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What other names is Sesame known by?

Ajonjolí, Beniseed, Benneseed, Benniseed, Chamkkae, Gergelim, Gimgelim, Gingelly, Goma, Hu Ma, Sesam, Sésame, Sesamo, Sésamo, Sesamum indicum , Sesamum mulayanum, Sesamum orientale, Simsim, Til, Ufuta, Wangila, Zhi Ma.

What is Sesame?

Sesame is crop that is grown for the oil in its seed. It is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa, and South America. Compared to similar crops, such as peanuts, soybean, and rapeseed, the seeds of sesame are believed to have the most oil. Sesame seeds are also rich sources of protein, vitamins, and antioxidants.

People take sesame by mouth for Alzheimer's disease, anemia, arthritis, heart disease prevention, cataracts, constipation, high cholesterol, infertility in men, menopause, osteoporosis, pain, stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, stroke, and weight loss.

People apply sesame oil to the skin for aging skin, hair loss, anxiety, frostbite, psoriasis, warts, wound healing, and to prevent bug bites.

People use sesame oil injections to improve the vocal cords.

In foods, sesame oil is used as cooking oil and to make dressings and sauces. Sesame seeds are added to food for flavoring.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Cough. Research suggests that taking sesame oil by mouth at bedtime for 3 days does not reduce coughing in children with a cold.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Weight loss due to AIDS. Early research suggests that consuming a chickpea sesame-based, ready-to-use food supplement daily for 3 months, along with antibiotics, improves weight gain in people with HIV who are chronically sick.
  • Burns. Early research suggests that applying a burn ointment containing sesame oil, beta-sitosterol, berberine, and other ingredients every 4 hours improves healing rate and reduces pain in people with burns.
  • Diabetes. Early research suggests that replacing other cooking oils with a specific brand of sesame oil (Idhayam Gingelly oil, V.V.V. & Songs, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu, India) for 45 days reduces blood sugar in people with diabetes who are also taking the drug glibenclamide.
  • Gingivitis. Early research suggests that oil pulling, which involves swishing oil around the mouth, for one minute daily before brushing in the morning for 10 days reduces dental plaque and gingivitis in boys with gingivitis.
  • High blood pressure. Early research suggests that replacing other cooking oils with a specific brand of sesame oil (Idhayam Gingelly oil, V.V.V. & Songs, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu, India) for 45-60 days reduces blood pressure in people with high blood pressure who are also taking blood pressuring-lowering medications.
  • Infant growth. Early research suggests that giving a daily message to infants using sesame oil for 4 weeks improves growth.
  • Rickets. Early research suggests that adding high calcium foods to the diet, including ground sesame seeds, improves rickets in children.
  • Blockage in the small bowel. Early research suggests that adding sesame oil through a tube that is inserted into the stomach through the nose along with standard care reduces the need for surgery in people with small bowel blockage when compared to standard care alone.
  • Alzheimer's disease.
  • Anemia.
  • Arthritis.
  • Heart disease prevention.
  • Cataracts.
  • Constipation.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Infertility in men.
  • Menopause.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Pain.
  • Stomach ulcers.
  • Stomach cancer.
  • Stroke.
  • Weight loss.
  • Aging skin.
  • Hair loss.
  • Anxiety.
  • Frostbite.
  • Psoriasis.
  • Warts.
  • Wound healing.
  • Bug bite prevention.
  • Vocal cord improvement.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate sesame for these uses.

How does Sesame work?

Sesame seems to stimulate the immune system and increase how quickly skin wounds heal. Sesame might slow how fast sugar is absorbed from food. This might help people with diabetes. Sesame might also eliminate bacteria that cause plaque. Sesame contains calcium, which might help treat rickets. Sesame also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

Are there safety concerns?

Sesame is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food.

Sesame is POSSIBLY SAFE when inserted to the stomach through the nose or when used as a nasal spray, short-term. A specific nasal spray (Nozoil) containing sesame oil has been used safely for up to 20 days.

There is not enough information available to know if sesame is safe to take for medical conditions by other routes.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Sesame is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. There is not enough information available to know if sesame is safe to take in amounts used for medicine while pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Sesame is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. Sesame is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately, short-term. A dose of 5 mL of sesame oil has been used safely before bedtime for up to 3 days.

Diabetes: Sesame might affect blood sugar levels. In theory, sesame might affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes.

