Other Name(s):

AY-27255, Cavinton, Eburnamenine-14-carboxylic acid, Ethyl Apovincaminate, Ethylapovincaminoate, Ethyl Ester, RGH-4405, TCV-3b, Vinpocetin, Vinpocetina, Vinpocétine.


Vinpocetine is a man-made chemical resembling a substance found in the periwinkle plant Vinca minor. People use it as medicine.

Vinpocetine production requires considerable laboratory work, stretching the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) definition of a dietary supplement. Vinpocetine is sold by prescription in Germany under the brand name Cavinton. It has also been referred to generically as cavinton. Although website advertising claims that "more than a hundred" safety and effectiveness studies have been funded by the Hungarian manufacturer Gedeon Richter, few double-blind controlled clinical studies have been published. Double-blind controlled clinical studies are considered the gold standard for establishing safety and effectiveness.

Because some people think vinpocetine might improve blood flow to the brain, it is used for enhancing memory and preventing Alzheimer's disease and other conditions that harm learning, memory, and information processing skills as people age.

Vinpocetine is also used for preventing and reducing the chance of disability and death from ischemic stroke. This is the type of stroke that occurs when a blood clot stops blood flow in the brain, causing brain cells (neurons) to die because they are not receiving oxygen. People try vinpocetine for preventing and treating stroke right after it happens because they think vinpocetine might help keep blood from clotting and might also protect neurons against the harmful effects of oxygen deprivation.

Other uses for vinpocetine include treating symptoms of menopause, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and seizure disorders; and preventing motion sickness.

Healthcare providers sometimes give vinpocetine intravenously (by IV) for treating seizure disorders and stroke.

How does it work?

It is not known exactly how vinpocetine works, but it might increase blood flow to the brain and offer some protection for brain cells (neurons) against injury.

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, that interfere with thinking. Vinpocetine might have a small effect on the decline of thinking skills due to various causes, but most studies have lasted 4 months or less. Most of the studies were published prior to 1990, and results are hard to interpret because they used a variety of terms and criteria for cognitive decline and dementia.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • An eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a condition that causes vision loss in some older people. Early research shows that taking vinpocetine by mouth for 2 months might improve vision in people with AMD.
  • Hearing loss. Early research suggests that giving vinpocetine intravenously (by IV) for 10 days does not improve hearing in people with hearing loss.
  • Dialysis (hemodialysis). Early research suggests that taking vinpocetine daily for up to one year reduces the build-up of calcium around the joints in people with kidney failure who require hemodialysis.
  • Improving memory. Early research suggests that vinpocetine might enhance memory in normal volunteers. Taking vinpocetine along with ginkgo also appears to improve short-term memory in healthy adults.
  • Stroke. There is some evidence that vinpocetine might slightly reduce brain damage due to acute ischemic stroke. There have been only a few clinical studies investigating the use of vinpocetine for stroke, and most have been published in languages other than English. Scientific reviews of these studies found there wasn't enough agreement among the studies to establish the effectiveness of vinpocetine for ischemic stroke.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Some early research suggests that giving vinpocetine by mouth and intravenously (by IV) along with physiotherapy might reduce ringing in the ears. However, giving vinpocetine by IV appears to be less effective than the drug nicergoline in reducing ringing in the ears caused by intense sound.
  • Bed-wetting and related urine control problems. Early research suggests that taking vinpocetine for 2 weeks might reduce the number of times a person with this condition needs to urinate during the day or at night.
  • Prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Motion sickness.
  • Symptoms of menopause.
  • Seizures.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of vinpocetine for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).


One of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is __________________. See Answer

Side Effects

Vinpocetine appears to be POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. No significant harmful effects were reported in a study of people with Alzheimer's disease treated with large doses of vinpocetine (60 mg per day) for one year.

Vinpocetine can cause some side effects including stomach pain, nausea, sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, nervousness, and flushing of the face.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking vipocetine if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders: Don't use vinpocetine if you have a problem with blood clotting because it might increase the risk of bleeding.

Weakened immune system: Vinpocetine might weaken the immune system in some people. This might reduce the body's ability to fight infections. If you already have a weakened immune system due to other conditions such as HIV/AIDS or cancer treatment, check with your healthcare provider before using vinpocetine.

Surgery: Vinpocetine might slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using vinpocetine at least 2 weeks before you are scheduled for surgery.


Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vinpocetine might slow blood clotting. Taking vinpocetine along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Vinpocetine might increase how long warfarin (Coumadin) is in the body, and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For treating memory and thinking disorders such as Alzheimer's disease: 5-10 mg of vinpocetine three times daily.


Abd Elbary, A., Foda, N., El-Gazayerly, O., and El Khatib, M. Reversed phase liquid chromatographic determination of vinpocetine in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic application. Analytical Letters 2002;35(6):1041.

Adam-Vizi, V. [Neuroprotective effect of sodium channel blockers in ischemia: the pathomechanism of early ischemic dysfunction]. Orv.Hetil. 6-4-2000;141(23):1279-1286. View abstract.

Alberti, C. [Bladder and cavernous contractility and relaxation among intracellular messengers, changes in sarcoplasmatic free calcium and phosphodiesterase activity]. Arch Ital.Urol.Androl 2000;72(2):75-82. View abstract.

Araki, T., Kogure, K., and Nishioka, K. Comparative neuroprotective effects of pentobarbital, vinpocetine, flunarizine and ifenprodil on ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Res Exp Med (Berl) 1990;190(1):19-23. View abstract.

