Doctor's Notes on Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever)
Typhoid fever (enteric fever) is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria that can, if untreated, have a 10%-30% mortality rate due to intestinal hemorrhage or perforation. The classic signs and symptoms are
Untreated, the symptoms can last for months in some individuals. Other signs and symptoms include a slow heart rate, abdominal pains, diarrhea, and/or constipation. Some patients develop a rash on their chest and abdomen (flat and rose-colored rash termed rose spots), and some have enlarged livers and spleens.
Salmonella typhi bacteria are ingested in contaminated food or fluids, enter ileal tissue, survive in macrophage cells, are carried to the lymphatic system, and then can enter the blood. Some Salmonella typhi reach the gallbladder and then are shed into the feces, ready to infect others. Some people become carriers; they shed bacteria but do not have active signs or symptoms.
What Are the Treatments for Typhoid Fever?
Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever. The antibiotics that are used to treat this bacterial infection include the following:
- Ceftriaxone (IV only) -- severe infections, used in children instead of ciprofloxacin
If the infecting strain of bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics, your doctor may choose other antimicrobials. Other supportive treatments may include IV fluids to replace fluid losses and surgery if the weakened intestine develops holes.
Stomach Pain : Nausea & Other Causes QuizQuestion
Bowel regularity means a bowel movement every day.See Answer
Must Read Articles:
Abdominal Pain (Adults)Learn about causes, symptoms, and treatment of abdominal pain in adults and when to seek medical care for related conditions such as pancreatitis, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and more.
AntibioticsAntibiotics are prescribed to individuals to cure disease by killing bacteria. There are over 100 antibiotics. The main classes of antibiotics include penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, flouroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem due to the overprescription of antibiotics to individuals. Allergic reactions to antibiotics commonly have the following symptoms shortness of breath, rash, hives, itching, swelling of the lips, face, or tongue, and fainting.
Fever in AdultsA fever is a body temperature of 100.4 F or greater. A fever may be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus, blood clot, tumor, drug, or the environment. Treatment of fever in adults usually involves ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or aspirin.
Fever in ChildrenWhat are causes, symptoms, and treatment (acetaminophen) of fever in children? Learn when to worry, when a high fever is an emergency, and how to take a rectal temperature.
Headache (Mild)What causes headaches? Even when mild, headaches can be a cause for concern. Learn about potential causes, types, home remedies, and treatment.
Immunizations and Antibiotics for Overseas TravelMost immunizations are not required under International Health Requirements but are recommended. Anyone lacking certain region- or country-specific immunizations may be denied entry into or exit from a country.
RashA rash is a visible skin outbreak. Examples of noninfectious rashes include eczema, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, hives, and allergic dermatitis. Types of infectious rashes include ringworm, impetigo, scabies, herpes, chickenpox, and shingles. Rashes may be caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Treatment depends upon the type of rash.
Stomach Pain (Abdominal Pain) in ChildrenAbdominal pain in children can range from trivial to life-threatening. Symptoms of abdominal pain range from vomiting, diarrhea, fever, groin pain, urinary problems, or skin rash. The location of the abdominal pain may be around the belly button, occurs only at night, while eating. The pain pain also may be intermittent. Treatment of abdominal pain in children is depends on the cause. Possible causes of abdominal pain in children include infections, food related (food allergy or food poisoning), poisoning from medication, food, household products, appendicitis, diabetes, or spider bites.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.