African Rue, Alharma, Gamarza, Harmalkraute, Harmel, Harmelbuske, Peganum harmala, Rue Savage, Steppenraute, Wild Rue.
Syrian rue is a plant that grows in parts of the United States, Asia, Africa, and Europe. The seeds of the plant can cause hallucinations and have stimulant effects when taken by mouth.
People take Syrian rue by mouth to terminate pregnancy and for the absence of a monthly menstrual period, cancer, depression, diabetes, painful menstruation, hypothermia, insomnia, pain, parasites, Parkinson's disease, and a joint disorder called rheumatoid arthritis.
In manufacturing, the Syrian rue seeds are used to produce a red dye to color rugs.
How does it work?
The Syrian rue seed contains chemicals called beta-carbonlines. These chemicals cause many different effects in the body, including stimulant effects and hallucinations. However, these constituents also seem to have effects that are similar to certain medicines used to treat Alzheimer's disease.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Pregnancy termination.
- Absence of a monthly menstrual period (amenorrhea).
- Painful menstruation.
- Parkinson's disease.
- Joint disorder (rheumatoid arthritis).
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Syrian rue is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in low doses. Taking 3-4 grams of Syrian rue seeds can cause hallucinations and stimulant effects.
Syrian rue is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. Serious side effects affecting the nervous system, heart, liver, and kidneys, as well as death, have been reported in people who consumed high amounts of Syrian rue seeds.
Slow heart rate and heart disease: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a slow heart rate or heart disease. People with these conditions should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Blockage in the stomach: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a blockage in the stomach. People with this condition should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Stomach ulcers: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have stomach ulcers. People with stomach ulcers should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Lung conditions: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have lung conditions, including asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with lung conditions should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Surgery: Syrian rue can affect levels of serotonin in the brain. In theory, Syrian rue might interfere with surgical procedures. Discontinue Syrian rue use at least 2 weeks before a planned surgery.
Blockage in the urinary tract: Syrian rue contains the chemicals harmaline and harmine. These chemicals might cause complications in people who have a blockage in the urinary track. People with this condition should avoid taking Syrian rue.
Medications for depression (Antidepressant drugs)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Syrian rue might increase a brain chemical called serotonin. Some medications for depression also increase serotonin. Taking Syrian rue along with medications for depression might increase serotonin too much and cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take Syrian rue if you are taking medications for depression.
CaffeineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Citalopram (Celexa)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains a chemical called harmaline. Taking citalopram with harmaline might cause tremors.
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue can affect a brain chemical called serotonin. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) can also affect serotonin. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and can result in serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.
Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains chemicals that can affect the brain and heart. Some drying medications called anticholinergic drugs can also affect the brain and heart. In theory, taking drying medications with Syrian rue might decrease the effectiveness of Syrian rue or the medication.
Imipramine (Tofranil)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains a chemical called harmaline. Taking imipramine with harmaline might cause tremors.
Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. In theory, Syrian rue might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Syrian rue along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking Syrian rue, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the body include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.
Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. In theory, taking Syrian rue might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Syrian rue and taking some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Syrian rue, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Medications for Alzheimer's disease (Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains a chemical that affects the brain. Medications for Alzheimer's disease also affect the brain. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with medications for Alzheimer's disease might increase effects and side effects of medications for Alzheimer's disease.
Some of these medications include bethanechol (Urecholine), donepezil (Aricept), echothiophate (Phospholine Iodide), edrophonium (Enlon, Reversol, Tensilon), neostigmine (Prostigmin), physostigmine (Antilirium), pyridostigmine (Mestinon, Regonol), succinylcholine (Anectine, Quelicin), and tacrine (Cognex).
Medications for depression (MAOIs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue can increase a chemical in the brain called serotonin. Some medications used for depression also increase serotonin. In theory, taking Syrian rue with these medications used for depression might cause there to be too much serotonin. This could cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.
Some of these medications used for depression include rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Deprenyl, Eldepryl, Emsam), isocarboxazid (Marplan), nialamide (Niamid), phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine), and tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom).
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is concern that Syrian rue might harm the liver. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage.
Some medications that can harm the liver include acarbose (Precose, Prandase), amiodarone (Cordarone), atorvastatin (Lipitor), azathioprine (Imuran), carbamazepine (Tegretol), cerivastatin (Baycol), diclofenac (Voltaren), felbamate (Felbatol), fenofibrate (Tricor), fluvastatin (Lescol), gemfibrozil (Lopid), isoniazid, itraconazole, (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), leflunomide (Arava), lovastatin (Mevacor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), nevirapine (Viramune), niacin, nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), pioglitazone (Actos), pravastatin (Pravachol), pyrazinamide, rifampin (Rifadin), ritonavir (Norvir), rosiglitazone (Avandia), simvastatin (Zocor), tacrine (Cognex), tamoxifen, terbinafine (Lamisil), valproic acid, and zileuton (Zyflo).
Medications used for Parkinson's disease (Dopamine agonists)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains chemicals that can affect the brain. These chemicals affect the brain similarly to some medications used for Parkinson's disease. In theory, taking Syrian rue with these medications might increase the effects and side effects of some medications used for Parkinson's disease.