Low blood pressure: Sesame might lower blood pressure. In theory, sesame might make blood pressure drop too low in people who already have low blood pressure.

Surgery: Sesame might affect blood sugar levels. In theory, sesame might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. If you have a planned surgery, stop using sesame as a medicine at least 2 weeks before.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Are there any interactions with medications?

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sesame might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sesame along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking sesame, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver amiodarone (Cordarone), fluconazole (Diflucan), lovastatin (Mevacor), paroxetine (Paxil), zafirlukast (Accolate), and many others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sesame might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking sesame along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sesame can lower blood pressure. Using sesame with drugs that lower blood pressure might increase the effects of these drugs and may lower blood pressure too much.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sesame seed might reduce the effects of tamoxifen. People using tamoxifen should avoid taking sesame in amounts greater than those in food.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Sesame can make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might increase the effectiveness of some medications. However, it's too soon to tell if this is important.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.

Dosing considerations for Sesame.

The appropriate dose of sesame depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for sesame (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

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Reviewed on 9/17/2019

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Bhaskaran, S., Santanam, N., Penumetcha, M., and Parthasarathy, S. Inhibition of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative mice by sesame oil. J Med Food 2006;9(4):487-490. View abstract.

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Boulbaroud, S., Mesfioui, A., Arfaoui, A., Ouichou, A., and el Hessni, A. Preventive effects of flaxseed and sesame oil on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11(13):1696-1701. View abstract.

Caminiti, L., Vita, D., Passalacqua, G., Arrigo, T., Barberi, S., Lombardo, F., and Pajno, G. B. Tahini, a little known sesame-containing food, as an unexpected cause of severe allergic reaction. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006;16(5):308-310. View abstract.

Chang, C. Y., Chen, Y. L., Yang, S. C., Huang, G. C., Tsi, D., Huang, C. C., Chen, J. R., and Li, J. S. Effect of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture on CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats. Phytother Res 2009;23(2):251-256. View abstract.

Chatrattanakunchai, S., Fraser, T., and Stobart, K. Sesamin inhibits lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase in Mortierella alpina. Biochem Soc Trans 2000;28(6):718-721. View abstract.

Chavali, S. R. and Forse, R. A. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999;61(6):347-352. View abstract.

Chavali, S. R., Utsunomiya, T., and Forse, R. A. Increased survival after cecal ligation and puncture in mice consuming diets enriched with sesame seed oil. Crit Care Med 2001;29(1):140-143. View abstract.

Chavali, S. R., Zhong, W. W., and Forse, R. A. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid increases TNF-alpha, and decreases IL-6, IL-10 in response to LPS: effects of sesamin on the delta-5 desaturation of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids in mice. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998;58(3):185-191. View abstract.

Chavali, S. R., Zhong, W. W., Utsunomiya, T., and Forse, R. A. Decreased production of interleukin-1-beta, prostaglandin-E2 and thromboxane-B2, and elevated levels of interleukin-6 and -10 are associated with increased survival during endotoxic shock in mice consuming diets enriched with sesame seed oil supplemented with Quil-A saponin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;114(2):153-160. View abstract.

Chen, P. R., Lee, C. C., Chang, H., and Tsai, C. E. Sesamol regulates plasminogen activator gene expression in cultured endothelial cells: a potential effect on the fibrinolytic system. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16(1):59-64. View abstract.

Chen, P. R., Tsai, C. E., Chang, H., Liu, T. L., and Lee, C. C. Sesamol induces nitric oxide release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Lipids 2005;40(9):955-961. View abstract.

Chen, W., Zhou, P., Wong-Moon, K. C., and Cauchon, N. S. Identification of volatile degradants in formulations containing sesame oil using SPME/GC/MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007;44(2):450-455. View abstract.

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Furumoto, T., Ohara, T., Kubo, T., Kawanami, Y., and Fukui, H. 2-Geranyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a possible intermediate of anthraquinones in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71(10):2600-2602. View abstract.

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Gu, J. Y., Wakizono, Y., Tsujita, A., Lim, B. O., Nonaka, M., Yamada, K., and Sugano, M. Effects of sesamin and alpha-tocopherol, individually or in combination, on the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, chemical mediator production, and immunoglobulin levels in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995;59(12):2198-2202. View abstract.

