Doctor's Notes on Stingray Injury
Stingrays are aquatic members (mainly salt water) flat body with wing-like fins, with a long tail containing a barbed structure at its tip called a spine or stinger containing venom, used for defense (are not aggressive unless threatened). Some rays (manta rays) do not have a stinger and are harmless. Injuries are caused by the whip-like action of the tail and the venoms or toxins contained in a sheath covering the stinger. Signs and symptoms may include a cut or laceration where the sheathed stinger hits the skin (parts of the sheath and stinger may be left in the wound). The released toxins can cause immediate and severe pain that may radiate up a limb, cause swelling, bleeding, and wound color changes (bluish to red) and systemic symptoms like sweating, saliva production, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and weakness. In some people, more severe symptoms like low blood pressure, muscle cramps and/or paralysis, short of breath, heart arrhythmias and seizures may occur. Rarely, death from blood loss from puncture wounds to the heart or abdomen have happened.
The causes of stingray injuries are due to cuts or lacerations by the whip-like action of the tail that puts the barbed stinger and the toxins located in the stinger's sheath into the skin (sometimes so deep it may lacerate an organ). Usually, the bigger the stingray, the more severe the signs and symptoms. However, most stingray injuries should be evaluated in an emergency department.
Trauma and First Aid : Training and Supplies QuizQuestion
Emotional trauma is best described as a psychological response to a deeply distressing or life-threatening experience.See Answer
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.