- What other names is Vitamin K known by?
- What is Vitamin K?
- How does Vitamin K work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Vitamin K.
4-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Naphthol, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Menadiol Acetate, Menadiol Sodium Phosphate, Menadione, Ménadione, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite, Menaquinone, Ménaquinone, Menatetrenone, Menatétrenone, Phytonadione, Methylphytyl Naphthoquinone, Phylloquinone, Phytomenadione, Vitamina K, Vitamine K, Vitamine Liposoluble, Vitamine Soluble dans les Graisses.
Vitamin K is a vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The name vitamin K comes from the German word "Koagulationsvitamin."
Several forms of vitamin K are used around the world as medicine. Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone) are available in North America. Vitamin K1 is generally the preferred form of vitamin K because it is less toxic, works faster, is stronger, and works better for certain conditions.
Vitamin K is most commonly used for blood clotting problems. For example, vitamin K is used to reverse the effects of "blood thinning" medications when too much is given. It is also used to prevent clotting problems in newborns who don't have enough vitamin K. Vitamin K is also given to treat and prevent vitamin K deficiency, a condition in which the body doesn't have enough vitamin K.
An increased understanding of the role of vitamin K in the body beyond blood clotting led some researchers to suggest that the recommended amounts for dietary intake of vitamin K be increased. In 2001, the National Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board increased their recommended amounts of vitamin K slightly, but refused to make larger increases. They explained there wasn't enough scientific evidence to make larger increases in the recommended amount of vitamin K.
- Preventing bleeding problems in newborns with low levels of vitamin K (hemorrhagic disease). Giving vitamin K1 by mouth or as a shot into the muscle helps prevent bleeding problems in newborns. Shots seem to work the best.
- Treating and preventing bleeding problems in people with low levels of the blood clotting protein prothrombin. Taking vitamin K1 by mouth or as an injection into the vein can prevent and treat bleeding problems in people with low levels of prothrombin due to using certain medications.
- An inherited bleeding disorder called vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency (VKCFD). Taking vitamin K by mouth or as an injection into the vein can help prevent bleeding in people with VKCFD.
- Reversing the effects of too much warfarin used to prevent blood clotting. Taking vitamin K1 by mouth or as in injection into the vein can reverse too much blood clotting caused by warfarin. However, injecting vitamin K1 under the skin does not seem to work. Taking vitamin K along with warfarin also seems to help stabilize blood clotting time in people taking warfarin. It works best in people who have low vitamin K levels.
Possibly Effective for...
- Weak bones (osteoporosis). Taking a specific form of vitamin K2 seems to improve bone strength and reduce the risk of fracture in most older women with weak bones. But it doesn't seem to benefit older women who still have strong bones. Taking vitamin K1 seems to increase bone strength and might prevent fractures in older women. But it might not work as well in older men. Vitamin K1 doesn't seem to improve bone strength in women who have not gone through menopause or in people with Crohn's disease.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Bleeding within the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) of the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage). Giving vitamin K to women at risk for very preterm births does not seem to prevent bleeding in the brain of preterm infants. It also doesn't seem to reduce the risk of nerve injury caused by these bleeds.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Blood disorder (beta-thalassemia). Early research shows that taking vitamin K2 by mouth along with calcium and vitamin D can improve bone mass in children with this blood disorder.
- Breast cancer. Research suggests that higher dietary intake of vitamin K2 is linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer.
- Cancer. Some research has linked a higher food intake of vitamin K2, but not vitamin K1, with a reduced risk of death from cancer. But other research has linked a higher food intake of vitamin K1, but not vitamin K2, with a reduced risk of death from cancer.
- Colorectal cancer. Early research suggests that a higher dietary intake of vitamin K is not linked with a reduced risk of cancer of the colon and rectum.
- Heart disease. Higher dietary intake of vitamin K2 has been linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, risk factors for heart disease, and death due to heart disease in older men and women. But vitamin K2 intake from food does not seem to be linked with a reduced risk a heart disease in people at high risk for this condition. Dietary intake of vitamin K1 has not been linked with a reduced risk of heart disease. But increasing vitamin K1 intake from food has been linked with a reduced risk of death due to heart disease. Also, taking vitamin K1 as a supplement seems to prevent or reduce the advancement of coronary calcification. This is a risk factor for heart disease.
- Cystic fibrosis. People with cystic fibrosis can have low levels of vitamin K due to problems digesting fat. Taking a combination of vitamins A, D, E, and K seems to improve vitamin K levels in people with cystic fibrosis who have trouble digesting fat. Also, early research shows that taking vitamin K by mouth for can enhance the production of osteocalcin. Osteocalcin plays a role in the body's bone-building and metabolic regulation. But there is no reliable evidence suggesting that vitamin K improves overall health in people with cystic fibrosis.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking a multivitamin fortified with vitamin K1 does not lower the risk of developing diabetes compared to taking a regular multivitamin.
- Skin rash associated with a type of cancer medicine. People who are given a certain type of anticancer medicine often develop skin rash. Early research shows that applying a cream containing vitamin K1 helps prevent skin rash in people being given this type of medicine.
- High cholesterol. There is early evidence that vitamin K2 might lower cholesterol in people on dialysis with high cholesterol levels.
- Liver cancer. Taking vitamin K2 does not seem to prevent liver cancer recurrence. But some early research shows that taking vitamin K2 reduces the risk of liver cancer in people with liver cirrhosis.
- Lung cancer. Early research suggests that higher intake of vitamin K2 from food is linked with a reduced risk of lung cancer and lung cancer-related death. Dietary intake of vitamin K1 does not seem to be linked with a reduced risk of these events.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon is a medicine that helps people with MS. This medicine often causes a rash and burning of the skin. Early research shows that applying vitamin K cream modestly reduces rash and burning in people with treated with interferon.
- Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that higher dietary intake of vitamin K2, but not vitamin K1, is linked with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that taking vitamin K2 along with arthritis medicine reduces markers of joint swelling better than taking arthritis medicine alone.
- Stroke. Population research suggests that dietary intake of vitamin K1 is not linked with a reduced risk of stroke.
- Spider veins.
- Stretch marks.
- Other conditions.
Vitamin K is an essential vitamin that is needed by the body for blood clotting, bone building, and other important processes.
The two forms of vitamin K (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2) are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth or injected into the vein appropriately. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking vitamin K in the recommended amount each day. However, some people may have an upset stomach or diarrhea.
Vitamin K1 is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when applied as a cream that contains 0.1% vitamin K1.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: When taken in the recommended amount each day, vitamin K is considered safe for pregnant and breast-feeding women. Don't use higher amounts without the advice of your healthcare professional.
Children: The form of vitamin K known as vitamin K1 is LIKELY SAFE for children when taken by mouth or injected into the body appropriately.