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Hamada, N., Fujita, Y., Tanaka, A., Naoi, M., Nozawa, Y., Ono, Y., Kitagawa, Y., Tomimori, N., Kiso, Y., and Ito, M. Metabolites of sesamin, a major lignan in sesame seeds, induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells through activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway. J Neural Transm 2009;116(7):841-852. View abstract.

Hasan, A. F., Begum, S., Furumoto, T., and Fukui, H. A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2000;64(4):873-874. View abstract.

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Hirose, N., Doi, F., Ueki, T., Akazawa, K., Chijiiwa, K., Sugano, M., Akimoto, K., Shimizu, S., and Yamada, H. Suppressive effect of sesamin against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res 1992;12(4):1259-1265. View abstract.

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Hou, R. C., Huang, H. M., Tzen, J. T., and Jeng, K. C. Protective effects of sesamin and sesamolin on hypoxic neuronal and PC12 cells. J Neurosci Res 2003;74(1):123-133. View abstract.

Hou, R. C., Wu, C. C., Huang, J. R., Chen, Y. S., and Jeng, K. C. Oxidative toxicity in BV-2 microglia cells: sesamolin neuroprotection of H2O2 injury involving activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1042:279-285. View abstract.

Hou, R. C., Wu, C. C., Yang, C. H., and Jeng, K. C. Protective effects of sesamin and sesamolin on murine BV-2 microglia cell line under hypoxia. Neurosci Lett 2004;367(1):10-13. View abstract.

Hsiao, E. S., Lin, L. J., Li, F. Y., Wang, M. M., Liao, M. Y., and Tzen, J. T. Gene families encoding isoforms of two major sesame seed storage proteins, 11S globulin and 2S albumin. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(25):9544-9550. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z. and Liu, M. Y. Effects of sesame oil on oxidative stress after the onset of sepsis in rats. Shock 2004;22(6):582-585. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z. and Liu, M. Y. Sesame oil attenuates multiple organ failure and increases survival rate during endotoxemia in rats. Crit Care Med 2002;30(8):1859-1862. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z. and Liu, M. Y. Sesame oil protects against lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oxidative stress in rats. Crit Care Med 2004;32(1):227-231. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Chen, K. T., Chien, S. P., Li, Y. H., Huang, B. M., Chuang, Y. C., and Liu, M. Y. Sesame oil attenuates acute iron-induced lipid peroxidation-associated hepatic damage in mice. Shock 2006;26(6):625-630. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Chen, K. T., Chu, P. Y., Li, Y. H., and Liu, M. Y. Sesame oil protects against lead-plus-lipopolysaccharide-induced acute hepatic injury. Shock 2007;27(3):334-337. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Chiang, P. J., Chien, S. P., Huang, B. M., and Liu, M. Y. Parenteral sesame oil attenuates oxidative stress after endotoxin intoxication in rats. Toxicology 2004;196(1-2):147-153. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Chu, P. Y., and Liu, M. Y. Effect of sesame oil on acidified ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33(4):423-427. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Chu, P. Y., and Liu, M. Y. The non-peptide chemical 3,4-methylenedioxyphenol blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from binding to LPS-binding protein and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines. Innate Immun 2009;15(6):380-385. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Li, Y. H., Chu, P. Y., Chien, S. P., Chuang, Y. C., and Liu, M. Y. Attenuation of endotoxin-induced oxidative stress and multiple organ injury by 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol in rats. Shock 2006;25(3):300-305. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Liu, C. T., Li, Y. H., Chu, P. Y., and Liu, M. Y. Protective effect of daily sesame oil supplement on gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats. Shock 2010;33(1):88-92. View abstract.

Hsu, D. Z., Su, S. B., Chien, S. P., Chiang, P. J., Li, Y. H., Lo, Y. J., and Liu, M. Y. Effect of sesame oil on oxidative-stress-associated renal injury in endotoxemic rats: involvement of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Shock 2005;24(3):276-280. View abstract.

Hu, Y. M., Wang, H., Ye, W. C., and Zhao, S. X. [Flavones from flowers of Sesamum indicum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2007;32(7):603-605. View abstract.

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Ide T, Kushiro M, Takahashi Y, Shinohara K, Fukuda N, Sirato-Yasumoto S. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, as a potent serum lipid-lowering food component. Jarq-Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 2003;37(3):151-158.

Ide, T., Ashakumary, L., Takahashi, Y., Kushiro, M., Fukuda, N., and Sugano, M. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, decreases fatty acid synthesis in rat liver accompanying the down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1534(1):1-13. View abstract.