Meperidine (Demerol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue can increase a chemical in the brain called serotonin. Meperidine (Demerol) can also increase serotonin in the brain. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with meperidine (Demerol) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.
Pentazocine (Talwin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue can increase a brain chemical called serotonin. Pentazocine (Talwin) also increases serotonin. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with pentazocine (Talwin) might increase serotonin too much. This might cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety.
Tramadol (Ultram)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue can increase a brain chemical called serotonin. Tramadol (Ultram) can also increase serotonin. In theory, taking Syrian rue along with tramadol (Ultram) might cause too much serotonin in the brain and might result in side effects including confusion, shivering, stiff muscles, and others.
Various medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions (Cholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Syrian rue contains a chemical that affects the body. This chemical is similar to some medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions. In theory, taking Syrian rue with these medications might increase the chance of side effects.
Some of these medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions include bethanechol (Urecholine), donepezil (Aricept), echothiophate (Phospholine Iodide), edrophonium (Enlon, Reversol, Tensilon), neostigmine (Prostigmin), physostigmine (Antilirium), pyridostigmine (Mestinon, Regonol), succinylcholine (Anectine, Quelicin), and tacrine (Cognex).
The appropriate dose of Syrian rue depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Syrian rue (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Aarons, D. H., Rossi, G. V., and Orzechowski, R. F. Cardiovascular actions of three harmala alkaloids: harmine, harmaline, and harmalol. J Pharm Sci 1977;66(9):1244-1248. View abstract.
Abdel-Fattah, A. F., Matsumoto, K., Murakami, Y., Adel-Khalek, Gammaz H., Mohamed, M. F., and Watanabe, H. Central serotonin level-dependent changes in body temperature following administration of tryptophan to pargyline- and harmaline-pretreated rats. Gen Pharmacol 1997;28(3):405-409. View abstract.
Abdel-Fattah, A. F., Matsumoto, K., Murakami, Y., El-Hady, K. A., Mohamed, M. F., and Watanabe, H. Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of harmaline on the tryptophan-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine syndrome and body temperature changes in pargyline-pretreated rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1996;72(1):39-47. View abstract.
Achour S, Rhalem N, Khattabi A, et al. [Peganum harmala L. poisoning in Morocco: about 200 cases]. Therapie 2012;67(1):53-8. View abstract.
Adayev, T., Wegiel, J., and Hwang, Y. W. Harmine is an ATP-competitive inhibitor for dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A). Arch Biochem Biophys 2011;507(2):212-218. View abstract.
Ahmad, A., Khan, K. A., Sultana, S., Siddiqui, B. S., Begum, S., Faizi, S., and Siddiqui, S. Study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of harmine, harmaline and their derivatives. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;35(3):289-294. View abstract.
Ahmed, A. A. and Saleh, N. A. Peganetin, a new branched acetylated tetraglycoside of acacetin from Peganum harmala. J Nat Prod 1987;50:256-258.
Al-Deeb, S., Al-Moutaery, K., Arshaduddin, M., Biary, N., and Tariq, M. Effect of acute caffeine on severity of harmaline induced tremor in rats. Neurosci Lett 2002;325(3):216-218. View abstract.
Aqel, M. and Hadidi, M. Direct relaxant effect of Peganum harmala seed extract on smooth muscles of rabbit and guinea pig. Int J Pharmacognosy (Netherlands) 1991;29:176-182.
Aricioglu-Kartal, F., Kayir, H., and Tayfun Uzbay, I. Effects of harman and harmine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats. Life Sci 2003;73(18):2363-2371. View abstract.
Arshad, N., Neubauer, C., Hasnain, S., and Hess, M. Peganum harmala can minimize Escherichia coli infection in poultry, but long-term feeding may induce side effects. Poult Sci 2008;87(2):240-249. View abstract.
Arshad, N., Zitterl-Eglseer, K., Hasnain, S., and Hess, M. Effect of Peganum harmala or its beta-carboline alkaloids on certain antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and protozoa from poultry. Phytother Res 2008;22(11):1533-1538. View abstract.
Arshaduddin, M., Al, Kadasah S., Biary, N., Al, Deeb S., Al, Moutaery K., and Tariq, M. Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor augments harmaline-induced tremor in rats. Behav Brain Res 2004;153(1):15-20. View abstract.
Arshaduddin, M., Kadasah, S., Al Deeb S., Al Moutaery K., and Tariq, M. Exacerbation of harmaline-induced tremor by imipramine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005;81(1):9-14. View abstract.
Barragan, L. A. and Delhaye-Bouchaud, N. Harmaline-induced activation of the olivo-cerebellar system in young rabbits: further evidence for a transient multiinnervation of Purkinje cells by climbing fibres. Neuropharmacology 1980;19(3):305-310. View abstract.
Barragan, L. A., Delhaye-Bouchaud, N., and Laget, P. Drug-induced activation of the inferior olivary nucleus in young rabbits. Differential effects of harmaline and quipazine. Neuropharmacology 1985;24(7):645-654. View abstract.
Barz, W., Herzbeck, H., Husemann, W., Schneiders, G., and Mangold, H. Alkaloids and Lipids of Heterotrophic, Photomixotrophic and Photoautotrophic Cell Suspension Cultures of Peganum harmala. Planta Med 1980;40(10):137-148.