Reduced bile secretion: People with decreased bile secretion who are taking vitamin K might need to take supplemental bile salts along with vitamin K to ensure vitamin K absorption.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Vitamin K is used by the body to help blood clot. Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. By helping the blood clot, vitamin K might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Vitamin K1 might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking vitamin K1 along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For osteoporosis: The MK-4 form of vitamin K2 has been taken in doses of 45 mg daily. Also, vitamin K1 has been taken in doses of 1-10 mg daily.
- For an inherited bleeding disorder called vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency: 10 mg of vitamin K has been taken 2-3 times weekly.
- For reversing the effects of warfarin: A single dose of 1-5 mg is typically used to reverse the effects of taking too much warfarin; however, the exact dose needed is determined by a lab test called the INR. Daily doses of 100-200 micrograms have been used for people taking warfarin long-term who have unstable blood clotting.
- For an inherited bleeding disorder called vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency: 10 mg of vitamin K has been injected into the vein. How often these injections are given is determined by a lab test called the INR.
- For reversing the effects of warfarin: A single dose of 0.5-3 mg is typically used; however, the exact dose needed is determined by a lab test called the INR.
- For preventing bleeding problems in newborns with low levels of vitamin K (hemorrhagic disease): 1-2 mg of vitamin K1 has been given in three doses over 8 weeks. Also single doses containing 1 mg of vitamin K1, 5 mg of vitamin K2, or 1-2 mg of vitamin K3 have been used.
- For preventing bleeding problems in newborns with low levels of vitamin K (hemorrhagic disease): 1 mg of vitamin K1 has been given as a shot into the muscle.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Ageno, W., Crowther, M., Steidl, L., Ultori, C., Mera, V., Dentali, F., Squizzato, A., Marchesi, C., and Venco, A. Low dose oral vitamin K to reverse acenocoumarol-induced coagulopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Thromb.Haemost. 2002;88(1):48-51. View abstract.
Ageno, W., Garcia, D., Silingardi, M., Galli, M., and Crowther, M. A randomized trial comparing 1 mg of oral vitamin K with no treatment in the management of warfarin-associated coagulopathy in patients with mechanical heart valves. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 8-16-2005;46(4):732-733. View abstract.
Andersen, P. and Godal, H. C. Predictable reduction in anticoagulant activity of warfarin by small amounts of vitamin K. Acta Med.Scand. 1975;198(4):269-270. View abstract.
Bakhshi, S., Deorari, A. K., Roy, S., Paul, V. K., and Singh, M. Prevention of subclinical vitamin K deficiency based on PIVKA-II levels: oral versus intramuscular route. Indian Pediatr. 1996;33(12):1040-1043. View abstract.
Beker, L. T., Ahrens, R. A., Fink, R. J., O'Brien, M. E., Davidson, K. W., Sokoll, L. J., and Sadowski, J. A. Effect of vitamin K1 supplementation on vitamin K status in cystic fibrosis patients. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1997;24(5):512-517. View abstract.
Bolton-Smith, C., McMurdo, M. E., Paterson, C. R., Mole, P. A., Harvey, J. M., Fenton, S. T., Prynne, C. J., Mishra, G. D., and Shearer, M. J. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J.Bone Miner.Res. 2007;22(4):509-519. View abstract.
Booth, S. L., Broe, K. E., Gagnon, D. R., Tucker, K. L., Hannan, M. T., McLean, R. R., Dawson-Hughes, B., Wilson, P. W., Cupples, L. A., and Kiel, D. P. Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;77(2):512-516. View abstract.
Booth, S. L., O'Brien-Morse, M. E., Dallal, G. E., Davidson, K. W., and Gundberg, C. M. Response of vitamin K status to different intakes and sources of phylloquinone-rich foods: comparison of younger and older adults. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;70(3):368-377. View abstract.
Boulis, N. M., Bobek, M. P., Schmaier, A., and Hoff, J. T. Use of factor IX complex in warfarin-related intracranial hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1999;45(5):1113-1118. View abstract.
Braam, L. A., Knapen, M. H., Geusens, P., Brouns, F., and Vermeer, C. Factors affecting bone loss in female endurance athletes: a two-year follow-up study. Am.J.Sports Med. 2003;31(6):889-895. View abstract.
Braam, L. A., Knapen, M. H., Geusens, P., Brouns, F., Hamulyak, K., Gerichhausen, M. J., and Vermeer, C. Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif.Tissue Int. 2003;73(1):21-26. View abstract.
Braam, L., McKeown, N., Jacques, P., Lichtenstein, A., Vermeer, C., Wilson, P., and Booth, S. Dietary phylloquinone intake as a potential marker for a heart-healthy dietary pattern in the Framingham Offspring cohort. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2004;104(9):1410-1414. View abstract.
Brophy, M. T., Fiore, L. D., and Deykin, D. Low-Dose Vitamin K Therapy in Excessively Anticoagulated Patients: A Dose-Finding Study. J.Thromb.Thrombolysis. 1997;4(2):289-292. View abstract.
Brousson, M. A. and Klein, M. C. Controversies surrounding the administration of vitamin K to newborns: a review. CMAJ. 2-1-1996;154(3):307-315. View abstract.
Byrd, D. C., Stephens, M. A., Hamann, G. L., and Dorko, C. Subcutaneous phytonadione for reversal of warfarin-induced elevation of the International Normalized Ratio. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 11-15-1999;56(22):2312-2315. View abstract.
Cartmill, M., Dolan, G., Byrne, J. L., and Byrne, P. O. Prothrombin complex concentrate for oral anticoagulant reversal in neurosurgical emergencies. Br.J.Neurosurg. 2000;14(5):458-461. View abstract.
Cheung, A. M., Tile, L., Lee, Y., Tomlinson, G., Hawker, G., Scher, J., Hu, H., Vieth, R., Thompson, L., Jamal, S., and Josse, R. Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ECKO trial): a randomized controlled trial. PLoS.Med. 10-14-2008;5(10):e196. View abstract.
Chow, C. K. Dietary intake of menaquinones and risk of cancer incidence and mortality. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2010;92(6):1533-1534. View abstract.
Cornelissen, E. A., Kollee, L. A., De Abreu, R. A., Motohara, K., and Monnens, L. A. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency in infancy by weekly administration of vitamin K. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82(8):656-659. View abstract.
Cornelissen, E. A., Kollee, L. A., De Abreu, R. A., van Baal, J. M., Motohara, K., Verbruggen, B., and Monnens, L. A. Effects of oral and intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis on vitamin K1, PIVKA-II, and clotting factors in breast fed infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1992;67(10):1250-1254. View abstract.
Cornelissen, E. A., Kollee, L. A., van Lith, T. G., Motohara, K., and Monnens, L. A. Evaluation of a daily dose of 25 micrograms vitamin K1 to prevent vitamin K deficiency in breast-fed infants. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1993;16(3):301-305. View abstract.