Ide, T., Lim, J. S., Odbayar, T. O., and Nakashima, Y. Comparative study of sesame lignans (sesamin, episesamin and sesamolin) affecting gene expression profile and fatty acid oxidation in rat liver. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2009;55(1):31-43. View abstract.

Ikeda, S., Abe, C., Uchida, T., Ichikawa, T., Horio, F., and Yamashita, K. Dietary sesame seed and its lignan increase both ascorbic acid concentration in some tissues and urinary excretion by stimulating biosynthesis in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007;53(5):383-392. View abstract.

Jacklin, A., Ratledge, C., Welham, K., Bilko, D., and Newton, C. J. The sesame seed oil constituent, sesamol, induces growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer and cardiovascular cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;1010:374-380. View abstract.

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Jamarkattel-Pandit, N., Pandit, N. R., Kim, M. Y., Park, S. H., Kim, K. S., Choi, H., Kim, H., and Bu, Y. Neuroprotective effect of defatted sesame seeds extract against in vitro and in vivo ischemic neuronal damage. Planta Med 2010;76(1):20-26. View abstract.

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Jeng, K. C., Hou, R. C., Wang, J. C., and Ping, L. I. Sesamin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production by suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunol Lett 2005;97(1):101-106. View abstract.

Ji, Z. L., Li, J. S., Yuan, C. W., Chen, W. D., Zhang, Y. N., Ju, X. T., and Tang, W. H. Therapeutic value of sesame oil in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Am J Surg 2010;199(2):160-165. View abstract.

Johnsen, J., Bratt, B. M., Michel-Barron, O., Glennow, C., and Petruson, B. Pure sesame oil vs isotonic sodium chloride solution as treatment for dry nasal mucosa. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001;127(11):1353-1356. View abstract.

Joshi, R., Kumar, M. S., Satyamoorthy, K., Unnikrisnan, M. K., and Mukherjee, T. Free radical reactions and antioxidant activities of sesamol: pulse radiolytic and biochemical studies. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(7):2696-2703. View abstract.

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Kamal-Eldin, A., Frank, J., Razdan, A., Tengblad, S., Basu, S., and Vessby, B. Effects of dietary phenolic compounds on tocopherol, cholesterol, and fatty acids in rats. Lipids 2000;35(4):427-435. View abstract.

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Kamei, H., Koide, T., Kojima, T., Hasegawa, M., and Umeda, T. Suppression of growth of cultured malignant cells by allomelanins, plant-produced melanins. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 1997;12(1):47-49. View abstract.

Kang, M. H., Kawai, Y., Naito, M., and Osawa, T. Dietary defatted sesame flour decreases susceptibility to oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. J Nutr 1999;129(10):1885-1890. View abstract.

Kang, M. H., Naito, M., Sakai, K., Uchida, K., and Osawa, T. Mode of action of sesame lignans in protecting low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage in vitro. Life Sci 2000;66(2):161-171. View abstract.

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Kapadia, G. J., Azuine, M. A., Tokuda, H., Takasaki, M., Mukainaka, T., Konoshima, T., and Nishino, H. Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis. Pharmacol Res 2002;45(6):499-505. View abstract.

Katsilambros N, Philippides P, Davoulos G, Gialouros K, Kofotzouli L, Maglara E, Ioannidis PI, Siskoudis P, Sfikakis P. Sesame-derived candies and glycaemic response in Type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Nutr metab Clin Exp 1991;4(4):325-327.

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Keskinen, H., Ostman, P., Vaheri, E., Tarvainen, K., Grenquist-Norden, B., Karppinen, O., and Nordman, H. A case of occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21(5):623-624. View abstract.

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Kim, K. S., Park, S. H., and Choung, M. G. Nondestructive determination of lignans and lignan glycosides in sesame seeds by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(13):4544-4550. View abstract.

Kimura, J., Nariuchi, H., Watanabe, T., and Matuhasi, T. Studies on the adjuvant effect of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion of sesame oil. 2. Mode of action of the w/o/w emulsion. Jpn J Exp Med 1978;48(3):203-209. View abstract.

Kimura, J., Nariuchi, H., Watanabe, T., Matuhasi, T., Okayasu, I., and Hatakeyama, S. Studies on the adjuvant effect of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion of sesame oil. 1. Enhanced and persistent antibody formation by antigen incorporated into the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion. Jpn J Exp Med 1978;48(2):149-154. View abstract.