Avetisov, S. E., Kiseleva, T. N., Lagutina, IuM, and Kravchuk, E. A. [Effect of vasoactive agents on visual functions and ocular blood flow in patients with early manifestations of age-related macular degeneration]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 2007;123(3):26-28. View abstract.

Bagoly, E., Feher, G., and Szapary, L. [The role of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases based in human studies]. Orv.Hetil. 7-22-2007;148(29):1353-1358. View abstract.

Balta-Lukacs, M. and Kata, M. Production and examination of products of vinpocetine basis and \g/-cyclodextrin content. Gyogyszereszet 1989;33(Jul):353-355.

Banner, K. H., Dimitriou, G., Kinali, M., Page, C. P., and Greenough, A. Evidence to suggest that the phosphodiesterase 4 isoenzyme is present and involved in the proliferation of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30(5):706-712. View abstract.

Bayer, R., Plewa, S., Borcescu, E., and Claus, W. Filterability of human erythrocytes--drug induced prevention of aging in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung 1988;38(12):1765-1767. View abstract.

Bereczki, D. and Fekete, I. Vinpocetine for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev 2008;(1):CD000480. View abstract.

Blaha, L., Erzigkeit, H. L., Adamczyk, L. A., Freytag, L. S., and Schaltenbrand, R. Clinical evidence of the effectiveness of vinpocetine in the treatment of organic psychosyndrome. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental 1989;4(2):103-111.

Bonoczk, P., Gulyas, B., Adam-Vizi, V., Nemes, A., Karpati, E., Kiss, B., Kapas, M., Szantay, C., Koncz, I., Zelles, T., and Vas, A. Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine. Brain Res.Bull. 2000;53(3):245-254. View abstract.

Bonoczk, P., Panczel, G., and Nagy, Z. Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study. Eur.J.Ultrasound 2002;15(1-2):85-91. View abstract.

Brooser, G., Anda, L., and Doman, J. Preliminary report on the use of ethyl apovincaminate in affections of the eyeground. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26(10a):1973-1975. View abstract.

Bukanova, YuV and Solntseva, E. I. Nootropic agent vinpocetine blocks delayed rectified potassium currents more strongly than high-threshold calcium currents. Neurosci.Behav Physiol 1998;28(2):116-120. View abstract.

Cao, G. L., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., and Pan, W. S. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of push-pull osmotic pump-controlled release tablet of vinpocetine using numerical deconvolution technique. Chinese Journal of New Drugs 2008;17:405-408.

Cervenka, F. and Jahodar, L. [Plant metabolites as nootropics and cognitives]. Ceska Slov.Farm. 2006;55(5):219-229. View abstract.

Chen, J., Cai, J., Tao, W., Mei, N., Cao, S., and Jiang, X. Determination of apovincaminic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol Biomed.Life Sci 1-18-2006;830(2):201-206. View abstract.

Cholnoky, E. and Domok, L. I. Summary of safety tests of ethyl apovincaminate. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26(10a):1938-1944. View abstract.

Csiba, L., Kerenyi, L., Fekete, I., Tron, L., Galuska, L., and Gulyas, B. Transcranial doppler and PET observations on chronic stroke patients after two weeks iv vinpocetine therapy. Cerebrovascular Diseases 1998;8:102.

Csiba, L., Szakall, S., Balkay, L., Emri, M., Fekete, I., Kerenyi, L., Galuska, L., Tron, L., Bereczki, D., and Gulyas, B. Hemodynamics and metabolic effects of iv vinpocetine on stroke patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases 1999;9:118.

Dany, F., Merle, L., Goudoud, J. C., Liozon, F., Blanc, P., Bouvot, J. C., Nicot, G., and Dangoumau, J. [Cardiac toxicity of vincamine: a seven cases report of ventricular arrhythmias by parenteral administration of vincamine (author's transl)]. Therapie 1981;36(1):55-64. View abstract.

Dekoninck, W. J., Jocquet, P., Jacquy, J., and Henriet, M. Comparative study of the clinical effects of vincamine + glycerol versus glycerol + placebo in the acute phase of stroke. Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(9):1654-1657. View abstract.

Dezsi, L., Kis-Varga, I., Nagy, J., Komlodi, Z., and Karpati, E. [Neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine in vivo and in vitro. Apovincaminic acid derivatives as potential therapeutic tools in ischemic stroke]. Acta Pharm.Hung. 2002;72(2):84-91. View abstract.

Dunkern, T. R. and Hatzelmann, A. Characterization of inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 1C on a human cellular system. FEBS J 2007;274(18):4812-4824. View abstract.

Ebi, O. Open-labeled phase III clinical trials with vinpocetine in Japan. Ther.Hung. 1985;33(1):41-49. View abstract.

Effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), Lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), topiramate (TOP) and vinpocetine (VPC) on the NA+ channel-mediated release of [3H] GLU in cerebral isolated nerve endings. Epilepsia (Series 4). 2005;47(Suppl 4):234-235.

Effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid (VPA) and vinpocetine (VPC) on brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPS). Epilepsia (Series 4). 2005;47(Suppl 4):195.

Feher, G., Koltai, K., Kesmarky, G., Horvath, B., Toth, K., Komoly, S., and Szapary, L. Effect of parenteral or oral vinpocetine on the hemorheological parameters of patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(2-3):111-117. View abstract.

Fenyes, G. Y., Tarjanyi, J., and Ladvansky, C. S. Study on the vasodilator effects of ethyl apovincaminate in neurosurgical patients . HUNGARY ARZNEIMITTEL FORSCH 1976;26(10A):1956-1962.