Batini, C., Bernard, J. F., Buisseret-Delmas, C., Conrath-Verrier, M., and Horcholle-Bossavit, G. Harmaline-induced tremor. II. Unit activity correlation in the interposito-rubral and oculomotor systems of cat. Exp Brain Res 1981;42(3-4):383-391. View abstract.
Beitz, A. J. and Saxon, D. Harmaline-induced climbing fiber activation causes amino acid and peptide release in the rodent cerebellar cortex and a unique temporal pattern of Fos expression in the olivo-cerebellar pathway. J Neurocytol 2004;33(1):49-74. View abstract.
Ben Salah N., Amamou, M., Jerbi, Z., Ben Salah F., and Yacoub, M. [A case of overdose with Peganum harmala L]. J Toxicol Clin Exp 1986;6(5):319-322. View abstract.
Berdai MA, Labib S, Harandou M. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman. Case Rep Emerg Med 2014;2014:783236. View abstract.
Bergstrom, M., Westerberg, G., and Langstrom, B. 11C-harmine as a tracer for monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): in vitro and in vivo studies. Nucl Med Biol 1997;24(4):287-293. View abstract.
Bernard, J. F., Buisseret-Delmas, C., and Laplante, S. Inferior olivary neurons: 3-acetylpyridine effects on glucose consumption, axonal transport, electrical activity and harmaline-induced tremor. Brain Res 1984;322(2):382-387. View abstract.
Berrougui, H., Herrera-Gonzalez, M. D., Marhuenda, E., Ettaib, A., and Hmamouchi, M. Relaxant activity of methanolic extract from seeds of Peganum harmala on isolated rat aorta. Therapie 2002;57(3):236-241. View abstract.
Berrougui, H., Isabelle, M., Cloutier, M., Hmamouchi, M., and Khalil, A. Protective effects of Peganum harmala L. extract, harmine and harmaline against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(7):967-974. View abstract.
Biggio, G., Costa, E., and Guidotti, A. Pharmacologically induced changes in the 3':5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate content of rat cerebellar cortex: difference between apomorphine, haloperidol and harmaline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1977;200(1):207-215. View abstract.
Boeira, J. M., da Silva J., Erdtmann, B., and Henriques, J. A. Genotoxic effects of the alkaloids harman and harmine assessed by comet assay and chromosome aberration test in mammalian cells in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001;89(6):287-294. View abstract.
Boeira, J. M., Viana, A. F., Picada, J. N., and Henriques, J. A. Genotoxic and recombinogenic activities of the two beta-carboline alkaloids harman and harmine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res 2002;500(1-2):39-48. View abstract.
Cao, R., Peng, W., Chen, H., Ma, Y., Liu, X., Hou, X., Guan, H., and Xu, A. DNA binding properties of 9-substituted harmine derivatives. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;338(3):1557-1563. View abstract.
Carpentier, R. and Narvarte, J. The effect of harmaline on membrane potentials of rat atrial contractile fibers. Eur J Pharmacol 1975;32(02):313-323. View abstract.
Carpentier, R. G. The effect of harmine on the action potential of the guinea-pig atrial muscle depends on the external calcium concentration. Br J Pharmacol 1981;74(2):415-418. View abstract.
Carreras, L. and Alonso, M. G. Separation of the major alkaloids of Peganum harmala by high voltage ionophoresis. J Chromatogr 1967;29(2):388-390. View abstract.
Chen, Q., Chao, R., Chen, H., Hou, X., Yan, H., Zhou, S., Peng, W., and Xu, A. Antitumor and neurotoxic effects of novel harmine derivatives and structure-activity relationship analysis. Int J Cancer 2005;114(5):675-682. View abstract.
Cheng, X. M., Liu, Y. Q., Xie, H. D., Wang, C. H., and Wang, Z. T. Determination of harmine and hamaline in seeds of Peganum harmala genus by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutics 2008; 39:443-446.
Deecher, D. C., Teitler, M., Soderlund, D. M., Bornmann, W. G., Kuehne, M. E., and Glick, S. D. Mechanisms of action of ibogaine and harmaline congeners based on radioligand binding studies. Brain Res 1992;571(2):242-247. View abstract.
Derakhshanfar, A. and Mirzaei, M. Effect of Peganum harmala (wild rue) extract on experimental ovine malignant theileriosis: pathological and parasitological findings. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2008;75(1):67-72. View abstract.
Di, Giorgio C., Delmas, F., Ollivier, E., Elias, R., Balansard, G., and Timon-David, P. In vitro activity of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmane, harmine, and harmaline toward parasites of the species Leishmania infantum. Exp Parasitol 2004;106(3-4):67-74. View abstract.
Diaz, G. and Penna, M. Inotropic effect of harmaline on ventricular and atrial cat myocardium. Acta Physiol Lat Am 1981;31(3):173-181. View abstract.
Edziri, H., Masouri, M., Mahjoub, M. A., Patrich, G., Matieu, M., Ammar, S., Ali, S. M., Laurent, G., Zine, M., and Aouni, M. Antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of aerial part extracts of Peganum harmala L. grown in Tunisia. Toxicol Environ Chem 2010;92(7):1283-1292.
