How much urine does the average adult pass each day?
An average adult passes about 1½ quarts (6 cups) of urine daily. This amount varies depending on how much you eat and drink and how active you are. During the night, your body produces about half the volume of urine that is produced during the day.
What is the most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
The most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI) is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is typically found in the colon. In women, sexual intercourse can cause these bacteria to be introduced into the urinary tract and lead to a bladder infection (cystitis). Other bacteria including Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Gonorrhea, as well as the herpes virus can cause infections of the urethra (urethritis).
Which is a common UTI risk factor in adults?
Risk factors for UTIs in adults include:
- Enlarged prostate in men
- Catheters placed in the urethra and bladder
- Spinal cord injury or other nerve injury around the bladder
- Sexual intercourse, including anal intercourse
- Condom use Pregnancy
- Not drinking enough fluids
- Kidney or urinary stones
What are signs and symptoms of a UTI in adults?
Urinary tract infections are infections that involve the bladder (most common) or the kidneys. Symptoms of a bladder infection include:
- Pain or burning when urinating
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Sudden urge to urinate
- Blood in the urine
Symptoms of a kidney infection are the same as those for a bladder infection, as well as:
- Back pain
- Nausea or vomiting
How many people in the U.S. visit the doctor each year to be treated for a UTI?
Each year, about 8.1 million people see a doctor about a urinary tract infection. Women tend to be more prone to UTIs than men, for two reasons:
- their urethra is shorter, allowing easier access for bacteria to get into the bladder, and
- a woman's urethral opening is close to the anus and vagina which are sources of bacteria.
To prevent urinary tract infections, some doctors recommend that people drink which liquid?
Cranberry juice has long been touted as a home remedy of choice to prevent urinary tract infections. The active ingredient in cranberries, A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs), has been shown to block bacteria from adhering to the wall of the bladder. However, it takes an extremely large concentration of cranberry to accomplish this, a concentration not found in typical juices we drink. Further, any concentration of these PACs is long gone by the time it reaches the bladder. Drinking cranberry juice may help hydrate you, which can help wash bacteria from your body, but water can accomplish the same thing. Drinking cranberry juice won't hurt, but it probably won't help either.
On average, what percentage of pregnant women develops UTIs?
About 1.5% of women in the U.S. develop a urinary tract infection during pregnancy. It is believed hormonal changes combined with the increased weight of a growing uterus blocking urine from passing out of the bladder contributes to a greater incidence of UTIs in pregnancy. UTIs in pregnant women involve the kidneys more often than the bladder.
Which antibiotics are used in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs?
The treatment of choice for urinary tract infections is antibiotics. Most courses last three to seven days, though if you have a kidney infection you may need to take antibiotics for up to two weeks. The most commonly used medications for treating UTIs include:
- trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, Cotrim)
- nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Furadantin)
- fosfomycin (Monurol)
- ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
- levofloxacin (Levaquin)
- cephalexin (Keflex)
- trimethoprim (Trimpex)
- amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox)
- ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen, Totacillin)
In some cases, medications to numb the bladder such as phenazopyridine (Pyridium) may be prescribed if the UTI is especially painful.
How can women prevent urinary tract infections?
Women can take steps to prevent urinary tract infections.
- Urinate when you feel you need to
- Always wipe from front to back after using the bathroom to prevent spreading bacteria from the anus or vagina into the urethra
- Do not use douches or feminine hygiene sprays, which can irritate the urethra
- Take showers rather than sitting in baths
- Wear cotton underwear and avoid tight-fitting garments
- Drink more water
- Empty the bladder after sexual activity
- Do not use spermicides
- Use tampons instead of pads during menstrual periods
A pregnant woman who develops a UTI needs prompt treatment to avoid:
A pregnant woman who develops a UTI must get prompt treatment to prevent a kidney infection. A kidney infection during pregnancy can cause high blood pressure, early labor, premature delivery, and low birth weight.
Which is NOT a common cause of UTIs in men?
Urinary stones or an enlarged prostate can obstruct the flow of urine and cause a urinary tract infection in men. Catheters placed in the urethra or bladder can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract and cause a UTI.
Which of the following may provide some relief from UTI pain?
Urinary tract infections can be painful. Some home remedies that may provide pain relief include using a heating pad, and drinking plenty of water to help flush the urinary tract and rid it of bacteria.
What percentage of women who have a UTI will have another?
Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men; up to 20% of women will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime. About 20% percent of women will have a second UTI, and up to 30 percent of those women will have a third. Of those women who have a third UTI, about 80% of them will have recurrent UTIs.
The urinary system consists of the:
The main organs of the urinary system include two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. Waste and extra fluids in the body are filtered by the kidneys and passed on through tubes called ureters into the bladder. The bladder holds urine until it is full, and then signals are sent to your brain that it is time to urinate, and urine passes out of the body through a tube called the urethra.
Images provided by:
MedlinePlus – Urine and Urination.
NIH – Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.
UCLA Health. Urinary Tract Infection.
UpToDate.com. Patient education: Urinary tract infections in adults (The Basics).
Journal of the American Medical Association. Cranberry for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection? Time to Move On.
Medscape - Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy.
Guideline.gov – Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Nonpregnant Women.
UpToDate.com. Patient education: Urinary tract infections in adolescents and adults (Beyond the Basics).
Medscape. Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Women.
Medscape - Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy.
Medscape – Probiotics in Preventing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Literature Review.
National Kidney Foundation. Urinary Tract Infections.
MedlinePlus – Kidneys and Urinary System.
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information:
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the eMedicineHealth Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.