of mild depression after having a baby. However unsettling, a certain amount of insomnia, irritability, tears, overwhelmed feelings, and mood swings are normal. Baby blues usually peak around the fourth postpartum day and subside in less than 2 weeks, when hormonal changes have settled down. But you can have bouts of baby blues throughout your baby's first year.

If your depressed feelings have lasted more than 2 weeks, your body isn't recovering from childbirth as expected. Postpartum depression:

  • Is a serious medical condition that can be prolonged and disabling without treatment and can affect a baby's development.
  • Is best treated with counseling and an antidepressant medicine.
  • Can further improve when you take some home treatment measures.

To prevent serious problems for you and your baby, work with your doctor now to treat your symptoms.

If you are having thoughts of hurting yourself, your baby, or anyone else, see your doctor immediately or call for emergency medical care.

Postpartum depression is more than a temporary feeling of sadness or lack of energy. It is a medical condition that occurs sometime in the first several months after childbirth. It seems to be triggered by normal hormonal changes after pregnancy. These hormonal changes are especially likely to lead to postpartum depression if you've had depression before, are under a lot of additional stress, or have poor support from your partner, friends, or family.

You probably have postpartum depression if you've had five or more of the following symptoms (including at least one of the first two symptoms) for most of each day over the past 2 weeks:1

  1. Depressed mood—tearfulness, hopelessness, and feeling empty inside, possibly with severe anxiety
  2. A significant loss of pleasure in either all or almost all of your daily activities
  3. Appetite and weight change—usually a drop in your appetite and weight, but sometimes the opposite
  4. Sleep problems—usually insomnia, even when your baby is sleeping
  5. Noticeable changes in how you walk and talk—usually restlessness, but sometimes sluggishness
  6. Extreme fatigue or loss of energy
  7. Feeling worthless or having inappropriate guilt
  8. Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
  9. Thinking a lot about death or suicide

If you think you may have postpartum depression, take a short quiz to check your symptoms:

Interactive Tool: Are You Depressed?Click here to see an interactive tool.

Early treatment is important for both you and your baby.

Test Your Knowledge

I know I'm supposed to be happy about having a baby, but I feel hopeless and unhappy. But I don't have all of the symptoms on the list. Should I see my doctor?


I've never had a problem with depression before. Do I have any risk of postpartum depression?


Postpartum depression affects both you and your baby. It interferes with your ability to function normally, including caring for and bonding with your baby. Some babies of depressed mothers might lag behind developmentally in behavior and mental ability.

Antidepressant medicine and counseling are effective ways to treat postpartum depression. Some medicines are thought to be safe for use during breast-feeding.

Test Your Knowledge

I'll get along just fine if I wait out postpartum depression.


Depression is a medical condition that requires treatment. It's not a sign of weakness. Be honest with yourself and those who care about you. Tell them about your struggle. You, your doctor, and your friends and family can team up to treat your postpartum depression symptoms.

Talk to your doctor about your postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, and decide what type of treatment is right for you. (You may also have your thyroid function checked, to make sure a thyroid problem isn't causing your symptoms.)

Treatment options

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy with a supportive counselor. This is recommended for all women who have postpartum depression. It can also help prevent postpartum depression. A cognitive-behavioral counselor can also teach you skills for managing anxiety, such as deep breathing and relaxation techniques.
  • Interpersonal counseling focusing on your relationships and the personal changes that come with having a new baby. This gives you emotional support and helps with problem solving and goal setting.
  • Antidepressant medicine, ideally along with counseling. Because breast-feeding offers many emotional and physical benefits for both baby and mother, experts are studying which antidepressants are most safe for breast-feeding babies. So, you can breast-feed while taking an antidepressant for postpartum depression. Whether or not you are breast-feeding, your doctor is likely to recommend a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Tricyclic antidepressants, excluding doxepin (Silenor, Zonalon), are also used by women who breast-feed.

Breast-feeding babies whose mothers take an antidepressant do not often have side effects. But they can. If you are taking an antidepressant while breast-feeding, talk to your doctor and your baby's doctor about what types of side effects to look for.

Home treatment measures

  • Schedule outings and visits with friends and family, and ask them to call you regularly. Isolation can make depression worse, especially when it's combined with the stress of caring for a newborn.
  • Get as much sunlight as possible. Keep your shades and curtains open. And get outside as much as you can.
  • Eat a balanced diet. Avoid alcohol and caffeine. If you have little appetite, eat small snacks throughout the day. Nutritional supplement shakes are also useful for keeping up your energy.
  • Get regular daily exercise, such as outdoor stroller walks. Exercise helps improve mood.
  • Ask for help with food preparation and other daily tasks. Family and friends are often happy to help a mother with newborn demands.
  • Don't overdo it. And get as much rest and sleep as possible. Fatigue can increase depression.
  • Join a support group of moms with new babies. An infant massage class is another great way of getting out and spending time with others whose daily lives are like yours. You will also learn new ways to bond with your baby. To find a support group in your area, talk to your doctor. Or see the website of Postpartum Support International at
  • Play stimulating music throughout your day and soothing music at night.

Test Your Knowledge

If I'm not willing to take an antidepressant medicine, there's really no point in talking to my doctor.


I have an antidepressant that I took before pregnancy, but I should check with my doctor before I take it again for postpartum depression.


Now that you have read this information about postpartum depression, you can take action, work with your doctor, and ask family and friends to support you along the way.

Return to topic:


  1. O'Hara MW, Segre LS (2008). Psychologic disorders of pregnancy and the postpartum period. In RS Gibbs et al., eds., Danforth's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10th ed., pp. 504–514. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Other Works Consulted

  • Cunningham FG, et al. (2010). Psychiatric disorders section of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed., pp. 1175–1184. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • O'Hara MW, Segre LS (2008). Psychologic disorders of pregnancy and the postpartum period. In RS Gibbs et al., eds., Danforth's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10th ed., pp. 504–514. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical ReviewerPatrice Burgess, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical ReviewerLisa S. Weinstock, MD - Psychiatry
Last RevisedMarch 8, 2012

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