Egusa, H., Doi, M., Saeki, M., Fukuyasu, S., Akashi, Y., Yokota, Y., Yatani, H., and Kamisaki, Y. The small molecule harmine regulates NFATc1 and Id2 expression in osteoclast progenitor cells. Bone 2011;49(2):264-274. View abstract.
El Gendy, M. A. and El-Kadi, A. O. Peganum harmala L. differentially modulates cytochrome P450 gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Drug Metab Lett 2009;3(4):212-216. View abstract.
El-Dwairi, Q. A. and Banihani, S. M. Histo-functional effects of Peganum harmala on male rat's spermatogenesis and fertility. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2007;28(3):305-310. View abstract.
Fan, B., Liang, J., Men, J., Gao, F., Li, G., Zhao, S., Hu, T., Dang, P., and Zhang, L. Effect of total alkaloid of Peganum harmala L. in the treatment of experimental haemosporidian infections in cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 1997;29(4 Suppl):77S-83S. View abstract.
Farouk, L., Laroubi, A., Aboufatima, R., Benharref, A., and Chait, A. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of alkaloid extract of Peganum harmala L.: possible mechanisms involved. J.Ethnopharmacol 2008;115(3):449-454. View abstract.
Fortunato, J. J., Reus, G. Z., Kirsch, T. R., Stringari, R. B., Fries, G. R., Kapczinski, F., Hallak, J. E., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., and Quevedo, J. Chronic administration of harmine elicits antidepressant-like effects and increases BDNF levels in rat hippocampus. J Neural Transm 2010;117(10):1131-1137. View abstract.
Fortunato, J. J., Reus, G. Z., Kirsch, T. R., Stringari, R. B., Fries, G. R., Kapczinski, F., Hallak, J. E., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., and Quevedo, J. Effects of beta-carboline harmine on behavioral and physiological parameters observed in the chronic mild stress model: further evidence of antidepressant properties. Brain Res Bull 2010;81(4-5):491-496. View abstract.
Fortunato, J. J., Reus, G. Z., Kirsch, T. R., Stringari, R. B., Stertz, L., Kapczinski, F., Pinto, J. P., Hallak, J. E., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., and Quevedo, J. Acute harmine administration induces antidepressive-like effects and increases BDNF levels in the rat hippocampus. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33(8):1425-1430. View abstract.
Frison, G., Favretto, D., Zancanaro, F., Fazzin, G., and Ferrara, S. D. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract. Forensic Sci Int 2008;179(2-3):e37-e43. View abstract.
Frost, D., Meechoovet, B., Wang, T., Gately, S., Giorgetti, M., Shcherbakova, I., and Dunckley, T. β-carboline compounds, including harmine, inhibit DYRK1A and tau phosphorylation at multiple Alzheimer's disease-related sites. PLoS One 2011;6(5):e19264. View abstract.
Fuller, R. W., Wong, C. J., and Hemrick-Luecke, S. K. MD 240928 and harmaline: opposite selectivity in antagonism of the inactivation of types A and B monoamine oxidase by pargyline in mice. Life Sci 1986;38(5):409-412. View abstract.
Gaviraj, E. N, Babu, G. R., and Murthy, U. D. Antibacterial activity guided isolation of harmine from Peganum harmala seeds by bioautography. Indian Drugs 1998;35:471-474.
Gerardy, J. Effect of moclobemide on rat brain monoamine oxidase A and B: comparison with harmaline and clorgyline. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1994;18(4):793-802. View abstract.
Gill, R. K., Kaur, J., Mahmood, S., Nagpaul, J. P., and Mahmood, A. Harmaline interactions with yeast invertase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1998;35(2):86-90. View abstract.
Gockler, N., Jofre, G., Papadopoulos, C., Soppa, U., Tejedor, F. J., and Becker, W. Harmine specifically inhibits protein kinase DYRK1A and interferes with neurite formation. FEBS J 2009;276(21):6324-6337. View abstract.
Hamden, K., Masmoudi, H., Ellouz, F., ElFeki, A., and Carreau, S. Protective effects of Peganum harmala extracts on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat. J Environ Biol 2008;29(1):73-77. View abstract.
Hamsa, T. and Kuttan, G. Studies on anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects of harmine using highly metastatic murine B16F-10 melanoma cells. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2011;30(2):123-137. View abstract.
Hamsa, T. P. and Kuttan, G. Harmine activates intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in B16F-10 melanoma. Chin Med 2011;6(1):11. View abstract.
Hamsa, T. P. and Kuttan, G. Harmine inhibits tumour specific neo-vessel formation by regulating VEGF, MMP, TIMP and pro-inflammatory mediators both in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;649(1-3):64-73. View abstract.
Harsh, M. L. and Nag, T. N. Antimicrobial principles from in vitro tissue culture of Peganum harmala. J Nat Prod 1984;47(2):365-367. View abstract.
Hemmateenejad, B., Abbaspour, A., Maghami, H., Miri, R., and Panjehshahin, M. R. Partial least squares-based multivariate spectral calibration method for simultaneous determination of beta-carboline derivatives in Peganum harmala seed extracts. Anal Chim Acta 2006;575(2):290-299.View abstract.
Herraiz, T., Gonzalez, D., Ancin-Azpilicueta, C., Aran, V. J., and Guillen, H. beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO). Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48(3):839-845. View abstract.