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Kita, S., Matsumura, Y., Morimoto, S., Akimoto, K., Furuya, M., Oka, N., and Tanaka, T. Antihypertensive effect of sesamin. II. Protection against two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Biol Pharm Bull 1995;18(9):1283-1285. View abstract.

Kobayashi, N., Unten, S., Kakuta, H., Komatsu, N., Fujimaki, M., Satoh, K., Aratsu, C., Nakashima, H., Kikuchi, H., Ochiai, K., and Sakagami, H. Diverse biological activities of healthy foods. In Vivo 2001;15(1):17-23. View abstract.

Konan, A. B., Datte, J. Y., and Yapo, P. A. Nitric oxide pathway-mediated relaxant effect of aqueous sesame leaves extract (Sesamum radiatum Schum. & Thonn.) in the guinea-pig isolated aorta smooth muscle. BMC Complement Altern Med 2008;8:23. View abstract.

Kong, X., Yang, J. R., Guo, L. Q., Xiong, Y., Wu, X. Q., Huang, K., and Zhou, Y. Sesamin improves endothelial dysfunction in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;620(1-3):84-89. View abstract.

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Kumar, P., Kalonia, H., and Kumar, A. Protective Effect of Sesamol against 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Altered Glutathione Redox Balance in Rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2010;107:577-82. View abstract.

Kumar, P., Kalonia, H., and Kumar, A. Sesamol attenuate 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington-like behavioral, biochemical, and cellular alterations in rats. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2009;11(5):439-450. View abstract.

Lahaie-Collins, V., Bournival, J., Plouffe, M., Carange, J., and Martinoli, M. G. Sesamin modulates tyrosine hydroxylase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, inducible NO synthase and interleukin-6 expression in dopaminergic cells under MPP+-induced oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2008;1(1):54-62. View abstract.

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Lazarou, D., Grougnet, R., and Papadopoulos, A. Antimutagenic properties of a polyphenol-enriched extract derived from sesame-seed perisperm. Mutat Res 2007;634(1-2):163-171. View abstract.

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Lee, C. C., Chen, P. R., Lin, S., Tsai, S. C., Wang, B. W., Chen, W. W., Tsai, C. E., and Shyu, K. G. Sesamin induces nitric oxide and decreases endothelin-1 production in HUVECs: possible implications for its antihypertensive effect. J Hypertens 2004;22(12):2329-2338. View abstract.

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Lee, S. Y., Ha, T. Y., Son, D. J., Kim, S. R., and Hong, J. T. Effect of sesaminol glucosides on beta-amyloid-induced PC12 cell death through antioxidant mechanisms. Neurosci Res 2005;52(4):330-341. View abstract.

Lee, S. Y., Son, D. J., Lee, Y. K., Lee, J. W., Lee, H. J., Yun, Y. W., Ha, T. Y., and Hong, J. T. Inhibitory effect of sesaminol glucosides on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation and target gene expression in cultured rat astrocytes. Neurosci Res 2006;56(2):204-212. View abstract.

Lee, W. J., Ou, H. C., Wu, C. M., Lee, I. T., Lin, S. Y., Lin, L. Y., Tsai, K. L., Lee, S. D., and Sheu, W. H. Sesamin mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(23):11406-11417. View abstract.

Leite, M. S., Pacheco, P., Gomes, R. N., Guedes, A. T., Castro-Faria-Neto, H. C., Bozza, P. T., and Koatz, V. L. Mechanisms of increased survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice consuming olive oil-enriched diet. Shock 2005;23(2):173-178. View abstract.

Liao, C. D., Hung, W. L., Lu, W. C., Jan, K. C., Shih, D. Y., Yeh, A. I., Ho, C. T., and Hwang, L. S. Differential tissue distribution of sesaminol triglucoside and its metabolites in rats fed with lignan glycosides from sesame meal with or without nano/submicrosizing. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(1):563-569. View abstract.

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Liu, X. W., Sok, D. E., Yook, H. S., Sohn, C. B., Chung, Y. J., and Kim, M. R. Inhibition of lysophospholipase D activity by unsaturated lysophosphatidic acids or seed extracts containing 1-linoleoyl and 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55(21):8717-8722. View abstract.

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Loke, W. M., Proudfoot, J. M., Hodgson, J. M., McKinley, A. J., Hime, N., Magat, M., Stocker, R., and Croft, K. D. Specific dietary polyphenols attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30(4):749-757. View abstract.