Crosier, M. D., Peter, I., Booth, S. L., Bennett, G., Dawson-Hughes, B., and Ordovas, J. M. Association of sequence variations in vitamin K epoxide reductase and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase genes with biochemical measures of vitamin K status. J.Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2009;55(2):112-119. View abstract.
Crowther, C. A., Crosby, D. D., and Henderson-Smart, D. J. Vitamin K prior to preterm birth for preventing neonatal periventricular haemorrhage. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(1):CD000229. View abstract.
Crowther, M. A., Donovan, D., Harrison, L., McGinnis, J., and Ginsberg, J. Low-dose oral vitamin K reliably reverses over-anticoagulation due to warfarin. Thromb.Haemost. 1998;79(6):1116-1118. View abstract.
Crowther, M. A., Douketis, J. D., Schnurr, T., Steidl, L., Mera, V., Ultori, C., Venco, A., and Ageno, W. Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin-associated coagulopathy. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 8-20-2002;137(4):251-254. View abstract.
Crowther, M. A., Julian, J., McCarty, D., Douketis, J., Kovacs, M., Biagoni, L., Schnurr, T., McGinnis, J., Gent, M., Hirsh, J., and Ginsberg, J. Treatment of warfarin-associated coagulopathy with oral vitamin K: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 11-4-2000;356(9241):1551-1553. View abstract.
Dennis VC, Ripley TL, Planas LG, and Beach P. Dietary vitamin K in oral anticoagulation patients: clinician practices and knowledge in outpatient settings. J Pharm Technol 2008;24(2):69-76.
Dentali, F. and Ageno, W. Management of coumarin-associated coagulopathy in the non-bleeding patient: a systematic review. Haematologica 2004;89(7):857-862. View abstract.
Dentali, F., Ageno, W., and Crowther, M. Treatment of coumarin-associated coagulopathy: a systematic review and proposed treatment algorithms. J.Thromb.Haemost. 2006;4(9):1853-1863. View abstract.
Deveras, R. A. and Kessler, C. M. Reversal of warfarin-induced excessive anticoagulation with recombinant human factor VIIa concentrate. Ann.Intern.Med. 12-3-2002;137(11):884-888. View abstract.
Dezee, K. J., Shimeall, W. T., Douglas, K. M., Shumway, N. M., and O'malley, P. G. Treatment of excessive anticoagulation with phytonadione (vitamin K): a meta-analysis. Arch.Intern.Med. 2-27-2006;166(4):391-397. View abstract.
Dickson, R. C., Stubbs, T. M., and Lazarchick, J. Antenatal vitamin K therapy of the low-birth-weight infant. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1994;170(1 Pt 1):85-89. View abstract.
Dougherty, K. A., Schall, J. I., and Stallings, V. A. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2010;92(3):660-667. View abstract.
Drury, D., Grey, V. L., Ferland, G., Gundberg, C., and Lands, L. C. Efficacy of high dose phylloquinone in correcting vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis. J.Cyst.Fibros. 2008;7(5):457-459. View abstract.
Duong, T. M., Plowman, B. K., Morreale, A. P., and Janetzky, K. Retrospective and prospective analyses of the treatment of overanticoagulated patients. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18(6):1264-1270. View abstract.
Eisai Co.Ltd. Eisai announces the intermediate analysis of anti-osteoporosis treatment post-marketing research to investigate the benefits of menatetrenone as part of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's Pharmacoepidemiological Drug Review Program. 2005;
Evans, G., Luddington, R., and Baglin, T. Beriplex P/N reverses severe warfarin-induced overanticoagulation immediately and completely in patients presenting with major bleeding. Br.J.Haematol. 2001;115(4):998-1001. View abstract.
Fetrow, C. W., Overlock, T., and Leff, L. Antagonism of warfarin-induced hypoprothrombinemia with use of low-dose subcutaneous vitamin K1. J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1997;37(8):751-757. View abstract.
Fondevila, C. G., Grosso, S. H., Santarelli, M. T., and Pinto, M. D. Reversal of excessive oral anticoagulation with a low oral dose of vitamin K1 compared with acenocoumarine discontinuation. A prospective, randomized, open study. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2001;12(1):9-16. View abstract.
Gijsbers, B. L., Jie, K. S., and Vermeer, C. Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers. Br.J.Nutr. 1996;76(2):223-229. View abstract.
Glover, J. J. and Morrill, G. B. Conservative treatment of overanticoagulated patients. Chest 1995;108(4):987-990. View abstract.
Goldstein, J. N., Thomas, S. H., Frontiero, V., Joseph, A., Engel, C., Snider, R., Smith, E. E., Greenberg, S. M., and Rosand, J. Timing of fresh frozen plasma administration and rapid correction of coagulopathy in warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2006;37(1):151-155. View abstract.
Greer, F. R., Marshall, S. P., Severson, R. R., Smith, D. A., Shearer, M. J., Pace, D. G., and Joubert, P. H. A new mixed micellar preparation for oral vitamin K prophylaxis: randomised controlled comparison with an intramuscular formulation in breast fed infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1998;79(4):300-305. View abstract.
Habu, D., Shiomi, S., Tamori, A., Takeda, T., Tanaka, T., Kubo, S., and Nishiguchi, S. Role of vitamin K2 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis of the liver. JAMA 7-21-2004;292(3):358-361. View abstract.
Hathaway, W. E., Isarangkura, P. B., Mahasandana, C., Jacobson, L., Pintadit, P., Pung-Amritt, P., and Green, G. M. Comparison of oral and parenteral vitamin K prophylaxis for prevention of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. J.Pediatr. 1991;119(3):461-464. View abstract.
Hogenbirk, K., Peters, M., Bouman, P., Sturk, A., and Buller, H. A. The effect of formula versus breast feeding and exogenous vitamin K1 supplementation on circulating levels of vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborns. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1993;152(1):72-74. View abstract.
Hosoi, T. [Treatment of primary osteoporosis with vitamin K2]. Clin.Calcium 2007;17(11):1727-1730. View abstract.
Hotta, N., Ayada, M., Sato, K., Ishikawa, T., Okumura, A., Matsumoto, E., Ohashi, T., and Kakumu, S. Effect of vitamin K2 on the recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2007;54(79):2073-2077. View abstract.
Hung, A., Singh, S., and Tait, R. C. A prospective randomized study to determine the optimal dose of intravenous vitamin K in reversal of over-warfarinization. Br.J.Haematol. 2000;109(3):537-539. View abstract.
Hylek, E. M., Chang, Y. C., Skates, S. J., Hughes, R. A., and Singer, D. E. Prospective study of the outcomes of ambulatory patients with excessive warfarin anticoagulation. Arch.Intern.Med. 6-12-2000;160(11):1612-1617. View abstract.