Hider, R. C., Smart, L., and Suleiman, M. S. The effect of harmaline and related beta-carbolines on the acetylcholine-stimulated contractions of guinea-pig ileum. Eur J Pharmacol 1981;70(4):429-436. View abstract.
Hider, R. C., Smart, L., and Suleiman, M. S. The effect of harmaline and related harmala alkaloids on ouabain-stimulated contractions of the guinea-pig ileum. Eur J Pharmacol 1981;71(1):87-92. View abstract.
Hilber, P. and Chapillon, P. Effects of harmaline on anxiety-related behavior in mice. Physiol Behav 2005;86(1-2):164-167. View abstract.
House, R. V., Thomas, P. T., and Bhargava, H. N. Comparison of the hallucinogenic indole alkaloids ibogaine and harmaline for potential immunomodulatory activity. Pharmacology 1995;51(1):56-65. View abstract.
Hu, T., Fan, B., Liang, J., Zhao, S., Dang, P., Gao, F., and Dong, M. Observations on the treatment of natural haemosporidia infections by total alkaloid of Peganum harmala L. in cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 1997;29(4 Suppl):72S-76S. View abstract.
Ishida, J., Wang, H. K., Bastow, K. F., Hu, C. Q., and Lee, K. H. Antitumor agents 201. Cytotoxicity of harmine and beta-carboline analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1999;9(23):3319-3324. View abstract.
Iurlo, M., Leone, G., Schilstrom, B., Linner, L., Nomikos, G., Hertel, P., Silvestrini, B., and Svensson, H. Effects of harmine on dopamine output and metabolism in rat striatum: role of monoamine oxidase-A inhibition. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;159(1):98-104. View abstract.
Iven, H. and Zetler, G. The effects of harmine on the transmembrane action potentials of guinea-pig left atria as compared to those of quinidine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1974;283(2):181-189. View abstract.
Javoy, F., Euvrard, C., Herbet, A., Bockaert, J., Enjalbert, A., Agid, Y., and Glowinski, J. Lack of involvement of dopaminergic and GABA neurones in the inhbitory effect of harmaline on the activity of striatal cholinergic neurones in the rat. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1977;297(3):233-239. View abstract.
Javoy, F., Euvrard, C., Herbet, A., Bockaert, J., Enjalbert, A., Agid, Y., and Glowinski, J. Lack of involvement of dopaminergic and GABA neurones in the inhbitory effect of harmaline on the activity of striatal cholinergic neurones in the rat. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1977;297(3):233-239. View abstract.
Jimenez, J., Riveron-Negrete, L., Abdullaev, F., Espinosa-Aguirre, J., and Rodriguez-Arnaiz, R. Cytotoxicity of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline in human cell assays in vitro. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2008;60(4-5):381-389. View abstract.
Jin, Y. J. [Effects of harmaline and fluorouracil (5-FU) on human retinoblastoma cell line SO-Rb 50]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 1990;26(5):286-288. View abstract.
Karaki, H., Kishimoto, T., Ozaki, H., Sakata, K., Umeno, H., and Urakawa, N. Inhibition of calcium channels by harmaline and other harmala alkaloids in vascular and intestinal smooth muscles. Br J Pharmacol 1986;89(2):367-375. View abstract.
Kartal, M., Altun, M. L., and Kurucu, S. HPLC method for the analysis of harmol, harmalol, harmine and harmaline in the seeds of Peganum harmala L. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2003;31(2):263-269. View abstract.
Kawanishi, K., Hashimoto, Y., Fujiwara, M., Kataoka, Y., and Ueki, S. Pharmacological characteristics of abnormal behavior induced by harmine with special reference to tremor in mice. J Pharmacobiodyn 1981;4(7):520-527. View abstract.
Kelly, D. M. and Naylor, R. J. Mechanisms of tremor induction by harmine. Eur J Pharmacol 1974;27(1):14-24. View abstract.
Khan, A. M., Abbas, G., Qureshi, R. A., Khan, U., Ghufran, M. A., and Stoeckli-Evans, H. 3-Hydr-oxy-1,2,3,9-tetra-hydro-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-4-ium chloride dihydrate: (+)-vasicinol hydro-chloride dihydrate from Peganum harmala L. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2009;65(Pt 3):o474-o475. View abstract.
Kim, D. H., Jang, Y. Y., Han, E. S., and Lee, C. S. Protective effect of harmaline and harmalol against dopamine- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative damage of brain mitochondria and synaptosomes, and viability loss of PC12 cells. Eur J Neurosci 2001;13(10):1861-1872. View abstract.
Kolasiewicz, W., Kuter, K., Nowak, P., Pastuszka, A., and Ossowska, K. Lesion of the cerebellar noradrenergic innervation enhances the harmaline-induced tremor in rats. Cerebellum 2011;10(2):267-280. View abstract.
Lala, S., Pramanick, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Bandyopadhyay, S., and Basu, M. K. Harmine: evaluation of its antileishmanial properties in various vesicular delivery systems. J Drug Target 2004;12(3):165-175. View abstract.
Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., El Hamidi M., Tligui, N., Lyoussi, B., and Hassar, M. Experimental toxicity of Peganum harmala seeds. Ann Pharm Fr 2002;60(2):123-129. View abstract.
Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., Hassar, M., Zemzami, M., Atif, N., Nadori, E. B., Zaid, A., and Lyoussi, B. In vitro cell-toxicity of Peganum harmala alkaloids on cancerous cell-lines. Fitoterapia 2000;71(1):50-54. View abstract.
Lamchouri, F., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., Zemzami, M., Lyoussi, B., Zaid, A., Atif, N., and Hassar, M. Antitumour principles from Peganum harmala seeds. Therapie 1999;54(6):753-758. View abstract.
Larochelle, L., Bedard, P., and Poirier, L. H. [Postural trembling induced by harmaline in monkeys bearing lesions of the brain stem]. J Physiol (Paris) 1968;60 Suppl 2:369. View abstract.
Lee, C. S., Han, E. S., Jang, Y. Y., Han, J. H., Ha, H. W., and Kim, D. E. Protective effect of harmalol and harmaline on MPTP neurotoxicity in the mouse and dopamine-induced damage of brain mitochondria and PC12 cells. J Neurochem 2000;75(2):521-531. View abstract.
Li, G. W., Liang, P. G., and Pan, G. Y. [Radioprotective effect of gamma-harmine and its carboline analogues]. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1995;30(9):715-717. View abstract.
Li, Y., Sattler, R., Yang, E. J., Nunes, A., Ayukawa, Y., Akhtar, S., Ji, G., Zhang, P. W., and Rothstein, J. D. Harmine, a natural beta-carboline alkaloid, upregulates astroglial glutamate transporter expression. Neuropharmacology 2011;60(7-8):1168-1175. View abstract.
Lutes, J., Lorden, J. F., Beales, M., and Oltmans, G. A. Tolerance to the tremorogenic effects of harmaline: evidence for altered olivo-cerebellar function. Neuropharmacology 1988;27(8):849-855. View abstract.
Ma, Y. and Wink, M. The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibits BCRP and can reverse resistance to the anticancer drugs mitoxantrone and camptothecin in breast cancer cells. Phytother Res 2010;24(1):146-149. View abstract.
Maestre, A., Balon, M., Munoz, M. A., Tejeda, P. O., and Sanchez, M. Determination of the dissociation constants of alkaloids from the family of Peganum harmala. Anales de la Real Academia de Farmacia (Spain) 1984;50:105-114.
Marchetti, E., Gauthier, G. M., and Pellet, J. Cerebellar control of eye movements studied with injection of harmaline in the trained baboon. Arch Ital Biol 1983;121(1):1-17. View abstract.
Mehta, H., Saravanan, K. S., and Mohanakumar, K. P. Serotonin synthesis inhibition in olivo-cerebellar system attenuates harmaline-induced tremor in Swiss albino mice. Behav Brain Res 2003;145(1-2):31-36. View abstract.
Meignin, C., Hilber, P., and Caston, J. Influence of stimulation of the olivocerebellar pathway by harmaline on spatial learning in the rat. Brain Res 1999;824(2):277-283. View abstract.
Mendelson, S. D. and Gorzalka, B. B. Harmine reverses the inhibition of lordosis by the 5-HT2 antagonists pirenperone and ketanserin in the female rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1986;25(1):111-115. View abstract.
Meneguz, A., Betto, P., and Ricciarello, G. Different effects of harmine on plasma concentrations of L-dopa and on cerebral dopamine metabolism in rabbits and rats. Pharmacology 1994;48(6):360-366. View abstract.
Milasin, J., Buffo, A., Carulli, D., Andjus, P., and Strata, P. MAPK activation in cerebellar basket cell terminals after harmaline treatment. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1048:411-417. View abstract.
Mirzaei, M. Treatment of natural tropical theileriosis with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. Korean J Parasitol 2007;45(4):267-271. View abstract.
Mirzaiedehaghi, M. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2006;73(2):153-155. View abstract.
Monsef, H. R., Ghobadi, A., Iranshahi, M., and Abdollahi, M. Antinociceptive effects of Peganum harmala L. alkaloid extract on mouse formalin test. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2004;7(1):65-69. View abstract.
Morcuende, S., Trigo, J. A., Delgado-Garcia, J. M., and Gruart, A. Harmaline induces different motor effects on facial vs. skeletal-motor systems in alert cats. Neurotox Res 2001;3(6):527-535. View abstract.
Moroi, K., Takashi, K., and Kuga, T. Involvement of GABAergic systems and benzodiazepine receptors in the jumping behavior induced by harmine and apomorphine in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1988;47(4):367-378. View abstract.
Movafeghi, A., Abedini, M., Fathiazad, F., Aliasgharpour, M., and Omidi, Y. Floral nectar composition of Peganum harmala L. Nat Prod Res 2009;23(3):301-308. View abstract.
Nagpal, J. P., Wali, R. K., Singh, R., Farooqui, S., Majumdar, S., and Mahmood, A. Inhibition of D-glucose uptake by isatin in rat intestine: effect of harmaline and various sulfhydryl reagents. Biochem Med 1985;34(2):207-213. View abstract.
Nakagawa, Y., Suzuki, T., Ishii, H., Ogata, A., and Nakae, D. Mitochondrial dysfunction and biotransformation of β-carboline alkaloids, harmine and harmaline, on isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2010;188(3):393-403. View abstract.