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Malish, D., Glovsky, M. M., Hoffman, D. R., Ghekiere, L., and Hawkins, J. M. Anaphylaxis after sesame seed ingestion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;67(1):35-38. View abstract.

Matsumura, Y., Kita, S., Morimoto, S., Akimoto, K., Furuya, M., Oka, N., and Tanaka, T. Antihypertensive effect of sesamin. I. Protection against deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Biol Pharm Bull 1995;18(7):1016-1019. View abstract.

Matsumura, Y., Kita, S., Ohgushi, R., and Okui, T. Effects of sesamin on altered vascular reactivity in aortic rings of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive rat. Biol Pharm Bull 2000;23(9):1041-1045. View abstract.

Matsumura, Y., Kita, S., Tanida, Y., Taguchi, Y., Morimoto, S., Akimoto, K., and Tanaka, T. Antihypertensive effect of sesamin. III. Protection against development and maintenance of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21(5):469-473. View abstract.

Mazzio, E. A., Harris, N., and Soliman, K. F. Food constituents attenuate monoamine oxidase activity and peroxide levels in C6 astrocyte cells. Planta Med 1998;64(7):603-606. View abstract.

Mendis S, Samarajeewa U, Thattil RO. Coconut fat and serum lipoproteins: effects of partial replacement with unsaturated fats. Br J Nutr 2001;85:583-9. View abstract.

Milder, I. E., Arts, I. C., van de Putte B., Venema, D. P., and Hollman, P. C. Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol. Br J Nutr 2005;93(3):393-402. View abstract.

Miyahara, Y., Hibasami, H., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., and Komiya, T. Sesamolin from sesame seed inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Int J Mol Med 2001;7(4):369-371. View abstract.

Miyahara, Y., Hibasami, H., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., Osawa, T., Ina, K., and Komiya, T. Sesaminol from sesame seed induces apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Int J Mol Med 2001;7(5):485-488. View abstract.

Miyahara, Y., Komiya, T., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., Nakagawa, M., Ishi, Y., and Hibasami, H. Sesamin and episesamin induce apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Int J Mol Med 2000;6(1):43-46. View abstract.

Miyawaki, T., Aono, H., Toyoda-Ono, Y., Maeda, H., Kiso, Y., and Moriyama, K. Antihypertensive effects of sesamin in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2009;55(1):87-91. View abstract.

Moazzami, A. A., Andersson, R. E., and Kamal-Eldin, A. Characterization and analysis of sesamolinol diglucoside in sesame seeds. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006;70(6):1478-1481. View abstract.

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Moazzami, A. A., Andersson, R. E., and Kamal-Eldin, A. Quantitative NMR analysis of a sesamin catechol metabolite in human urine. J Nutr 2007;137(4):940-944. View abstract.

Moneret-Vautrin, D. A., Kanny, G., and Lagrange, A. [Occupational asthma caused by organic substances]. Rev Med Interne 1994;15 Suppl 2:216s-225s. View abstract.

Moreno, F. J., Maldonado, B. M., Wellner, N., and Mills, E. N. Thermostability and in vitro digestibility of a purified major allergen 2S albumin (Ses i 1) from white sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.). Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1752(2):142-153. View abstract.

Moreno, F. J., Rubio, L. A., Olano, A., and Clemente, A. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Ber e 1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(22):8631-8639. View abstract.

Morisset, M., Moneret-Vautrin, D. A., Kanny, G., Guenard, L., Beaudouin, E., Flabbee, J., and Hatahet, R. Thresholds of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut and sesame in immunoglobulin E-dependent allergies: evaluation by double-blind or single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenges. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33(8):1046-1051. View abstract.

Mosayebi, G., Ghazavi, A., Salehi, H., Payani, M. A., and Khazae, M. R. Effect of sesame oil on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice. Pak J Biol Sci 2007;10(11):1790-1796. View abstract.

Nabekura, T., Yamaki, T., Ueno, K., and Kitagawa, S. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 by dietary phytochemicals. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008;62(5):867-873. View abstract.

Nahar, L. and Rokonuzzaman. Investigation of the analgesic and antioxidant activity from an ethanol extract of seeds of Sesamum indicum. Pak J Biol Sci 2009;12(7):595-598. View abstract.