Inoue, T., Fujita, T., Kishimoto, H., Makino, T., Nakamura, T., Nakamura, T., Sato, T., and Yamazaki, K. Randomized controlled study on the prevention of osteoporotic fractures (OF study): a phase IV clinical study of 15-mg menatetrenone capsules. J.Bone Miner.Metab 2009;27(1):66-75. View abstract.
Ishida, Y. [Vitamin K2]. Clin.Calcium 2008;18(10):1476-1482. View abstract.
Ishida, Y. and Kawai, S. Comparative efficacy of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, alfacalcidol, and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: The Yamaguchi Osteoporosis Prevention Study. Am.J.Med. 10-15-2004;117(8):549-555. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J. [Anti-fracture efficacy of vitamin K]. Clin.Calcium 2009;19(12):1805-1814. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J., Matsumoto, H., and Takeda, T. Efficacy of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases: meta-analysis of three randomized, controlled trials. Clin.Drug Investig. 2009;29(7):471-479. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J., Sato, Y., Takeda, T., and Matsumoto, H. High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature. Nutr.Res. 2009;29(4):221-228. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., and Ichimura, S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J.Orthop.Sci. 2000;5(6):546-551. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., and Ichimura, S. Effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density and incidence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a comparison with the effect of etidronate. J.Orthop.Sci. 2001;6(6):487-492. View abstract.
Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., and Sato, Y. Role of vitamin K2 in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Curr.Drug Saf 2006;1(1):87-97. View abstract.
Jie, K. S., Bots, M. L., Vermeer, C., Witteman, J. C., and Grobbee, D. E. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Atherosclerosis 1995;116(1):117-123. View abstract.
Jones, K. S., Bluck, L. J., Wang, L. Y., and Coward, W. A. A stable isotope method for the simultaneous measurement of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) kinetics and absorption. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;62(11):1273-1281. View abstract.
Jorgensen, F. S., Felding, P., Vinther, S., and Andersen, G. E. Vitamin K to neonates. Peroral versus intramuscular administration. Acta Paediatr.Scand. 1991;80(3):304-307. View abstract.
Kalkwarf, H. J., Khoury, J. C., Bean, J., and Elliot, J. G. Vitamin K, bone turnover, and bone mass in girls. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80(4):1075-1080. View abstract.
Kazzi, N. J., Ilagan, N. B., Liang, K. C., Kazzi, G. M., Poland, R. L., Grietsell, L. A., Fujii, Y., and Brans, Y. W. Maternal administration of vitamin K does not improve the coagulation profile of preterm infants. Pediatrics 1989;84(6):1045-1050. View abstract.
Kim, H. S., Park, J. W., Jang, J. S., Kim, H. J., Shin, W. G., Kim, K. H., Lee, J. H., Kim, H. Y., and Jang, M. K. Prognostic values of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study. J.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2009;43(5):482-488. View abstract.
Klebanoff, M. A., Read, J. S., Mills, J. L., and Shiono, P. H. The risk of childhood cancer after neonatal exposure to vitamin K. N.Engl.J.Med. 9-23-1993;329(13):905-908. View abstract.
Knapen, M. H., Schurgers, L. J., and Vermeer, C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos.Int. 2007;18(7):963-972. View abstract.
Kristensen, M., Kudsk, J., and Bugel, S. Six weeks phylloquinone supplementation produces undesirable effects on blood lipids with no changes in inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers in postmenopausal women. Eur.J.Nutr. 2008;47(7):375-379. View abstract.
Kumar, D., Greer, F. R., Super, D. M., Suttie, J. W., and Moore, J. J. Vitamin K status of premature infants: implications for current recommendations. Pediatrics 2001;108(5):1117-1122. View abstract.
Liu, J., Wang, Q., Gao, F., He, J. W., and Zhao, J. H. Maternal antenatal administration of vitamin K1 results in increasing the activities of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors in umbilical blood and in decreasing the incidence rate of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants. J.Perinat.Med. 2006;34(2):173-176. View abstract.
Liu, J., Wang, Q., Zhao, J. H., Chen, Y. H., and Qin, G. L. The combined antenatal corticosteroids and vitamin K therapy for preventing periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in premature newborns less than 35 weeks gestation. J.Trop.Pediatr. 2006;52(5):355-359. View abstract.
Lousberg, T. R., Witt, D. M., Beall, D. G., Carter, B. L., and Malone, D. C. Evaluation of excessive anticoagulation in a group model health maintenance organization. Arch.Intern.Med. 3-9-1998;158(5):528-534. View abstract.
Lubetsky, A., Hoffman, R., Zimlichman, R., Eldor, A., Zvi, J., Kostenko, V., and Brenner, B. Efficacy and safety of a prothrombin complex concentrate (Octaplex) for rapid reversal of oral anticoagulation. Thromb.Res. 2004;113(6):371-378. View abstract.
Lubetsky, A., Yonath, H., Olchovsky, D., Loebstein, R., Halkin, H., and Ezra, D. Comparison of oral vs intravenous phytonadione (vitamin K1) in patients with excessive anticoagulation: a prospective randomized controlled study. Arch.Intern.Med. 11-10-2003;163(20):2469-2473. View abstract.
Maas, A. H., van der Schouw, Y. T., Beijerinck, D., Deurenberg, J. J., Mali, W. P., Grobbee, D. E., and van der Graaf, Y. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas 3-20-2007;56(3):273-279. View abstract.
Macdonald, H. M., McGuigan, F. E., Lanham-New, S. A., Fraser, W. D., Ralston, S. H., and Reid, D. M. Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish women: no evidence of gene-nutrient interaction with apolipoprotein E polymorphisms. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;87(5):1513-1520. View abstract.
Makris, M., Greaves, M., Phillips, W. S., Kitchen, S., Rosendaal, F. R., and Preston, E. F. Emergency oral anticoagulant reversal: the relative efficacy of infusions of fresh frozen plasma and clotting factor concentrate on correction of the coagulopathy. Thromb.Haemost. 1997;77(3):477-480. View abstract.
Malik, S., Udani, R. H., Bichile, S. K., Agrawal, R. M., Bahrainwala, A. T., and Tilaye, S. Comparative study of oral versus injectable vitamin K in neonates. Indian Pediatr. 1992;29(7):857-859. View abstract.
Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Cortes-Jofre, M., and Marti-Pena, A. J. Vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver diseases. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(3):CD004792. View abstract.
Maurage, C., Dalloul, C., Moussa, F., Cara, B., Dudragne, D., Lion, N., and Amedee-Manesme, O. [Efficacy of oral administration of a micellaar solution of vitamin K during the neonatal period]. Arch.Pediatr. 1995;2(4):328-332. View abstract.
Morales, W. J., Angel, J. L., O'Brien, W. F., Knuppel, R. A., and Marsalisi, F. The use of antenatal vitamin K in the prevention of early neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1988;159(3):774-779. View abstract.