Nenaah, G. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of (beta)-carboline alkaloids of Peganum harmala (L) seeds and their combination effects. Fitoterapia 2010;81(7):779-782. View abstract.
Nenaah, G. Toxicity and growth inhibitory activities of methanol extract and the â-carboline alkaloids of Peganum harmala L. against two coleopteran stored-grain pests. J Stored Prod Res 2011;47(3):255-261.
O'Hearn, E. and Molliver, M. E. Degeneration of Purkinje cells in parasagittal zones of the cerebellar vermis after treatment with ibogaine or harmaline. Neuroscience 1993;55(2):303-310. View abstract.
Park, S. Y., Kim, Y. H., Kim, Y. H., Park, G., and Lee, S. J. Beta-carboline alkaloids harmaline and harmalol induce melanogenesis through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. BMB Rep 2010;43(12):824-829. View abstract.
Pellet, J., Weiss, M., and Gourdon, M. J. Harmaline effects on the sensory-motor reactivity: modifications of the acoustic startle pattern. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1983;19(3):527-534. View abstract.
Peterlik, M. [Experimental cholestasis by dibucaine and harmaline: effects on bile flow and hepatic transport of bile acids, ethacrynic acid and ouabain (author's transl)]. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1977;89(14):494-501. View abstract.
Pinner, E., Padan, E., and Schuldiner, S. Amiloride and harmaline are potent inhibitors of NhaB, a Na+/H+ antiporter from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett 1995;365(1):18-22. View abstract.
Pitre, S. and Srivastava, S. K. Two New Anthraquinones from the Seeds of Peganum harmala. Planta Med 1987;53(1):106-107. View abstract.
Pulpati, H., Biradar, Y. S., and Rajani, M. High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the quantification of harmine, harmaline, vasicine, and vasicinone in Peganum harmala. J AOAC Int 2008;91(5):1179-1185. View abstract.
Rehman, J. U., Wang, X. G., Johnson, M. W., Daane, K. M., Jilani, G., Khan, M. A., and Zalom, F. G. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Econ Entomol 2009;102(6):2233-2240. View abstract.
Reus, G. Z., Stringari, R. B., de Souza B., Petronilho, F., Dal-Pizzol, F., Hallak, J. E., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., and Quevedo, J. Harmine and imipramine promote antioxidant activities in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2010;3(5):325-331. View abstract.
Rharrabe, K., Bakrim, A., Ghailani, N., and Sayah, F. Bioinsecticidal effect of harmaline on Plodia interpunctella development (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pesticide Biochem Physiol 2007;89(2):137-145.
Rojas, A., Herrera, J., Delpiano, M., and Riobo, F. Effects of harmaline on the visual system of the rat. Vision Res 1971;Suppl 3:437-445. View abstract.
Sacher, J., Houle, S., Parkes, J., Rusjan, P., Sagrati, S., Wilson, A. A., and Meyer, J. H. Monoamine oxidase A inhibitor occupancy during treatment of major depressive episodes with moclobemide or St. John's wort: an [11C]-harmine PET study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2011;36(6):375-382. View abstract.
Scotti de Carolis A., Florio, V., and Longo, V. G. Further analysis of the effects of harmine on the electrical activity of the rabbit brain. Neuropharmacology 1978;17(4-5):295-298. View abstract.
Seifert, A., Allan, L. A., and Clarke, P. R. DYRK1A phosphorylates caspase 9 at an inhibitory site and is potently inhibited in human cells by harmine. FEBS J 2008;275(24):6268-6280. View abstract.
Sepulveda, F. V., Buclon, M., and Robinson, J. W. Differential effects of harmaline and ouabain on intestinal sodium, phenylalanine and beta-methyl-glucoside transport. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1976;295(3):231-236. View abstract.
Shahverdi, A. R., Monsef-Esfahani, H. R., Nickavar, B., Bitarafan, L., Khodaee, S., and Khoshakhlagh, N. Antimicrobial activity and main chemical composition of two smoke condensates from Peganum harmala seeds. Z Naturforsch C 2005;60(9-10):707-710. View abstract.
Sharaf, M., el-Ansari, M. A., Matlin, S. A., and Saleh, N. A. Four flavonoid glycosides from Peganum harmala. Phytochemistry 1997;44(3):533-536. View abstract.
Shin, Y. K., Sohn, U. D., Choi, M. S., Kum, C., Sim, S. S., and Lee, M. Y. Effects of rutin and harmaline on rat reflux oesophagitis. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol 2002;22(1):47-55. View abstract.
Shonouda, M., Osman, S., Salama, O., and Ayoub, A. Toxical effect of Peganum harmala L. leaves on the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoids Microplitis rufiventris Kok. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11(4):546-552. View abstract.
Shukla, V. K., Garg, S. K., and Kulkarni, S. K. Modification by clonidine of harmine-induced tremors in mice: involvement of serotoninergic system. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1986;282(1):50-57. View abstract.
Singhal AB, Caviness VS, Begleiter AF, et al. Cerebral vasoconstriction and stroke after use of serotonergic drugs. Neurology 2002;58:130-3. View abstract.
Slotkin, T. A. and DiStefano, V. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of harmine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1970;133(2):662-664. View abstract.