Fenzl, E., Apecechea, M., Schaltenbr, R., and Fridel, R. Long term study concerning tolerance and efficacy of vinpocetine in elderly patients suffering from a mild to moderate organic psychosyndrome. Senile dementia: early detection 1986;580-585.

Fischhof, P. K., Moslinger-Gehmayr, R., Herrmann, W. M., Friedmann, A., and Russmann, D. L. Therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in dementia. Neuropsychobiology 1996;34(1):29-35. View abstract.

Fisher, D. A., Smith, J. F., Pillar, J. S., St Denis, S. H., and Cheng, J. B. Isolation and characterization of PDE8A, a novel human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 5-29-1998;246(3):570-577. View abstract.

Gabryel, B., Adamek, M., Pudelko, A., Malecki, A., and Trzeciak, H. I. Piracetam and vinpocetine exert cytoprotective activity and prevent apoptosis of astrocytes in vitro in hypoxia and reoxygenation. Neurotoxicology 2002;23(1):19-31. View abstract.

Grandt, R., Beitinger, H., Schaltenbrand, R., and Braun, W. Vinpocetine pharmacokinetics in elderly subjects. Arzneimittelforschung. 1989;39(12):1599-1602. View abstract.

Groo, D., Palosi, E., and Szporny, L. Comparison of the effects of vinpocetine, vincamine, and nicergoline on the normal and hypoxia damaged learning process in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Drug Development Research 1988;15(Jan):75-85.

Groo, D., Palosi, E., and Szporny, L. Effects of vinpocetine in scopolamine induced learning and memory impairments. Drug Development Research 1987;11(Feb):29-36.

Gulyas, B., Bonoczk, P., Vas, A., Csiba, L., Bereczki, D., Boros, I., Szakall, S., Balkay, L., Emri, M., Fekete, I., Galuska, L., Kerenyi, L., Lehel, S., Marian, T., Molnar, T., Varga, J., and Tron, L. [The effect of a single-dose intravenous vinpocetine on brain metabolism in patients with ischemic stroke]. Orv.Hetil. 3-4-2001;142(9):443-449. View abstract.

Gulyas, B., Halldin, C., Karlsson, P., Chou, Y. H., Swahn, C. G., Bonoczk, P., and Farde, L. [Cerebral uptake and metabolism of (11C) Vinpocetine in monkeys: PET studies]. Orv.Hetil. 7-25-1999;140(30):1687-1691. View abstract.

Gulyas, B., Halldin, C., Sandell, J., Karlsson, P., Sovago, J., Karpati, E., Kiss, B., Vas, A., Cselenyi, Z., and Farde, L. PET studies on the brain uptake and regional distribution of [11C]vinpocetine in human subjects. Acta Neurol.Scand. 2002;106(6):325-332. View abstract.

Gulyas, B., Halldin, C., Sovago, J., Sandell, J., Cselenyi, Z., Vas, A., Kiss, B., Karpati, E., and Farde, L. Drug distribution in man: a positron emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled neuroprotective drug vinpocetine. Eur.J.Nucl.Med.Mol.Imaging 2002;29(8):1031-1038. View abstract.

Hadjiev, D. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders and neuroprotection with vinpocetine. Ideggyogy.Sz 5-20-2003;56(5-6):166-172. View abstract.

Hahn, A., Radkova, L., Achiemere, G., Klement, V., Alpini, D., and Strouhal, J. Multimodal therapy for chronic tinnitus. Int Tinnitus.J 2008;14(1):69-72. View abstract.

Hall, H., Varnas, K., Sandell, J., Halldin, C., Farde, L., Vas, A., Karpati, E., and Gulyas, B. Autoradiographic evaluation of [11C]vinpocetine binding in the human postmortem brain. Acta Biol Hung. 2002;53(1-2):59-66. View abstract.

Hammes, W. and Weyhenmeyer, R. New assay method for the determination of vinpocetine in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without transesterification caused by solvents: a reply. J.Chromatogr. 7-5-1991;567(2):504-505. View abstract.

Hammes, W. and Weyhenmeyer, R. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in human plasma by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J.Chromatogr. 1-23-1987;413:264-269. View abstract.

Hampel, C., Gillitzer, R., Pahernik, S., Melchior, S. W., and Thuroff, J. W. [Drug therapy of female urinary incontinence]. Urologe A 2005;44(3):244-255. View abstract.

Hayakawa, M. Effect of vinpocetine on red blood cell deformability in vivo measured by a new centrifugation method. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42(3):281-283. View abstract.

Horvath, B., Marton, Z., Halmosi, R., Alexy, T., Szapary, L., Vekasi, J., Biro, Z., Habon, T., Kesmarky, G., and Toth, K. In vitro antioxidant properties of pentoxifylline, piracetam, and vinpocetine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2002;25(1):37-42. View abstract.

Hua, L., Weisan, P., Jiayu, L., and Hongfei, L. Preparation and evaluation of microemulsion of vinpocetine for transdermal delivery. Pharmazie 2004;59(4):274-278. View abstract.

Hua, L., Weisan, P., Jiayu, L., and Ying, Z. Preparation, evaluation, and NMR characterization of vinpocetine microemulsion for transdermal delivery. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 2004;30(6):657-666. View abstract.

Imamoto, T., Tanabe, M., Shimamoto, N., Kawazoe, K., and Hirata, M. Cerebral circulatory and cardiac effects of vinpocetine and its metabolite, apovincaminic acid, in anesthetized dogs. Arzneimittelforschung 1984;34(2):161-169. View abstract.