Nakano, D., Itoh, C., Ishii, F., Kawanishi, H., Takaoka, M., Kiso, Y., Tsuruoka, N., Tanaka, T., and Matsumura, Y. Effects of sesamin on aortic oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(12):1701-1705. View abstract.

Nakano, D., Itoh, C., Takaoka, M., Kiso, Y., Tanaka, T., and Matsumura, Y. Antihypertensive effect of sesamin. IV. Inhibition of vascular superoxide production by sesamin. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(9):1247-1249. View abstract.

Nakano, D., Kurumazuka, D., Nagai, Y., Nishiyama, A., Kiso, Y., and Matsumura, Y. Dietary sesamin suppresses aortic NADPH oxidase in DOCA salt hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008;35(3):324-326. View abstract.

Nakano, D., Kwak, C. J., Fujii, K., Ikemura, K., Satake, A., Ohkita, M., Takaoka, M., Ono, Y., Nakai, M., Tomimori, N., Kiso, Y., and Matsumura, Y. Sesamin metabolites induce an endothelial nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation through their antioxidative property-independent mechanisms: possible involvement of the metabolites in the antihypertensive effect of sesamin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318(1):328-335. View abstract.

Nakano, D., Ogura, K., Miyakoshi, M., Ishii, F., Kawanishi, H., Kurumazuka, D., Kwak, C. J., Ikemura, K., Takaoka, M., Moriguchi, S., Iino, T., Kusumoto, A., Asami, S., Shibata, H., Kiso, Y., and Matsumura, Y. Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from a sesame protein hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006;70(5):1118-1126. View abstract.

Narasimhamurthy, K. and Raina, P. L. Long term feeding effects of heated and fried oils on lipids and lipoproteins in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 1999;195(1-2):143-153. View abstract.

Narasimhamurthy, K., Muralidhara, and Raina, P. L. Absence of in vivo mutagenic potency of heated and fried oils in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37(1):50-55. View abstract.

Navuluri, L., Parvataneni, S., Hassan, H., Birmingham, N. P., Kelly, C., and Gangur, V. Allergic and anaphylactic response to sesame seeds in mice: identification of Ses i 3 and basic subunit of 11s globulins as allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006;140(3):270-276. View abstract.

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Pastorello, E. A., Varin, E., Farioli, L., Pravettoni, V., Ortolani, C., Trambaioli, C., Fortunato, D., Giuffrida, M. G., Rivolta, F., Robino, A., Calamari, A. M., Lacava, L., and Conti, A. The major allergen of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) is a 2S albumin. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001;756(1-2):85-93. View abstract.

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Penalvo, J. L., Hopia, A., and Adlercreutz, H. Effect of sesamin on serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Nutr 2006;45(8):439-444. View abstract.

Phan, T. G., Strasser, S. I., Koorey, D., McCaughan, G. W., Rimmer, J., Dunckley, H., Goddard, L., and Adelstein, S. Passive transfer of nut allergy after liver transplantation. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(2):237-239. View abstract.

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Potterat O. Antioxidants and free radical scavengers of natural origin. Current Organic Chemistry 1997;1(4):415-440.

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Royer, D. J., George, J. N., and Terrell, D. R. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages. Eur J Haematol 2010;84(5):421-429. View abstract.

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Sacco, S. M., Chen, J., Power, K. A., Ward, W. E., and Thompson, L. U. Lignan-rich sesame seed negates the tumor-inhibitory effect of tamoxifen but maintains bone health in a postmenopausal athymic mouse model with estrogen-responsive breast tumors. Menopause 2008;15(1):171-179. View abstract.

Sacco, S. M., Power, K. A., Chen, J., Ward, W. E., and Thompson, L. U. Interaction of sesame seed and tamoxifen on tumor growth and bone health in athymic mice. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007;232(6):754-761. View abstract.

Sakono, M., Yuji, K., Miyanaga, F., Tamaru, S., Fujita, M., Fukuda, N., Tsutsumi, K., Iwata, T., Kasai, M., and Sugano, M. Combined effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and sesamin triacylglycerol and ketone body production in rat liver. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2002;48(5):405-409. View abstract.

Salem, M. L. Systemic treatment with n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates EL4 thymoma growth and metastasis through enhancing specific and non-specific anti-tumor cytolytic activities and production of TH1 cytokines. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5(6):947-960. View abstract.