Motohara, K., Endo, F., and Matsuda, I. Effect of vitamin K administration on acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in newborns. Lancet 8-3-1985;2(8449):242-244. View abstract.
Motohara, K., Endo, F., and Matsuda, I. Vitamin K deficiency in breast-fed infants at one month of age. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1986;5(6):931-933. View abstract.
Napolitano, M., Mariani, G., and Lapecorella, M. Hereditary combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Orphanet.J.Rare.Dis. 2010;5:21. View abstract.
Nee, R., Doppenschmidt, D., Donovan, D. J., and Andrews, T. C. Intravenous versus subcutaneous vitamin K1 in reversing excessive oral anticoagulation. Am.J.Cardiol. 1-15-1999;83(2):286-287. View abstract.
Nimptsch, K., Rohrmann, S., and Linseisen, J. Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;87(4):985-992. View abstract.
Nimptsch, K., Rohrmann, S., Kaaks, R., and Linseisen, J. Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: results from the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2010;91(5):1348-1358. View abstract.
Nishiguchi, S., Shimoi, S., Kurooka, H., Tamori, A., Habu, D., Takeda, T., and Kubo, S. Randomized pilot trial of vitamin K2 for bone loss in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J.Hepatol. 2001;35(4):543-545. View abstract.
Novotny, J. A., Kurilich, A. C., Britz, S. J., Baer, D. J., and Clevidence, B. A. Vitamin K absorption and kinetics in human subjects after consumption of 13C-labelled phylloquinone from kale. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104(6):858-862. View abstract.
O'Connor, M. E. and Addiego, J. E., Jr. Use of oral vitamin K1 to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant. J.Pediatr. 1986;108(4):616-619. View abstract.
Olson, R. E., Chao, J., Graham, D., Bates, M. W., and Lewis, J. H. Total body phylloquinone and its turnover in human subjects at two levels of vitamin K intake. Br.J.Nutr. 2002;87(6):543-553. View abstract.
Patel, R. J., Witt, D. M., Saseen, J. J., Tillman, D. J., and Wilkinson, D. S. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral phytonadione for excessive anticoagulation. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20(10):1159-1166. View abstract.
Pathak A, Hamm CR, Eyal FG, Walter K, Rijhsinghani A, and Bohlman M. Maternal vitamin K administration for prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Pediatric Research 1990;27:219A.
Pendry, K., Bhavnani, M., and Shwe, K. The use of oral vitamin K for reversal of over-warfarinization. Br.J.Haematol. 2001;113(3):839-840. View abstract.
Pengo, V., Banzato, A., Garelli, E., Zasso, A., and Biasiolo, A. Reversal of excessive effect of regular anticoagulation: low oral dose of phytonadione (vitamin K1) compared with warfarin discontinuation. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 1993;4(5):739-741. View abstract.
Penning-van Beest, F. J., Rosendaal, F. R., Grobbee, D. E., van, Meegen E., and Stricker, B. H. Course of the international Normalized Ratio in response to oral vitamin K1 in patients overanticoagulated with phenprocoumon. Br.J.Haematol. 1999;104(2):241-245. View abstract.
Poli, D., Antonucci, E., Lombardi, A., Gensini, G. F., Abbate, R., and Prisco, D. Safety and effectiveness of low dose oral vitamin K1 administration in asymptomatic out-patients on warfarin or acenocoumarol with excessive anticoagulation. Haematologica 2003;88(2):237-238. View abstract.
Pomerance, J. J., Teal, J. G., Gogolok, J. F., Brown, S., and Stewart, M. E. Maternally administered antenatal vitamin K1: effect on neonatal prothrombin activity, partial thromboplastin time, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Obstet.Gynecol. 1987;70(2):235-241. View abstract.
Preston, F. E., Laidlaw, S. T., Sampson, B., and Kitchen, S. Rapid reversal of oral anticoagulation with warfarin by a prothrombin complex concentrate (Beriplex): efficacy and safety in 42 patients. Br.J.Haematol. 2002;116(3):619-624. View abstract.
Propranolol prevents first gastrointestinal bleeding in non-ascitic cirrhotic patients. Final report of a multicenter randomized trial. The Italian Multicenter Project for Propranolol in Prevention of Bleeding. J.Hepatol. 1989;9(1):75-83. View abstract.
Puckett, R. M. and Offringa, M. Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(4):CD002776. View abstract.
Raj, G., Kumar, R., and McKinney, W. P. Time course of reversal of anticoagulant effect of warfarin by intravenous and subcutaneous phytonadione. Arch.Intern.Med. 12-13-1999;159(22):2721-2724. View abstract.
Rashid, M., Durie, P., Andrew, M., Kalnins, D., Shin, J., Corey, M., Tullis, E., and Pencharz, P. B. Prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;70(3):378-382. View abstract.
Rees, K., Guraewal, S., Wong, Y. L., Majanbu, D. L., Mavrodaris, A., Stranges, S., Kandala, N. B., Clarke, A., and Franco, O. H. Is vitamin K consumption associated with cardio-metabolic disorders? A systematic review. Maturitas 2010;67(2):121-128. View abstract.
Riegert-Johnson, D. L. and Volcheck, G. W. The incidence of anaphylaxis following intravenous phytonadione (vitamin K1): a 5-year retrospective review. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;89(4):400-406. View abstract.
Sasaki, N., Kusano, E., Takahashi, H., Ando, Y., Yano, K., Tsuda, E., and Asano, Y. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J.Bone Miner.Metab 2005;23(1):41-47. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Honda, Y., Hayashida, N., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K. Vitamin K deficiency and osteopenia in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 2005;86(3):576-581. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Honda, Y., Kaji, M., Asoh, T., Hosokawa, K., Kondo, I., and Satoh, K. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson's disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31(1):114-118. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Honda, Y., Kuno, H., and Oizumi, K. Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone 1998;23(3):291-296. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Kaji, M., Tsuru, T., Satoh, K., and Kondo, I. Vitamin K deficiency and osteopenia in vitamin D-deficient elderly women with Parkinson's disease. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 2002;83(1):86-91. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Kanoko, T., Satoh, K., and Iwamoto, J. Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Bone 2005;36(1):61-68. View abstract.
Sato, Y., Tsuru, T., Oizumi, K., and Kaji, M. Vitamin K deficiency and osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D-deficient elderly stroke patients. Am.J.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1999;78(4):317-322. View abstract.
Sharma, R. K., Marwaha, N., Kumar, P., and Narang, A. Effect of oral water soluble vitamin K on PIVKA-II levels in newborns. Indian Pediatr. 1995;32(8):863-867. View abstract.
Shea, M. K., Booth, S. L., Gundberg, C. M., Peterson, J. W., Waddell, C., Dawson-Hughes, B., and Saltzman, E. Adulthood obesity is positively associated with adipose tissue concentrations of vitamin K and inversely associated with circulating indicators of vitamin K status in men and women. J.Nutr. 2010;140(5):1029-1034. View abstract.
