Orgotein, SOD, Super Dioxide Dismutase, Superóxido Dismutasa, Superoxydase Dismutase, Superoxyde Dismutase.
Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme found in all living cells. An enzyme is a substance that speeds up certain chemical reactions in the body. The superoxide dismutase that is used as medicine is sometimes taken from cows.
Superoxide dismutase is taken by mouth for removing wrinkles, rebuilding tissue, and extending the length of life. However, there is no evidence that superoxide dismutase products that are taken by mouth are absorbed by the body.
As a shot, superoxide dismutase is used for treating pain and swelling (inflammation) caused by osteoarthritis, sports injuries, and rheumatoid arthritis; a kidney condition called interstitial cystitis; gout; poisoning caused by a weed-killer called paraquat; cancer; and lung problems in newborns.
Superoxide dismutase is also given as a shot for improving tolerance to radiation therapy, improving rejection rates in kidney transplantation, and minimizing heart damage caused by heart attacks.
A sterile solution containing superoxide dismutase is sometimes applied directly to the eyes for treating ulcers on the cornea.
How does it work?
Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme that helps break down potentially harmful oxygen molecules in cells, which might prevent damage to tissues. It is being researched to see if it can help conditions where oxygen molecules are believed to play a role in disease.
Possibly Effective for...
- Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Lung problems in newborn infants.
- A kidney condition (interstitial cystitis).
Likely Ineffective for...
- Reducing heart damage after a heart attack.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Ulcers on the cornea of the eye. A series of case reports suggest that a specific eye solution of superoxide dismutase might help reduce ulcer size and improve healing when applied to the eye for at least 2 weeks.
- Sports injuries.
- Helping people tolerate radiation therapy.
- Preventing rejection of kidney transplants.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Injectable (shot) forms of superoxide dismutase that have been used in research studies appear to be safe. Some superoxide dismutase products are obtained from animal sources, raising concern about contamination from sick or diseased animals. Though there are no reports of people getting sick after using superoxide dismutase products taken from animals, it's best to avoid products from animal sources until more is known.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
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Flaherty JT, Pitt B, Gruber JW, et al. Recombinant human superoxide dismutase (h-SOD) fails to improve recovery of ventricular function in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1994;89:1982-91. View abstract.
Gammer W, Broback LG. Clinical comparison of orgotein and methylprednisolone acetate in the treatment of osteoarthrosis of the knee joint. Scand J Rheumatol 1984;13:108-12. View abstract.
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McIlwain H, Silverfield JC, Cheatum DE, et al. Intra-articular orgotein in osteoarthritis of the knee: a placebo-controlled efficacy, safety, and dosage comparison. Am J Med 1989;87:295-300. View abstract.
Murohara Y, Yui Y, Hattori R, et al. Effects of superoxide dismutase on reperfusion arrhythmias and left ventricular function in patients undergoing thrombolysis for anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:765-7.
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Pollak R, Andrisevic JH, Maddux MS, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of the use of human recombinant superoxide dismutase in renal transplantation. Transplantation 1993;55:57-60. View abstract.
Rosenfeld W, Evans H, Concepcion L, et al. Prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia by administration of bovine superoxide dismutase in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 1984;105:781-5. View abstract.
Sanchiz F, Milla A, Artola N, et al. Prevention of radioinduced cystitis by orgotein: a randomized study. Anticancer Res, 1996;16(4A):2025-8. View abstract.
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