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Satchithanandam, S., Reicks, M., Calvert, R. J., Cassidy, M. M., and Kritchevsky, D. Coconut oil and sesame oil affect lymphatic absorption of cholesterol and fatty acids in rats. J Nutr 1993;123(11):1852-1858. View abstract.

Schuster, D., Kern, L., Hristozov, D. P., Terfloth, L., Bienfait, B., Laggner, C., Kirchmair, J., Grienke, U., Wolber, G., Langer, T., Stuppner, H., Gasteiger, J., and Rollinger, J. M. Applications of integrated data mining methods to exploring natural product space for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2010;13(1):54-66. View abstract.

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Sheng, H., Hirose, Y., Hata, K., Zheng, Q., Kuno, T., Asano, N., Yamada, Y., Hara, A., Osawa, T., and Mori, H. Modifying effect of dietary sesaminol glucosides on the formation of azoxymethane-induced premalignant lesions of rat colon. Cancer Lett 2007;246(1-2):63-68. View abstract.

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Tsai, H. J., Kumar, R., Pongracic, J., Liu, X., Story, R., Yu, Y., Caruso, D., Costello, J., Schroeder, A., Fang, Y., Demirtas, H., Meyer, K. E., O'Gorman, M. R., and Wang, X. Familial aggregation of food allergy and sensitization to food allergens: a family-based study. Clin Exp Allergy 2009;39(1):101-109. View abstract.

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Utsunomiya, T., Shimada, M., Rikimaru, T., Hasegawa, H., Yamashita, Y., Hamatsu, T., Yamasaki, M., Kaku, S., Yamada, K., and Sugimachi, K. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a diet supplemented with sesamin on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Hepatogastroenterology 2003;50(53):1609-1613. View abstract.

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Williamson, K. S., Morris, J. B., Pye, Q. N., Kamat, C. D., and Hensley, K. A survey of sesamin and composition of tocopherol variability from seeds of eleven diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes using HPLC-PAD-ECD. Phytochem Anal 2008;19(4):311-322. View abstract.

Wolff, N., Cogan, U., Admon, A., Dalal, I., Katz, Y., Hodos, N., Karin, N., and Yannai, S. Allergy to sesame in humans is associated primarily with IgE antibody to a 14 kDa 2S albumin precursor. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41(8):1165-1174. View abstract.

Wolff, N., Yannai, S., Karin, N., Levy, Y., Reifen, R., Dalal, I., and Cogan, U. Identification and characterization of linear B-cell epitopes of beta-globulin, a major allergen of sesame seeds. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114(5):1151-1158. View abstract.

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Wu, J. H., Hodgson, J. M., Clarke, M. W., Indrawan, A. P., Barden, A. E., Puddey, I. B., and Croft, K. D. Inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis using specific plant lignans: in vitro and human studies. Hypertension 2009;54(5):1151-1158. View abstract.

Wu, J. H., Hodgson, J. M., Puddey, I. B., Belski, R., Burke, V., and Croft, K. D. Sesame supplementation does not improve cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight men and women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009;19(11):774-780. View abstract.

Wu, W. H., Kang, Y. P., Wang, N. H., Jou, H. J., and Wang, T. A. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2006;136(5):1270-1275. View abstract.

Wu, W. H., Wang, S. H., Kuan, I. I., Kao, Y. S., Wu, P. J., Liang, C. J., Chien, H. F., Kao, C. H., Huang, C. J., and Chen, Y. L. Sesamin attenuates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vitro in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells and in vivo in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010;54:1340-50. View abstract.

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Yamada, Y., Obayashi, M., Ishikawa, T., Kiso, Y., Ono, Y., and Yamashita, K. Dietary tocotrienol reduces UVB-induced skin damage and sesamin enhances tocotrienol effects in hairless mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008;54(2):117-123. View abstract.

Yamasaki, K., Sawaki, M., Noda, S., and Takatuki, M. Effects of olive, corn, sesame or peanut oil on the body weights and reproductive organ weights of immature male and female rats. Exp Anim 2001;50(2):173-177. View abstract.

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Yokota, T., Matsuzaki, Y., Koyama, M., Hitomi, T., Kawanaka, M., Enoki-Konishi, M., Okuyama, Y., Takayasu, J., Nishino, H., Nishikawa, A., Osawa, T., and Sakai, T. Sesamin, a lignan of sesame, down-regulates cyclin D1 protein expression in human tumor cells. Cancer Sci 2007;98(9):1447-1453. View abstract.

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