Jasper, A. Semmelweis-Krankenh., Komitats Pest.. Budapest Hungary Therapia Hungarica 1979;27(1):28-30.

Kahan, A. and Olah, M. Use of ethyl apovincaminate in ophthalmological therapy. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:1969-1972.

Karpati, E., Biro, K., and Kukorelli, T. [Investigation of vasoactive agents with indole skeletons at Richter Ltd.]. Acta Pharm.Hung. 2002;72(1):25-36. View abstract.

Kata, M. and Lukacs, M. Enhancement of solubility of vinpocetine base with gamma-cyclodextrin. Pharmazie 1986;41(2):151-152. View abstract.

Keim, K. L. and Hall, P. C. General neuropharmacology of vinpocetine: putative cerebral activator. Drug Development Research 1987;11(Feb):107-115.

Kemeny, V., Molnar, S., Andrejkovics, M., Makai, A., and Csiba, L. Acute and chronic effects of vinpocetine on cerebral hemodynamics and neuropsychological performance in multi-infarct patients. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(9):1048-1054. View abstract.

Kim, D. H. and Lerner, A. Type 4 cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 10-1-1998;92(7):2484-2494. View abstract.

King, G. A. and Narcavage, D. Comparison of the effects of vinpocetine, vincamine, phenytoin, and cinnarizine in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Drug Development Research 1986;9(Nov):225-231.

Kishimoto, T., Hiraoka, Y., Oribe, H., Inoue, M., Ueda, A., Matsuyama, M., Inoue, Y., Itoh, T., Yoshitomi, K., Miyagi, T., Masuda, N., Tatsuda, H., Nakanishi, Y., Negoro, H., and Ikawa, G. Auditory P300 event-relaed potentials and mini mental state examination performance in dementia; effects of Idebenone and Vinpocetine. Journal of Nara Medical Association 1995;46(3):259-266.

Kiss, B. and Karpati, E. [Mechanism of action of vinpocetine]. Acta Pharm.Hung. 1996;66(5):213-224. View abstract.

Kobayashi, D., Matsuzawa, T., Sugibayashi, K., Morimoto, Y., Kobayashi, M., and Kimura, M. Feasibility of use of several cardiovascular agents in transdermal therapeutic systems with l-menthol-ethanol system on hairless rat and human skin. Biol Pharm Bull 1993;16(3):254-258. View abstract.

Konopka, W., Zalewski, P., Olszewski, J., Olszewska-Ziaber, A., and Pietkiewicz, P. [Treatment results of acoustic trauma]. Otolaryngol.Pol. 1997;51 Suppl 25:281-284. View abstract.

Kovacs, L. Cavinton in the treatment of acute stroke. Ther Hung. 1985;33(1):50-57. View abstract.

Kozma, M., Pudleiner, P., and Vereczkey, L. Determination of apovincaminic acid in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 5-28-1982;241(1):177-182. View abstract.

Kraus, G., Schulz, H. U., and Lohmann, A. Determination of apovincaminic acid in serum by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1-17-1992;573(2):323-327. View abstract.

Krieglstein, J. and Rischke, R. Vinpocetine increases the neuroprotective effect of adenosine in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 11-19-1991;205(1):7-10. View abstract.

Kuzuya, F. Effects of vinpocetine on platelet aggregability and erythrocyte deformability. Geriatric Medicine 1982;20:151-156.

Kuzuya, F. Effects of vinpocetine on platelet aggregability and erythrocyte deformability. Ther Hung. 1985;33(1):22-34. View abstract.

Lakics, V., Sebestyen, M. G., and Erdo, S. L. Vinpocetine is a highly potent neuroprotectant against veratridine-induced cell death in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci.Lett 2-9-1995;185(2):127-130. View abstract.

Lamar, J., Poignet, H., Beaughard, M., and Dureng, G. Calcium antagonist activity of vinpocetine and vincamine in several models of cerebral ischaemia. Drug Development Research 1988;14(3-4):297-304.

Li, H., Li, J. Y., Lin, J. Y., and Pan, W. S. Preparation of vinpocetine transdermal therapeutic system and study on in vitro permeation mechanism. Chinese Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 2004;24(Mar)

Li, J., Chen, F., Hu, C., He, L., Yan, K., Zhou, L., and Pan, W. Optimized preparation of in situ forming microparticles for the parenteral delivery of vinpocetine. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2008;56(6):796-801. View abstract.

Lindgren, S. H., Andersson, T. L., Vinge, E., and Andersson, K. E. Effects of isozyme-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on rat aorta and human platelets: smooth muscle tone, platelet aggregation and cAMP levels. Acta Physiol Scand 1990;140(2):209-219. View abstract.

Lohmann, A. and Dingler, E. New assay method for the determination of vinpocetine in human plasma with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without transesterification caused by solvents. J.Chromatogr. 8-3-1990;529(2):442-448. View abstract.

Luo, Y., Chen, D., Ren, L., Zhao, X., and Qin, J. Solid lipid nanoparticles for enhancing vinpocetine's oral bioavailability. J Control Release 8-10-2006;114(1):53-59. View abstract.

Manchev, I., Tsolova, M., and Mancheva, V. Cavinton (vinpocetine) treatment in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular disorders. Bulgarian Medicine 2003;11(4):17-21.

Mancina, R., Filippi, S., Marini, M., Morelli, A., Vignozzi, L., Salonia, A., Montorsi, F., Mondaini, N., Vannelli, G. B., Donati, S., Lotti, F., Forti, G., and Maggi, M. Expression and functional activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 in human and rabbit vas deferens. Mol.Hum Reprod. 2005;11(2):107-115. View abstract.

