Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body produces insufficient amounts of insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to rise (hyperglycemia).
- Glucose is the body’s primary source of energy.
- The pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that helps convert glucose from the foods you eat into energy your body uses.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is not the same as type 1 diabetes (previously called juvenile diabetes), a condition in which little to no insulin is produced by the pancreas.
Type 2 diabetes can start in anyone at any age, but people who are age 45 or older are at a higher risk of developing the condition.
Other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include:
What Are Symptoms of Diabetes?
Symptoms of diabetes include:
How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?
Diabetes is diagnosed with a patient’s history, a physical examination, and tests including:
- A1C test
- Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test
- Glucose challenge test
- Random plasma glucose (RPG) test
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
What Is the Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes?
The first line treatment for type 2 diabetes usually involves lifestyle changes.
Lifestyle changes to manage diabetes include:
- Manage A1C (average blood glucose level over the past 3 months)
- Take prescribed diabetes medications
- Check blood glucose levels daily
- Follow a diabetes meal plan as recommended by your doctor or nutritionist
- Maintain healthy cholesterol levels
- Keep blood pressure in check
- Don’t smoke
- Exercise regularly
- Get adequate sleep
- Practice stress management techniques
If lifestyle changes are not enough to manage type 2 diabetes, medications may be needed, such as:
- DPP- 4 Inhibitors
- SGLT2 inhibitors
- GLP-1 receptor agonists
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- Dopamine receptor agonists
- Bile acid sequestrants
- Amylin analog
- Combination medicines, which may be made up of more than one medication in the above classes
Other treatments for diabetes may include:
- Weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery) for some patients who are obese
- Artificial pancreas
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