Shea, M. K., O'Donnell, C. J., Hoffmann, U., Dallal, G. E., Dawson-Hughes, B., Ordovas, J. M., Price, P. A., Williamson, M. K., and Booth, S. L. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(6):1799-1807. View abstract.
Shetty, H. G., Backhouse, G., Bentley, D. P., and Routledge, P. A. Effective reversal of warfarin-induced excessive anticoagulation with low dose vitamin K1. Thromb.Haemost. 1-23-1992;67(1):13-15. View abstract.
Shiraki M. Vitamin K2 effects on the risk of fractures and on lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis - a randomized prospective open-label 3-year study. Osteoporos Int 2002;13:S160.
Somekawa, Y., Chigughi, M., Harada, M., and Ishibashi, T. Use of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999;84(8):2700-2704. View abstract.
Sorensen, B., Johansen, P., Nielsen, G. L., Sorensen, J. C., and Ingerslev, J. Reversal of the International Normalized Ratio with recombinant activated factor VII in central nervous system bleeding during warfarin thromboprophylaxis: clinical and biochemical aspects. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2003;14(5):469-477. View abstract.
Stevenson, M., Lloyd-Jones, M., and Papaioannou, D. Vitamin K to prevent fractures in older women: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol.Assess. 2009;13(45):iii-134. View abstract.
Summaries for patients. Is vitamin K helpful for people who have taken too much warfarin? Ann.Intern.Med. 3-3-2009;150(5):I25. View abstract.
Sutherland, J. M., Glueck, H. I., and Gleser, G. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Breast feeding as a necessary factor in the pathogenesis. Am.J.Dis.Child 1967;113(5):524-533. View abstract.
Tabb, M. M., Sun, A., Zhou, C., Grun, F., Errandi, J., Romero, K., Pham, H., Inoue, S., Mallick, S., Lin, M., Forman, B. M., and Blumberg, B. Vitamin K2 regulation of bone homeostasis is mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor SXR. J Biol.Chem. 11-7-2003;278(45):43919-43927. View abstract.
Taberner, D. A., Thomson, J. M., and Poller, L. Comparison of prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K1 in oral anticoagulant reversal. Br.Med.J. 7-10-1976;2(6027):83-85. View abstract.
Thijssen, H. H. and Drittij-Reijnders, M. J. Vitamin K status in human tissues: tissue-specific accumulation of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4. Br.J.Nutr. 1996;75(1):121-127. View abstract.
Thijssen, H. H., Vervoort, L. M., Schurgers, L. J., and Shearer, M. J. Menadione is a metabolite of oral vitamin K. Br.J.Nutr. 2006;95(2):260-266. View abstract.
Thorp, J. A., Parriott, J., Ferrette-Smith, D., Meyer, B. A., Cohen, G. R., and Johnson, J. Antepartum vitamin K and phenobarbital for preventing intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 1994;83(1):70-76. View abstract.
Ulusahin, N., Arsan, S., and Ertogan, F. Effects of oral and intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis on PIVKA-II assay parameters in breastfed infants in Turkey. Turk.J.Pediatr. 1996;38(3):295-300. View abstract.
Urquhart, D. S., Fitzpatrick, M., Cope, J., and Jaffe, A. Vitamin K prescribing patterns and bone health surveillance in UK children with cystic fibrosis. J.Hum.Nutr.Diet. 2007;20(6):605-610. View abstract.
VIETTI, T. J., MURPHY, T. P., JAMES, J. A., and PRITCHARD, J. A. Observations on the prophylactic use of vitamin Kin the newborn infant. J.Pediatr. 1960;56:343-346. View abstract.
Villines, T. C., Hatzigeorgiou, C., Feuerstein, I. M., O'malley, P. G., and Taylor, A. J. Vitamin K1 intake and coronary calcification. Coron.Artery Dis. 2005;16(3):199-203. View abstract.
Watson, H. G., Baglin, T., Laidlaw, S. L., Makris, M., and Preston, F. E. A comparison of the efficacy and rate of response to oral and intravenous Vitamin K in reversal of over-anticoagulation with warfarin. Br.J.Haematol. 2001;115(1):145-149. View abstract.
Weibert, R. T., Le, D. T., Kayser, S. R., and Rapaport, S. I. Correction of excessive anticoagulation with low-dose oral vitamin K1. Ann.Intern.Med. 6-15-1997;126(12):959-962. View abstract.
Wentzien, T. H., O'Reilly, R. A., and Kearns, P. J. Prospective evaluation of anticoagulant reversal with oral vitamin K1 while continuing warfarin therapy unchanged. Chest 1998;114(6):1546-1550. View abstract.
White, R. H., McKittrick, T., Takakuwa, J., Callahan, C., McDonell, M., and Fihn, S. Management and prognosis of life-threatening bleeding during warfarin therapy. National Consortium of Anticoagulation Clinics. Arch.Intern.Med. 6-10-1996;156(11):1197-1201. View abstract.
Wilson, D. C., Rashid, M., Durie, P. R., Tsang, A., Kalnins, D., Andrew, M., Corey, M., Shin, J., Tullis, E., and Pencharz, P. B. Treatment of vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis: Effectiveness of a daily fat-soluble vitamin combination. J.Pediatr. 2001;138(6):851-855. View abstract.
Yamauchi, M., Yamaguchi, T., Nawata, K., Takaoka, S., and Sugimoto, T. Relationships between undercarboxylated osteocalcin and vitamin K intakes, bone turnover, and bone mineral density in healthy women. Clin.Nutr. 2010;29(6):761-765. View abstract.
Yang, Y. M., Simon, N., Maertens, P., Brigham, S., and Liu, P. Maternal-fetal transport of vitamin K1 and its effects on coagulation in premature infants. J.Pediatr. 1989;115(6):1009-1013. View abstract.
Yasaka, M., Sakata, T., Minematsu, K., and Naritomi, H. Correction of INR by prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K in patients with warfarin related hemorrhagic complication. Thromb.Res. 10-1-2002;108(1):25-30. View abstract.
Yasaka, M., Sakata, T., Naritomi, H., and Minematsu, K. Optimal dose of prothrombin complex concentrate for acute reversal of oral anticoagulation. Thromb.Res. 2005;115(6):455-459. View abstract.
Yoshida, M., Booth, S. L., Meigs, J. B., Saltzman, E., and Jacques, P. F. Phylloquinone intake, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic status in men and women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;88(1):210-215. View abstract.
Yoshiji, H., Noguchi, R., Toyohara, M., Ikenaka, Y., Kitade, M., Kaji, K., Yamazaki, M., Yamao, J., Mitoro, A., Sawai, M., Yoshida, M., Fujimoto, M., Tsujimoto, T., Kawaratani, H., Uemura, M., and Fukui, H. Combination of vitamin K2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates cumulative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. J.Hepatol. 2009;51(2):315-321. View abstract.
Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-4. View abstract.
Abdel-Rahman MS, Alkady EA, Ahmed S. Menaquinone-7 as a novel pharmacological therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A clinical study. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;761:273-8. View abstract.
Al-Terkait F, Charalambous H. Severe coagulopathy secondary to vitamin K deficiency in patient with small-bowel resection and rectal cancer. Lancet Oncol 2006;7:188. View abstract.
Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, et al. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133:160S-98S. View abstract.
Becker GL. The case against mineral oil. Am J Digestive Dis 1952;19:344-8. View abstract.
Bendich A, Langseth L. Safety of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:358-71.. View abstract.
Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis 2009;203:489-93. View abstract.
Bhat RV, Deshmukh CT. A study of Vitamin K status in children on prolonged antibiotic therapy. Indian Pediatr 2003;40:36-40. View abstract.
Bitensky L, Hart JP, Catterall A, et al. Circulating vitamin K levels in patients with fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;70:663-4. View abstract.
Bleyer WA, Skinner AL. Fatal neonatal hemorrhage after maternal anticonvulsant therapy. JAMA 1976;235:626-7.
Bolton-Smith C, Price RJ, Fenton ST, et al. Compilation of a provisional UK database for the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods. Br J Nutr 2000;83:389-99. View abstract.
Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, et al. Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:1217-23. View abstract.
Booth SL, Golly I, Sacheck JM, et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):143-8. View abstract.
Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1201-8. View abstract.
Caluwé R, Vandecasteele S, Van Vlem B, Vermeer C, De Vriese AS. Vitamin K2 supplementation in haemodialysis patients: a randomized dose-finding study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(7):1385-90. View abstract.
Caraballo PJ, Heit JA, Atkinson EJ, et al. Long-term use of oral anticoagulants and the risk of fracture. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1750-6. View abstract.
Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures. systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1256-61. View abstract.
Conly JM, Stein K, Worobetz L, Rutledge-Harding S. The contribution of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) produced by the intestinal microflora to human nutritional requirements for vitamin K. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:915-23. View abstract.
Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, et al. Supplementation of vitamin K in pregnant women receiving anticonvulsant therapy prevents neonatal vitamin K deficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:884-8. View abstract.
Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, et al. Increased incidence of neonatal vitamin K deficiency resulting from maternal anticonvulsant therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:923-8. View abstract.
Corrigan JJ Jr, Marcus FI. Coagulopathy associated with vitamin E ingestion. JAMA 1974;230:1300-1. View abstract.
Crowther MA, Ageno W, Garcia D, et al. Oral vitamin K versus placebo to correct excessive anticoagulation in patients receiving warfarin: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(5):293-300. View abstract.
Davidson MH, Hauptman J, DiGirolamo M, et al. Weight control and risk factor reduction in obese subjects treated for 2 years with orlistat. JAMA 1999;281:235-42. View abstract.
Davies VA, Rothberg AD, Argent AC, Atkinson PM, Staub H, Pienaar NL. Precursor prothrombin status in patients receiving anticonvulsant drugs. Lancet 1985;1:126-8. View abstract.
Dietary vitamin K guidance: an effective strategy for stable control of oral anticoagulation? Nutr Rev. 2010;68(3):178-81. View abstract.
Douglas AS, Robins SP, Hutchison JD, et al. Carboxylation of osteocalcin in post-menopausal osteoporotic women following vitamin K and D supplementation. Bone 1995;17:15-20. View abstract.
Dowd P, Zheng ZB. On the mechanism of the anticlotting action of vitamin E quinone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:8171-5. View abstract.
Duggan P, O'Brien M, Kiely M, et al. Vitamin K status in patients with Crohn's disease and relationship to bone turnover. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:2178-85. View abstract.
Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-9. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J Nutr 2004;134:3100-5. View abstract.
Goldin BR, Lichtenstein AH, Gorbach SL. Nutritional and metabolic roles of intestinal flora. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994.
Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Hart JP, Shearer MJ, Klenerman L, et al. Electrochemical detection of depressed circulating levels of vitamin K1 in osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;60:1268-9. View abstract.
Haubenstock A, Schmidt P, Zazgornik J, Balcke P, Kopsa H. Hypoprothrombobinaemic bleeding associated with ceftriaxone. Lancet 1983;1:1215-6. View abstract.
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7. View abstract.
Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5. View abstract.
Hodges SJ, Akesson K, Vergnaud P, et al. Circulating levels of vitamins K1 and K2 decreased in elderly women with hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 1993;8:1241-5. View abstract.
Holbrook A, Schulman S, Witt DM, et al. Evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012;141:e152S-e184S. View abstract.
Hooper CA, Haney BB, Stone HH. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency in patients on parenteral cefamandole. Lancet 1980;1:39-40. View abstract.
Huang ZB, Wan SL, Lu YJ, Ning L, Liu C, Fan SW. Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26(3):1175-86. View abstract.
Jagannath VA, Fedorowicz Z, Thaker V, Chang AB. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD008482. View abstract.
Jamal SA, Browner WS, Bauer DC, Cummings SR. Warfarin use and risk for osteoporosis in elderly women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:829-832. View abstract.
Jie KG, Bots ML, Vermeer C, et al. Vitamin K status and bone mass in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;59:352-6. View abstract.
Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MÁ, Corella D, Estruch R, Ros E, Fitó M, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Basora J, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Muñoz MÁ, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fernández-Ballart J, Bulló M. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk. J Nutr. 2014;144(5):743-50. View abstract.
Kanai T, Takagi T, Masuhiro K, et al. Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1997;56:25-30. View abstract.
Keith DA, Gundberg CM, Japour A, et al. Vitamin K-dependent proteins and anticonvulsant medication. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;34:529-32. View abstract.
Kim JS, Nafziger AN, Gaedigk A, et al. Effects of oral vitamin K on S- and R-warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: enhanced safety of warfarin as a CYP2C9 probe. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jul;41(7):715-22. View abstract.
Knapen MH, Hamulyak K, Vermeer C. The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) and urinary calcium excretion. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:1001-5. View abstract.
Knodel LC, Talbert RL. Adverse effects of hypolipidaemic drugs. Med Toxicol 1987;2:10-32. View abstract.
Kobayashi K, Haruta T, Maeda H, et al. Cerebral hemorrhage associated with vitamin K deficiency in congenital tuberculosis treated with isoniazid and rifampin. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:1088-90. View abstract.
Kurnik D, Lobestein R, Rabinovitz H, et al. Over-the-counter vitamin K1-containing multivitamin supplements disrupt warfarin anticoagulation in vitamin K1-depleted patients. Thromb Haemost 2004;92:1018-24. View abstract.