Manconi, E., Binaghi, F., and Pitzus, F. A double-blind clinical trial of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency of vascular and degenerative origin. CURR THER RES, CLIN EXP 1986;40(4):702-709.

Marx, D., Tassabehji, M., Heer, S., Huttenbrink, K. B., and Szelenyi, I. Modulation of TNF and GM-CSF release from dispersed human nasal polyp cells and human whole blood by inhibitors of different PDE isoenzymes and glucocorticoids. Pulm.Pharmacol Ther 2002;15(1):7-15. View abstract.

Maya, M. T., Pais, J. P., Araujo, H. M., and Morais, J. A. Determination of apovincaminic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed.Anal 1996;14(5):617-622. View abstract.

McDaniel, M. A., Maier, S. F., and Einstein, G. O. "Brain-specific" nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition. 2003;19(11-12):957-975. View abstract.

Miagi, M. A., Tomberg, T. A., Kauba, T. F., Rekand, T. E., and Taba, P. M. [Pharmacodynamic action of cavinton on regional volume blood flow, central hemodynamics and the bioelectric activity of the brain in the acute stage of a cerebral infarct]. Zh.Nevropatol.Psikhiatr.Im S S Korsakova 1987;87(1):46-50. View abstract.

Millart, H., Lamiable, D., Houin, G., Plat, M., Choisy, H., and Tillement, J. P. Pharmacokinetic study of two pharmaceutical preparations containing alkaloid vincamine administered orally to human subjects . Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1983;21(11):581-586.

Miskolczi, P., Kozma, K., Polgar, M., and Vereczkey, L. Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine and its main metabolite apovincaminic acid before and after the chronic oral administration of vinpocetine to humans. Eur.J.Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1990;15(1):1-5. View abstract.

Miskolczi, P., Vereczkey, L., Szalay, L., and Gondoc, C. Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine (Cavinton) and apovincaminic acid. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1987;33(2):185-189. View abstract.

Miskolczi, P., Vereczkey, L., Szalay, L., and Gondocs, C. S. Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine and apovincaminic acid in patients with impaired renal function. Eur.J.Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1984;9(2):169-175. View abstract.

Molnar, P. and Erdo, S. L. Vinpocetine is as potent as phenytoin to block voltage-gated Na+ channels in rat cortical neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 2-6-1995;273(3):303-306. View abstract.

Molnar-Kimber, K., Yonno, L., Heaslip, R., and Weichman, B. Modulation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta from endotoxin-stimulated monocytes by selective PDE isozyme inhibitors. Agents Actions 1993;39 Spec No:C77-C79. View abstract.

Montorsi, F., Corbin, J., and Phillips, S. Review of phosphodiesterases in the urogenital system: new directions for therapeutic intervention. J Sex Med 2004;1(3):322-336. View abstract.

Moulharat, N., Fould, B., Giganti, A., Boutin, J. A., and Ferry, G. Molecular pharmacology of adipocyte-secreted autotaxin. Chem Biol Interact. 3-27-2008;172(2):115-124. View abstract.

Muhammad, N., Adams, G., and Lee, H. K. Kinetics and mechanisms of vinpocetine degradation in aqueous solutions. J Pharm Sci 1988;77(2):126-131. View abstract.

Muravyov, A. V., Yakusevich, V. V., Chuchkanov, F. A., Maimistova, A. A., Bulaeva, S. V., and Zaitsev, L. G. Hemorheological efficiency of drugs, targeting on intracellular phosphodiesterase activity: in vitro study. Clin Hemorheol.Microcirc. 2007;36(4):327-334. View abstract.

Nagy, Z. Vinpocetine in Cognitive Impairment trial. 2002;

Nekrassov, V. and Sitges, M. Vinpocetine protects from aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced hearing loss in guinea pig in vivo. Brain Res 6-23-2000;868(2):222-229. View abstract.

Nevzorova, V. A., Zakharchuk, N. V., and Plotnikova, I. V. [The state of cerebral blood flow in hypertensive crises and possibilities of its correction]. Kardiologiia. 2007;47(12):20-23. View abstract.

Nie, S., Fan, X., Peng, Y., Yang, X., Wang, C., and Pan, W. In vitro and in vivo studies on the complexes of vinpocetine with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Arch Pharm Res 2007;30(8):991-1001. View abstract.

Orvisky, E., Soltes, L., and Stancikova, M. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan--a valuable tool in testing the antioxidative activity of amphiphilic drugs stobadine and vinpocetine. J Pharm Biomed.Anal 1997;16(3):419-424. View abstract.

Osawa, M. and Maruyama, S. Effects of TCV-3B (vinpocetine) on blood viscosity in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Ther.Hung. 1985;33(1):7-12. View abstract.

Otomo, E., Atarashi, J., Araki, G., Ito, E., and Ebi, O. Comparison of vinpocetine with ifenprodil tartrate and dihydroergotoxine mesylate and results of long term treatment with vinpocetine. CURR THER RES 1985;37(5):811-821.

Panczel, G., Bonoczk, P., and Nagy, Z. Vinpocetine-induced changes in hemoglobin concentration and regional cerebral blood flow: a NIRS and TCD study. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2000;10(Suppl 1):29.

Peruzza, M. and DeJacobis, M. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular or degenerative senile cerebral dysfunction. ADV THER 1986;3(4):201-209.

Petrov, V., Fagard, R., and Lijnen, P. Human erythrocytes contain Ca2+, calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase which is involved in the hydrolysis of cGMP. Methods Find.Exp Clin Pharmacol 1998;20(5):387-393. View abstract.