Sobhani, A. M., Ebrahimi, S. A., and Mahmoudian, M. An in vitro evaluation of human DNA topoisomerase I inhibition by Peganum harmala L. seeds extract and its beta-carboline alkaloids. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2002;5(1):19-23. View abstract.
Sokolove, P. G. and Roth, S. H. Effect of harmaline on the crayfish stretch receptor: blockade at a GABA-mediated inhibitory synapse. Neuropharmacology 1978;17(9):729-735. View abstract.
Soliman, A. M. and Fahmy, S. R. Protective and curative effects of the 15 KD isolated protein from the Peganum harmala L. seeds against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in brain, tests and erythrocytes of rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011;15(8):888-899. View abstract.
Song, Y., Kesuma, D., Wang, J., Deng, Y., Duan, J., Wang, J. H., and Qi, R. Z. Specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases and cell proliferation by harmine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;317(1):128-132. View abstract.
Song, Z. Y., Liu, J. R., Lu, X. L., and Wang, L. J. [Harmine induces apoptosis in human SGC-7901 cells]. Zhong Yao Cai 2006;29(6):571-573. View abstract.
Splettstoesser, F., Bonnet, U., Wiemann, M., Bingmann, D., and Busselberg, D. Modulation of voltage-gated channel currents by harmaline and harmane. Br J Pharmacol 2005;144(1):52-58. View abstract.
Suleiman, M. S. and Hider, R. C. The influence of harmaline on the movements of sodium ions in smooth muscle of the guinea pig ileum. Mol Cell Biochem 1985;67(2):145-150. View abstract.
Turker, K. S. and Miles, T. S. Harmaline disrupts acquisition of conditioned nictitating membrane responses. Brain Res Bull 1984;13(2):229-233. View abstract.
Wang, C. H., Liu, J., and Lin, Y. M. Determination of harmine and harmaline in Peganum harmala tablets using RP-HPLC. Chinese J Hospital Pharmacy 2002;22:139-141.
Wang, X. W. and Xie, H. Antineoplastic alkaloids from Peganum harmala. Drug Future (Spain) 1999;24:1333-1337.
Wang, X., Geng, Y., Wang, D., Shi, X., and Liu, J. Separation and purification of harmine and harmaline from Peganum harmala using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. J Sep Sci 2008;31(20):3543-3547. View abstract.
Weiss, M. [Influence of the olivo-cerebello-bulbar system on the motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord in the cat after administration of harmaline]. Arch Ital Biol 1978;116(1):1-15. View abstract.
Weiss, M. Rhythmic activity of spinal interneurons in harmaline-treated cats. A model for olivo-cerebellar influence at the spinal level. J Neurol Sci 1982;54(3):341-348. View abstract.
Weiss, M., Buldakova, S., and Dutova, E. Interaction of the beta-carboline harmaline with a GABA-benzodiazepine mechanism: an electrophysiological investigation on rat hippocampal slices. Brain Res 1995;695(2):105-109. View abstract.
Welsh, J. P. Systemic harmaline blocks associative and motor learning by the actions of the inferior olive. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10(11):3307-3320. View abstract.
Wright, E. E., Bird, J. L., and Feldman, J. M. The effect of harmine and other monoamine oxidase inhibitors on N-acetyltransferase activity. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1979;24(2):259-272. View abstract.
Wu, M., Li, H., Li, S., and Pan, S. Effect of liposome-encapsulated total alkaloid of harmaline on rabbit lens epithelial cells: experimental study on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification. Yan Ke Xue Bao 1999;15(1):55-60. View abstract.
Yamazaki, M., Tanaka, C., and Takaori, S. Significance of central noradrenergic system on harmaline induced tremor. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1979;10(3):421-427. View abstract.
Yuruktumen, A., Karaduman, S., Bengi, F., and Fowler, J. Syrian rue tea: a recipe for disaster. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2008;46(8):749-752. View abstract.
Zaker, F., Oody, A., and Arjmand, A. A study on the antitumoral and differentiation effects of peganum harmala derivatives in combination with ATRA on leukaemic cells. Arch Pharm Res 2007;30(7):844-849. View abstract.
Zayed, R. and Wink, M. Beta-carboline and quinoline alkaloids in root cultures and intact plants of Peganum harmala. Z Naturforsch C 2005;60(5-6):451-458. View abstract.
Zeng, Y., Zhang, Y., Weng, Q., Hu, M., and Zhong, G. Cytotoxic and insecticidal activities of derivatives of harmine, a natural insecticidal component isolated from Peganum harmala. Molecules 2010;15(11):7775-7791. View abstract.
Zetler, G. Indirect cardiac effects of indole, simple indole derivatives, and harmine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1974;283(2):165-179. View abstract.
Zhao, T., He, Y. Q., Wang, J., Ding, K. M., Wang, C. H., and Wang, Z. T. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes 3A4 and 2D6 by β-carboline alkaloids, harmine derivatives. Phytother Res 2011;25(11):1671-1677. View abstract.
Zheng, X. Y., Zhang, Z. J., Chou, G. X., Wu, T., Cheng, X. M., Wang, C. H., and Wang, Z. T. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitive activity-guided isolation of two new alkaloids from seeds of Peganum nigellastrum Bunge by an in vitro TLC- bioautographic assay. Arch Pharm Res 2009;32(9):1245-1251. View abstract.