Lanzillo R, Moccia M, Carotenuto A, Vacchiano V, Satelliti B, Panetta V, Brescia Morra V. Vitamin K cream reduces reactions at the injection site in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with subcutaneous interferon beta - VIKING study. Mult Scler. 2015;21(9):1215-6. View abstract.
MacWalter RS, Fraser HW, Armstrong KM. Orlistat enhances warfarin effect. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37:510-2. View abstract.
Martin-Lopez, J. E., Carlos-Gil, A. M., Rodriguez-Lopez, R., Villegas-Portero, R., Luque-Romero, L., and Flores-Moreno, S. [Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn.]. Farm.Hosp. 2011;35(3):148-55. View abstract.
Matsunaga S, Ito H, Sakou T. The effect of vitamin K and D supplementation on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;65:285-9. View abstract.
McDuffie JR, Calis KA, Booth SL, et al. Effects of orlistat on fat-soluble vitamins in obese adolescents. Pharmacotherapy 2002;22:814-22.. View abstract.
Miesner AR, Sullivan TS. Elevated international normalized ratio from vitamin K supplement discontinuation. Ann Pharmacother 2011;45:e2. View abstract.
Nagasawa Y, Fujii M, Kajimoto Y, et al. Vitamin K2 and serum cholesterol in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 1998;351:724. View abstract.
O'Connor EM, Grealy G, McCarthy J, Desmond A, Craig O, Shanahan F, Cashman KD. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(7):1163-74. View abstract.
Olson RE. Osteoporosis and vitamin K intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1031-2. View abstract.
Ozdemir MA, Yilmaz K, Abdulrezzak U, Muhtaroglu S, Patiroglu T, Karakukcu M, Unal E. The efficacy of vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination on thalassemic osteopathy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013;35(8):623-7. View abstract.
Pinta F, Ponzetti A, Spadi R, Fanchini L, Zanini M, Mecca C, Sonetto C, Ciuffreda L, Racca P. Pilot clinical trial on the efficacy of prophylactic use of vitamin K1-based cream (Vigorskin) to prevent cetuximab-induced skin rash in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2014;13(1):62-7. View abstract.
Price PA. Vitamin K nutrition and postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 1993;91:1268. View abstract.
Reese AM, Farnett LE, Lyons RM, et al. Low-dose vitamin K to augment anticoagulation control. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:1746-51. View abstract.
Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, et al. No effect of vitamin K(1) intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 2006;17:1122-32. View abstract.
Renzulli P, Tuchschmid P, Eich G, et al. Early vitamin K deficiency bleeding after maternal phenobarbital intake: management of massive intracranial haemorrhage by minimal surgical intervention. Eur J Pediatr 1998;157:663-5. View abstract.
Robert D, Jorgetti V, Leclercq M, et al. Does vitamin K excess induce ectopic calcifications in hemodialysis patients? Clin Nephrol 1985;24:300-4. View abstract.
Roche, Inc. Xenical package insert. Nutley, NJ. May 1999.
Rombouts EK, Rosendaal FR. Van Der Meer FJ. Daily vitamin K supplementation improves anticoagulant stability. J Thromb Haemost 2007;5:2043-8. View abstract.
Sattler FR, Weitekamp MR, Ballard JO. Potential for bleeding with the new beta-lactam antibiotics. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:924-31. View abstract.
Schade RWB, van't Laar A, Majoor CLH, Jansen AP. A comparative study of the effects of cholestyramine and neomycin in the treatment of type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Acta Med Scand 1976;199:175-80.. View abstract.
Schoon EJ, Muller MC, Vermeer C, et al. Low serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with longstanding Crohn's disease: another pathogenetic factor of osteoporosis in Crohn's disease? Gut 2001;48:473-7. View abstract.
Schurgers LJ, Dissel PE, Spronk HM, et al. Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification. Z Kardiol 2001;90(suppl 3):57-63. View abstract.
Schwarz KB, Goldstein PD, Witztum JL, et al. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in hypercholestrolemic children treated with colestipol. Pediatrics 1980;65:243-50. View abstract.
Sconce E, Avery P, Wynne H, Kamali F. Vitamin K supplementation can improve stability of anticoagulation for patients with unexplained variability in response to warfarin. Blood 2007;109:2419-23. View abstract.
Sconce E, Khan T, Mason J, et al. Patients with unstable control have a poorer dietary intake of vitamin K compared to patients with stable control of anticoagulation. Thromb Haemost 2005;93:872-5. View abstract.
Shearer MJ, Bach A, Kohlmeier M. Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. J Nutr 1996;126:1181S-6S. View abstract.
Shearer MJ. The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proc Nutr Sci 1997;56:915-37. View abstract.
Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:515-21. View abstract.
Spigset O. Reduced effect of warfarin caused by ubidecarenone. Lancet 1994;334:1372-3. View abstract.
Szulc P, Meunier PJ. Is vitamin K deficiency a risk factor for osteoporosis in Crohn's disease? Lancet 2001;357:1995-6. View abstract.
Tam DA Jr, Myer EC. Vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy in a child receiving anticonvulsant therapy. J Child Neurol 1996;11:244-6. View abstract.
Tamatani M, Morimoto S, Nakajima M, et al. Decreased circulating levels of vitamin K and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in osteopenic elderly men. Metabolism 1998;47:195-9. View abstract.
Tamura T, Morgan SL, Takimoto H. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures (letter and reply). Arch Int Med 2007;167:94-5. View abstract.
Thorp JA, Gaston L, Caspers DR, Pal ML. Current concepts and controversies in the use of vitamin K. Drugs 1995;49:376-87. View abstract.
Van Steenbergen W, Vermylen J. Reversible hypoprothrombinemia in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis treated with rifampicin. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:1526-8. View abstract.
Vermeer C, Gijsbers BL, Craciun AM, et al. Effects of vitamin K on bone mass and bone metabolism. J Nutr 1996;126:1187S-91S. View abstract.
Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ. A comprehensive review of vitamin K and vitamin K antagonists. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2000;14:339-53. View abstract.
Vroonhof K, van Rijn HJ, van Hattum J. Vitamin K deficiency and bleeding after long-term use of cholestyramine. Neth J Med 2003;61:19-21. View abstract.
Weber P. Management of osteoporosis: is there a role for vitamin K? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1997;67:350-356. View abstract.
West RJ, Lloyd JK. The effect of cholestyramine on intestinal absorption. Gut 1975;16:93-8. View abstract.
Wostmann BS, Knight PL. Antagonism between vitamins A and K in the germfree rat. J Nutr. 1965;87(2):155-60. View abstract.
Yonemura K, Kimura M, Miyaji T, Hishida A. Short-term effect of vitamin K administration on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:123-8. View abstract.
Yoshikawa H, Yamazaki S, Watanabe T, Abe T. Vitamin K deficiency in severely disabled children. J Child Neurol 2003;18:93-7. View abstract.
Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.