Polgar, M. and Vereczkey, L. Determination of apovincaminic acid in human plasma by gas-liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 5-28-1982;241(1):29-32. View abstract.

Polgar, M., Vereczkey, L., and Nyary, I. Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine and its metabolite, apovincaminic acid, in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous infusion. J Pharm Biomed.Anal 1985;3(2):131-139. View abstract.

Reck, B., Dingler, E., and Lohmann, A. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for the determination of vinpocetine in human plasma. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42(10):1171-1174. View abstract.

Ribeiro, L. S., Falcao, A. C., Patricio, J. A., Ferreira, D. C., and Veiga, F. J. Cyclodextrin multicomponent complexation and controlled release delivery strategies to optimize the oral bioavailability of vinpocetine. J Pharm Sci 2007;96(8):2018-2028. View abstract.

Ribeiro, L. S., Ferreira, D. C., and Veiga, F. J. Physicochemical investigation of the effects of water-soluble polymers on vinpocetine complexation with beta-cyclodextrin and its sulfobutyl ether derivative in solution and solid state. Eur J Pharm Sci 2003;20(3):253-266. View abstract.

Ribeiro, L., Ferreira, D. C., and Veiga, F. J. In vitro controlled release of vinpocetine-cyclodextrin-tartaric acid multicomponent complexes from HPMC swellable tablets. J Control Release 3-21-2005;103(2):325-339. View abstract.

Richichi, I., Valsecchi, O., Falcone, C., Sofi, A., and Zanini, L. [A case of "torsade de pointe" during vincamine therapy]. Minerva Cardioangiol. 1978;26(3):197-200. View abstract.

Rischke, R. and Krieglstein, J. Effects of vinpocetine on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization seven days after forebrain ischemia in the rat. Pharmacology 1990;41(3):153-160. View abstract.

Rischke, R. and Krieglstein, J. Protective effect of vinpocetine against brain damage caused by ischemia. Jpn J Pharmacol 1991;56(3):349-356. View abstract.

Santos, M. S., Duarte, A. I., Moreira, P. I., and Oliveira, C. R. Synaptosomal response to oxidative stress: effect of vinpocetine. Free Radic.Res 2000;32(1):57-66. View abstract.

Satoh, M. and Watanabe, S. [Pharmacology of long-term potentiation]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1993;102(3):225-234. View abstract.

Schaffler, K. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study to investigate the hypoxia-protective effect of vinpocetine by psychophysiolgical methodology in healthy volunteers. Drug Development Research 1988;14(3-4):247-250.

Shimizu, Y., Saitoh, K., Nakayama, M., Suto, K., Daikohara, R., and Nemoto, T. Agranulocytosis induced by vinpocetine. Medicine On-line 2011;

Sitges, M. and Nekrassov, V. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate and aspartate release evoked by the elevation of internal sodium. Journal of Neurochemistry 1999;73(Jul):S88.

Sitges, M. and Nekrassov, V. Vinpocetine prevents 4-aminopyridine-induced changes in the EEG, the auditory brainstem responses and hearing. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115(12):2711-2717. View abstract.

Solti, F., Czako, E., and Juvancz, P. [The effect of Cavinton on heart conduction]. Orv.Hetil. 12-6-1981;122(49):3009-3010. View abstract.

Steinhauser, B. [Vincamine in cerebrovascular insufficiency. Occupational medicine approaches in cerebral diseases]. Fortschr.Med 1-9-1986;104(1-2):23-26. View abstract.

Stolc, S. Indole derivatives as neuroprotectants. Life Sci 1999;65(18-19):1943-1950. View abstract.

Storm, G., Oosterhuis, B., Sollie, F. A., Visscher, H. W., Sommer, W., Beitinger, H., and Jonkman, J. H. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between vinpocetine and oxazepam. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1994;38(2):143-146. View abstract.

Szakacs, T., Veres, Z., and Vereczkey, L. In vitro-in vivo correlation of the pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine. Pol.J.Pharmacol. 2001;53(6):623-628. View abstract.

Szapary, L., Horvath, B., Alexy, T., Marton, Z., Kesmarky, G., Szots, M., Nagy, F., Czopf, J., and Toth, K. [Effect of vinpocetin on the hemorheologic parameters in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease]. Orv.Hetil. 5-18-2003;144(20):973-978. View abstract.

Szapary, L., Szots, M., Feher, G., Koltai, K., Kesmarky, G., and Toth, K. Hemorheological changes after parenteral and oral administration of vinpocetine in chronic cerebrovascular patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2005;19:121-122.

Szeleczky, G. and Vereczkey, L. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies of vinpocetine on dogs. II. Metabolism. Pol.J.Pharmacol.Pharm. 1986;38(3):269-275. View abstract.

Szeleczky, G. and Vereczky, L. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies of vinpocetine on dogs. Part 1. Pharmacokinetics. Pol.J.Pharmacol.Pharm. 1986;38:257-267.

Szilagyi, G., Nagy, Z., Balkay, L., Boros, I., Emri, M., Lehel, S., Marian, T., Molnar, T., Szakall, S., Tron, L., Bereczki, D., Csiba, L., Fekete, I., Kerenyi, L., Galuska, L., Varga, J., Bonoczk, P., Vas, A., and Gulyas, B. Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study. J Neurol.Sci 3-15-2005;229-230:275-284. View abstract.

Szobor, A. and Klein, M. Ethyl apovincaminate therapy in neurovascular disease. Arzneim-Forsch 1976;26(10):1984-1989.

