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Testicular Pain (cont.)

Do I Need to Examine My Testicles and Scrotal Area?

A testicular self-examination may allow men to detect testicular cancer at an earlier stage of the disease. Often, an abnormal lump or mass, or a change in the size or consistency of the testicle may be the first sign of a testicular tumor. Many doctors and health-care professionals recommend that young men perform a monthly testicular self-examination if they have the following risk factors:

  • A history of testicular tumor
  • An undescended or late-descending testicle
  • A family history of testicular cancer

A testicular self-examination should be performed during or shortly after a bath or shower when the scrotum is relaxed and the testicles descended.

  • While standing, hold the penis out of the way and gently roll each testicle between your thumb and fingers, making sure to feel the entire surface of the testicle.
  • It is normal for one testicle to be larger than the other, and for one testicle to hang lower than the other.
  • If you notice any lumps or changes in the size, shape or consistency of the testicle, seek prompt medical attention for further evaluation.

What Is the Aftercare for the Problem?

Individuals with testicular pain who are discharged home after undergoing a medical evaluation will need to follow-up as per the instructions set forth by the health care professional. Generally speaking, patients who have undergone surgery for any reason will require outpatient follow-up with the physician to monitor progress and manage any potential complications. If your symptoms worsen, or fail to improve after treatment, contact your health care professional.

How Can I Prevent Testicular Pain, Discomfort, and Swelling?

Many causes of testicular pain are not entirely preventable; however, some measures may be taken to decrease the risk:

  • When engaging in sporting activities, make sure to wear the appropriate protective equipment to prevent testicular trauma.
  • For those cases of epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted diseases, safe sexual behavior using condoms greatly reduces the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.
  • The mumps vaccination can reduce the incidence of viral orchitis.
  • Though testicular tumors cannot be prevented, regular self-examinations of the testicles can improve the chance of early detection.

What Is the Outlook for a Male with This Problem?

If you or your child has been admitted to the hospital, you'll need to follow-up per the instructions given at the hospital with your child's pediatrician or primary care doctor. Generally speaking, patients who have undergone surgery for any reason will require outpatient follow-up with the surgeon to monitor progress and manage any potential complications. If your symptoms worsen, or fail to improve after treatment, contact your doctor or other health care professional.

The prognosis for a child or man with testicular pain is dependent entirely upon the underlying cause leading to the symptoms.

Trauma: The prognosis for patients with testicular trauma depends on the severity and extent of the initial injury. Though most patients with this type of injury will recover without long-term problems; however, others may experience loss of the testicle or permanent damage to the testicle.

Testicular torsion: the prognosis and recovery depends on the time elapsed between the time of symptom onset and the time to successful manual detorsion or surgical intervention. The chance of salvaging the testicle decreases as more time passes.

  • If detorsion occurs within 6 hours from the time of symptom onset, the rate of salvaging the testicle is between 90% and 100%.
  • After 12 hours, the salvage rate is between 20% and 50%.
  • After 24 hours, the salvage rate is between 0% and 10%.

Complications associated with testicular torsion include loss of the testicle, permanent damage to the testicle, infertility, and infection.

Epididymitis: Patients with epididymitis and bacterial orchitis generally will recover without complications if treated with antibiotics in a timely manner. Potential complications include abscess formation, impaired fertility, and rarely, a systemic blood infection (sepsis).

Torsion of testicular appendage: Testicular appendage has an excellent prognosis.

Testicular tumor: The prognosis depends upon the type of tumor and the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis.


American Urological Association. "Medical Student Curriculum: Acute Scrotum." Updated: Jul 2016.

Ching, C. B., MD. "Epididymitis." Medscape. Updated: Dec 09, 2016.

Ogunyemi, O. I., MD. "Testicular Torsion." Medscape. Updated: Nov 23, 2016.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 9/11/2017

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Testicular Trauma »

Despite the vulnerable position of the testicles, testicular trauma is relatively uncommon.

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