Szobor, A. and Klein, M. Examinations of the relative fluidity in cerebrovascular disease patients. Ther Hung. 1992;40(1):8-11. View abstract.

Tesseris, J., Roggen, G., Caracalos, A., and Triandafillou, D. Effects of vincamin on cerebral metabolism. European Neurology 1975;13:195-202.

Tohgi, H., Sasaki, K., Chiba, K., and Nozaki, Y. Effect of vinpocetine on oxygen release of hemoglobin and erythrocyte organic polyphosphate concentrations in patients with vascular dementia of the Binswanger type. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40(6):640-643. View abstract.

Tretter, L. and Adam-Vizi, V. The neuroprotective drug vinpocetine prevents veratridine-induced [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i rise in synaptosomes. Neuroreport 6-1-1998;9(8):1849-1853. View abstract.

Truss, M. C., Stief, C. G., Uckert, S., Becker, A. J., Schultheiss, D., Machtens, S., and Jonas, U. Initial clinical experience with the selective phosphodiesterase-I isoenzyme inhibitor vinpocetine in the treatment of urge incontinence and low compliance bladder. World J.Urol. 2000;18(6):439-443. View abstract.

Truss, M. C., Stief, C. G., Uckert, S., Becker, A. J., Wefer, J., Schultheiss, D., and Jonas, U. Phosphodiesterase 1 inhibition in the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction: from bench to bedside. World J Urol. 2001;19(5):344-350. View abstract.

Truss, M. C., Uckert, S., Stief, C. G., Forssmann, W. G., and Jonas, U. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in the human detrusor smooth muscle. II. Effect of various PDE inhibitors on smooth muscle tone and cyclic nucleotide levels in vitro. Urol.Res 1996;24(3):129-134. View abstract.

Uckert, S., Bazrafshan, S., Scheller, F., Mayer, M. E., Jonas, U., and Stief, C. G. Functional responses of isolated human seminal vesicle tissue to selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Urology 2007;70(1):185-189. View abstract.

Uckert, S., Kuthe, A., Jonas, U., and Stief, C. G. Characterization and functional relevance of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes of the human prostate. J Urol. 2001;166(6):2484-2490. View abstract.

Uckert, S., Stief, C. G., Odenthal, K. P., Becker, A. J., Truss, M. C., and Jonas, U. Comparison of the effects of various spasmolytic drugs on isolated human and porcine detrusor smooth muscle. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48(8):836-839. View abstract.

Vaizova, O. E., Vengerovskii, A. I., and Alifirova, V. M. [An effect of vinpocetine (cavinton) on endothelium function in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S S Korsakova 2006;Suppl 16:46-50. View abstract.

Valikovics, A. [Investigation of the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions]. Ideggyogy.Sz 7-30-2007;60(7-8):301-310. View abstract.

Vamosi, B., Molnar, L., Demeter, J., and Tury, F. Comparative study of the effect of ethyl apovincaminate and xantinol nicotinate in cerebrovascular diseases. Immediate drug effects on the concentrations of carbohydrate metabolites and electrolytes in blood and CSF. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26(10a):1980-1984. View abstract.

Vas, A. and Gulyas, B. Eburnamine derivatives and the brain. Med Res Rev 2005;25(6):737-757. View abstract.

Vas, A., Christer, H., Sovago, J., Johan, S., Cselenyi, Z., Kiss, B., Karpati, E., Lars, F., and Gulyas, B. [Human positron emission tomography with oral 11C-vinpocetine]. Orv.Hetil. 11-16-2003;144(46):2271-2276. View abstract.

Vas, A., Gulyas, B., Szabo, Z., Bonoczk, P., Csiba, L., Kiss, B., Karpati, E., Panczel, G., and Nagy, Z. Clinical and non-clinical investigations using positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler methods on the neuroprotective drug vinpocetine: a summary of evidences. J.Neurol.Sci. 11-15-2002;203-204:259-262. View abstract.

Vas, A., Sovago, J., Halldin, C., Sandell, J., Karlsson, P., Karpati, E., Kiss, B., Cselenyi, Z., Farde, L., and Gulyas, B. [Cerebral uptake and regional distribution of [11C]-vinpocetin after intravenous administration to healthy men: a PET study]. Orv.Hetil. 11-24-2002;143(47):2631-2636. View abstract.

Vatsova, M., Tzvetanov, S., Drenska, A., Goranscheva, J., and Tyutyulkova, N. Improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the quantitative determination of vinpocetine in human plasma. J.Chromatogr.B Biomed.Sci.Appl. 11-21-1997;702(1-2):221-226. View abstract.

Vegh, S., Szikszay, E., Bonoczk, P., Cserjes, Z., and Kiss, G. [Retrospective analysis of the effect of vinpocetine infusion in ophthalmologic disorders]. Orv.Hetil. 12-10-2006;147(49):2361-2365. View abstract.

Vereczkey, L. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of vincamine and related compounds. Eur.J.Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1985;10(2):89-103. View abstract.

Vereczkey, L., Czira, G., Tamas, J., Szentirmay, Z., Botar, Z., and Szporny, L. Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine in humans. Arzneimittelforschung. 1979;29(6):957-960. View abstract.

Vlase, L., Bodiu, B., and Leucuta, S. E. Pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of two vinpocetine tablet formulations in healthy volunteers by using the metabolite apovincaminic acid as pharmacokinetic parameter. Arzneimittelforschung 2005;55(11):664-668. View abstract.

Vlase, L., Imre, S., and Leucuta, S. New HPLC-MS method for quantitative determination of apovincaminic acid in human plasma. J Sep.Sci 2006;29(3):385-389. View abstract.

Wang, L., Li, J., and Zhang, Y. A clinical observation of efficacy of vinpocetine injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. Progress in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2006;30(12):563-565.

Wang, Y., Mallya, S. M., and Sikpi, M. O. Calmodulin antagonists and cAMP inhibit ionizing-radiation-enhancement of double-strand-break repair in human cells. Mutat.Res 6-30-2000;460(1):29-39. View abstract.

Wang, Y., Qiao, M. X., Shen, Q. W., and Chen, D. W. Preparation of vinpocetine-loaded amphiphilic chitosan copolymer self-assembled micelles. Chinese Journal of New Drugs 2007;16:1495-1498.

Werner, J., Apecechea, M., Schaltenbr, R., and Fenz, E. Clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine i.v. added to standard therapy in patients suffering from an acute apoplectic insult. Senile Dementias: Early Detection 1 1986;636-641.

Wollschlaeger, B. Efficacy of vinpocetine in the management of cognitive impairment and memory loss. J.Am.Nutraceut.Assn 2001;4(Feb):25-30.

Wolters, E. C., Scheltens, P., Zawrt, J., Persijn, L., Moll, C., Van Genuchten, H., Lowenthal, A., and Sennef, A. A double blind placebo and piracetam controlled multicenter trial of vinpocetine in dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia. Neurobiology of Aging 1992;13(Suppl 1):S127.

Wu, S. N. Large-conductance Ca2+- activated K+ channels:physiological role and pharmacology. Curr Med Chem 2003;10(8):649-661. View abstract.

Yi, Y. X., Yang, Y., Qu, X. B., and Liu, Y. L. Effect of vinpocetine on hemodynamics and neurologic impairment in senile patients with acute cerebral infarction. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2004;8(28):6122-6123.

Yunomae, K., Ichisaki, S., Matsuo, J., Nagayama, S., Fukuzaki, K., Nagata, R., and Kito, G. Effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channel activity. J Appl Toxicol 2007;27(1):78-85. View abstract.

Zelles, T., Franklin, L., Koncz, I., Lendvai, B., and Zsilla, G. The nootropic drug vinpocetine inhibits veratridine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Neurochem.Res 2001;26(8-9):1095-1100. View abstract.

Zozulia, I. S. and Iurchenko, A. V. [The adaptive potentials of those who worked in the cleanup of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station under the influence of different treatment methods]. Lik.Sprava. 2000;(3-4):18-21. View abstract.

Akopov SE, Gabrielian ES. Effects of aspirin, dipyridamole, nifedipine and cavinton which act on platelet aggregation induced by different aggregating agents alone and in combination. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:257-9. View abstract.

Balestreri R, Fontana L, Astengo F. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987;35:425-30. View abstract.

Bereczki D, Fekete I. A systematic review of vinpocetine therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:349-52. View abstract.

Bereczki D, Fekete I. Vinpocetine for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000480.. View abstract.

Bhatti JZ, Hindmarch I. Vinpocetine effects on cognitive impairments produced by flunitrazepam. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1987;2:325-31. View abstract.

Feigin VL, Doronin BM, Popova TF, et al. Vinpocetine treatment in acute ischaemic stroke: a pilot single-blind randomized clinical trial. Eur J Neurol 2001;8:81-5.. View abstract.

Grant JE, Veldee MS, Buchwald D. Analysis of dietary intake and selected nutrient concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:383-6.. View abstract.

Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, et al. The influence of dietary and nondietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:84-92. View abstract.

Hayakawa M. Comparative efficacy of vinpocetine, pentoxifylline and nicergoline on red blood cell deformability. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:108-10. View abstract.

Hayakawa M. Effect of vinpocetine on red blood cell deformability in stroke patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:425-7. View abstract.

Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1991;6:31-43. View abstract.

Hitzenberger G, Sommer W, Grandt R. Influence of vinpocetine on warfarin-induced inhibition of coagulation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1990;28:323-8.. View abstract.

Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:144-61.. View abstract.

Lohmann A, Dingler E, Sommer W, et al. Bioavailability of vinpocetine and interference of the time of application with food intake. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:914-7. View abstract.

Miyazaki M. The effect of a cerebral vasodilator, vinpocetine, on cerebral vascular resistance evaluated by the Doppler ultrasonic technique in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Angiology 1995;46:53-8. View abstract.

Nicholson CD. Pharmacology of nootropics and metabolically active compounds in relation to their use in dementia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1990;101:147-59. View abstract.

Polich J, Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:409-16. View abstract.

Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985;28:567-71. View abstract.

Szakall S, Boros I, Balkay L, et al. Cerebral effects of a single dose of intravenous vinpocetine in chronic stroke patients: a PET study. J Neuroimaging 1998;8:197-204. View abstract.

Szatmari SZ, Whitehouse PJ. Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;1:CD003119.. View abstract.

Tamaki N, Kusunoki T, Matsumoto S. The effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. Ther Hung 1985;33:13-21. View abstract.

Thal LJ, Salmon DP, Lasker B, et al. The safety and lack of efficacy of vinpocetine in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989;37:515-20. View abstract.

Ueyoshi A, Ota K. Clinical appraisal of vinpocetine for the removal of intractable tumoral calcinosis in haemodialysis patients with renal failure. J Int Med Res 1992;20:435-43. View abstract.

Wollschlaeger B. Efficacy of vinpocetine in the management of cognitive impairment and memory loss. JANA 2001;4:25-30.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors